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Full text of "Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society"

942.4101 
B77a 

Y.36 

1396897 



ISENEAl-OGy COLLECTION 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 
in 2014 



https://archive.org/details/transactionsofbr36bris 



TRANSACTIONS 



Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Arc haeo logical Society 



1913 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

Bristol anb (Bloucestersbire 
Evcbjeolooical Society 

FOR 

I I 

1913 ; 

I 
I 

EDITED BY 

I r 

Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A. 

AND 

Rev. G. H. WEST, D.D., A.R.I.B.A. 
VOL. XXXVI 

BRISTOL 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY J. W. ARROWSMTTH LTD., QUAY STREETf 



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch^ological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statement made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are 
alone resoonsible for their several Papers and Communications, and 
the Editor, the Rev. G. H. West. D.D., A.R.I.B.A , Selsley Vicarage, 
Stroud, for the Notices of Books, unless signed by the Reviewer. 

Cases for binding Vols. I to XXXVI, the Index to Vols. I to XX, and 
other Works printed by this Society for its members, or issued to 
them with the Transactions, will be supplied, and the volumes 
put in the same by the Society's Binders, Messrs. A. & J. Bolt, 
Tailor's Court, Broad Street, Bristol, at is. 31^. each. 



'■V 



1396897 

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOL. XXXVL 



Page 

Proceedings at the Annual Summer Meeting at 

Wells and Glastonbury . . . . i 

Proceedings at the Autumn Meeting at 
Gloucester, Tredington, Stoke Orchard and 

Swindon ....... 31 

Thomas Bekynton - ...... 42 

An Account of the Leigh Woods, in the Parish 

OF Long Ashton, County of Somerset . . 55 

Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912 . . 103 

The History of Kempley Manor and Church, 

Gloucestershire ...... 130 

Flowers in Stone as applied to the Church 

Architecture of Bristol . . . . 152 

Gloucestershire Fonts ..... 168 

Note on the Entry in Domesday Book relating 

to Westbury-on-Severn .... 182 

Places of Meeting and Presidents of the Society 191 

Places Visited. Chronological List . . . 194 

Places Visited. County and Alphabetical List 199 

Report on the Excavation at Druid Stoke . 217 

The 1625 Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton 220 

Trinity Hospital, Bristol ..... 251 

Old Arle Court . . . . . . . 288 

The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire : a 

Retrospect ..... . .315 

Flowers in Stone . . . . . . 334 

Notices of Publications .... 205, 336 

In Memoriam — C, H. Dancey ; J. McMurtrie, F.G.S, 215 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

Wells Cathedral, West Front , . . .11 

Wells Cathedral from the S.E. . . . ,12 

The Retro-Choir and Lady Chapel . . .13 

Bird's P2ye View of Bishop's Palace ... 14 

Timber Work Superstructure under Dwelling 

Mound ........ 16 

Baked Clay Hearth, Glastonbury Lake Village 17 

St. Mary's Chapel, Glastonbury Abbey . . 18 

View from Choir, Glastonbury Abbey . . 19 

Combs and Implements of Antler, Wookey's Cave 21 

Croscombe Church Screen ..... 26 

Gloucester Cathedral, Choir and Lady Chapel 33 

Tympanum of North Doorway, Tredington. . 37 

Stoke Orchard ....... 39 

Tower of Swindon Church . . . . .40 

Nave of Swnidon Church ..... 41 

Proposed Building Scheme which led to the 

formation of the Leigh Woods Land Company 96 

Ridley's Almshouse 104 

Staircase — No. 15 Queen Square . . . 107 

i 



List of Illustrations. vii 

Page 

No. 29 Queen Square— 

Entrance Gate ...... 108 

Front Elevation ...... 108 

Old Assembly or Music Room, Prince's Street . 110 

Gateway, Brislington ...... 114 

Ordnance Plan, Gaunts' Estate .... 126 

Kempley ........ 143 

Church of St. Mary (Before Repairs) . . 144 

Chancel Arch (St. Mary's, Kempley) . . . 144 
Bristol Cathedral : 

The Berkeley Door ..... 156 

The Sacristy Door ..... 156 

Oak Showing Galls . . . . -157 

Hawthorn ....... 157 

Maple ........ 161 

Buttercup and Four- Leaved Flower . . iGi 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE FONTS. 

BULLEY. 

Stoke Gifford. 
Marston Sicca. 

WlLLEKSEY. 



viii List of Illustrations. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE FONTS (coniinued) 
Bledington. 
notgrove. 
CoLN Rogers. 
Brockworth. 
Hasfield. 
CoLN St. Dennis. 
Stoke Orchard. 
Chedworth. 

QUINTON. 
WiNSON. 

Owlpen. 

Lasborough. 

Cowley. 





Page 


Druid Stoke Stones : The Great Stone 


217 


Druid Stoke Stones : General View . 


. 217 


Trinity Chapel, 1796-1881 . . . . 


. 251 


Trinity Hospital North, 1672-1913 


. 251 


Trinity Hospital North .... 


. 251 


Trinity Hospital South .... 


• 251 


Arle Court— Facing away from Cheltenham 


. 289 


Arle Court — Facing towards Cheltenham . 


i 

. 289 



PROCEEDINGS 

At the Annual Summer Meeting, 

At Wells and Glastonbury, 

Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, June ^rd, 4th and $th, 

1913. 



Our Summer gathering was favoured with glorious weather, 
and a considerable number of members who motored over 
Mendip from Bristol thoroughly enjoyed their journey. The 
first meeting was held at the fine o],d library hall of the 
Theological College, where the members were welcomed by 
the Dean of Wells (who was accompanied by the Principal, 
Prebendary Parsons, and Canon Church), on behalf of the 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, who, he explained, was unfortu- 
nately confined to his bed. Though the report of his lordship 
was encouraging, it was quite impossible for him to be with 
them that day. The President, Mr. T. Dyer-Edwardes, 
acknowledged the welcome. There was a good attendance 
of members. 

Mr. Arnold E. Hurry, the honorary General Secretary, 
read the annual report as follows : — 

The number of members on the Society's list is 555, as against 551 
at the time of last report. 

The accounts up to 31st December, 19 12, have been audited, and 
will be printed in the Transactions. 

The Society has lost through death several prominent members. 
Mr. G. B. Witts, who died in September last, had been a member 
-since 1878, and among the many occupations of a varied and busy 

2 ' 

Vol. XXXVI. 



2 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



professional and public career had compiled a most valuable con- 
tribution to local archaeology in his Hand-hook of Archcsology and Map 
of the County of Gloucester. 

Mr. J. W. Arrowsmith, the printer of our Transactions, had been 
a member from the earliest days of the Society, and always evinced 
the keenest interest in its welfare. 

Mr. Walter Sampson, another member, had done useful work by 
compiling the histories of several of the Charitable and Educational 
Institutions connected with Bristol. 

In spite of these and other gaps caused by death and resignations, 
the members show an increase, and reflect the growing interest taken 
by this generation in the study of the past. 

The Summer Meeting of 19 12 was held at Ross in July. There 
was a good attendance, and the members were shown much courtesy 
and hospitality in the various places they visited. Through the 
kindness of the owners, three stately houses, Goodrich Court, Homme 
House and Rudhall House, were visited, and proved attractive features 
of the programme. 

There has been no Spring Meeting this year, the date of the Summer 
Meeting being somewhat earlier than usual. In place of a Spring 
Meeting it is proposed to hold an Autumn Meeting at Gloucester on 
September 3rd, with a visit in the afternoon to Stoke Orchard, Swindon,, 
and other villages between Cheltenham and Tewkesbury. 

The restoration of the tessellated pavements in the Roman Villa 
in Witcombe Park (six miles east of Gloucester city) has still to be 
carried out. As the owner, Mr. W. F. Hicks-Beach, has expressed 
his willingness to have the villa treated as an ancient monument, an 
inspection was made last March by the Government Inspector of 
Ancient Monuments. It is believed that he was impressed with the 
extent and antiquarian value of the remains, and that he proposes 
to formulate, with the assistance of the Architect of his Department, 
a comprehensive scheme for submission to H.M. Board of Works. A 
considerable sum of money has been collected or promised towards 
the cost of repairing and relaying the flooring of the Roman baths of 
the villa, and it is hoped that the Government will make a grant ta 
carry this and perhaps also other works to completion. 

A Bill has recently been introduced in Parliament for enlarging 
and strengthening the provisions dealing with the Preservation of 
Ancient Monuments. It has, however, not yet been communicated 
to this Society for criticism. 

A substantial sum has, it is understood, been collected for the 
repair of the old Church at Kempley (near Newent), which contains 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 



3 



the most important and perhaps the oldest series of mural paintings, 
in the West of England. Although the work is being undertaken 
independently of this Society, two of our members have seats on the 
Restoration Committee. 

The only work of excavation actively participated in by the 
Society took place at Sea Mills, on the King's Weston Estate, near 
Bristol. After being suspended for the winter, operations were 
resumed on 19th February last. Numerous foundations of a rough 
description were uncovered, the principal articles found consisting 
of fragments of Roman pottery, some twenty-five coins, and one or 
two bronze ornaments. No tesserae, however, were to be found. The 
foundations were very fragmentary and not sufficiently connected tO' 
give the outline of a villa. 

The Council has, in conjunction with the Cotteswold Field Club,, 
had in contemplation the desirability of exploring a cave in the Wye 
Cliffs near Symonds Yat, and also the excavation of the site of a 
Romano-British town near Ross. Permission for the first of these 
projects has been accorded by the President of the Board of Agricul- 
ture, but no work has been undertaken in either direction as yet. 

An interesting find of a Saxon rectangular carved stone was made 
last year in Newent Churchyard. By the kindness of the Incumbent, 
it was exhibited to the Council by Mr. E. Conder, F.S.A., and gave 
rise to some discussion. It may have been a portable altar, the 
privilege of using which was sometimes accorded by the Pope to persons, 
of note, or it may have been made for the express purpose of being 
buried in the owner's grave. 

Other finds and burials of considerable archaeological interest,, 
have been made in various parts of the county, and have been 
noticed in the press from time to time. 

Through the intervention of the Bristol members, a pre-historic 
stone on Redland Green, Bristol, which is supposed to mark an ancient 
British road, has been restored to its former site, from which it had 
been removed some years ago. 

The usual series of winter evening meetings has been held in Bristol, 
The following were the papers read at these meetings : — 

Monday, October 21st, 191 2, " Tobacco Pipes of Bristol of the 
Seventeenth Century and their Makers," by J. E. Pritchard^ 
F.S.A. 

Monday, November 11 th, 1912, "The Banwell Roodloft," by 

the Rev. C. S. Taylor, F.S.A. 
Monday, December 9th, 191 2, " The History of the Leigh Woods," 

by Lewis J. U. Way, F.S.A. 



4 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Monday, February 3rd, 191 3, "Bristol Archaeological Notes 

for 1912," by J. E. Pritchard, F.S.A. 
Monday, February 17th, 191 3, " Flowers in Stone as applied 

to Church Architecture," by Miss Ida M. Roper, F.L.S. 
Monday, March 31st, 191 3, " Mediaeval Parochial Life," by Charles 

E. Boucher, B.Sc, London. 

The attendance, though up to the average, might well be improved. 

Through the kindness of the Bristol University authorities, the 
small Chemical Theatre within the University buildings has been 
placed at the disposal of the Society for these meetings at a merely 
nominal rent. 

It is a matter for regret that no arrangements for similar meetings 
were feasible in the city of Gloucester. It is hoped that a series may 
be provided for the winter of 191 3-14. 

The Council has met five times during the year, the meetings being 
usually held alternately in Gloucester and Bristol. The Society is 
much indebted to the Lord Mayor of Bristol and the Mayor of Gloucester 
for their courtesy in permitting the Council to hold its meetings in 
the old Council Chamber in Bristol and the Guildhall in Gloucester. 

It has long been felt that the Headquarters at Gloucester are 
unworthy of a county Archaeological Society, and that the accommo- 
dation for the Library is inadequate, and the facilities for study are 
too scanty. A Committee has been appointed, and will shortly meet 
to consider what steps should be taken to improve matters. 

The Society is indebted to the following for gifts of books : to 
Mr. C. E. Keyser for a copy of Memorials of old Gloticestershire, and 
his own excellent work on Norman Doorways, and also to Messrs. 
John E. Pritchard, F, F. Tuckett, Lewis J. U. Way, and the Editor 
•of the Medico-Chimrgical Journal. 

The Council desire to nominate for re-election the President of 
Council, the Vice-Presidents, the Hon. Treasurer, the Hon. Editor, 
the Hon. Secretary for Bristol, the General Secretary and the Local 
Secretaries. They desire also to nominate for election as a Vice- 
President Mr. George William Keeling. 

The following members of Council retire by rotation, but are all 
eligible for re-election : Mr. G. S. Blakeway, Mr. H. Medland, Mr. 
C. H. Dancey, Mr. C. E. Boucher, Mr. O. H. Fowler, Mr. W. Moline. 

Colonel Noel moved the adoption of the report, and 
mentioned that the work at Kempley Church was nearing 
<:ompletion. 

i 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 



5 



Colonel RouTH seconded the motion, which was agreed 

to. 

On the motion of Mr. Hannam Clark, seconded by 
Colonel Duke, the following members of the Council were 
re-elected or elected : Messrs. G. S. Blakeway, H. Medland, 
C. H. Dancey, C. E. Boucher, O. H. Fowler, T. Grimke 
Drayton, W. MoHne, and the Rev. D. G. Lysons. Mr. 
George Wm. Keeling was added to the list of Vice- 
Presidents. 

The retiring President, acknowledging thanks which were 
accorded to him (on the motion of Mr. Grimke Drayton, 
seconded by the Rev. W. B. Atherton), said he had just 
returned from the West Indies and America. The contrast 
between America and the old country was extraordinary. 
The charm of the energies of life in the new country gave 
place to a feeling of rest and quiet from the turmoil, bustle, 
and perpetual strain upon the nerves. He was delighted and 
charmed by the expressions of Americans generally as to 
the pleasure they had in coming to see us in the mother 
land. They never ceased to talk about what they had 
seen, and never seemed to tire of coming again and con- 
necting themselves either with the monuments of the past 
or their ancestors who were laid at rest in our beautiful 
churchyards. Although America was so new, it was really 
becoming quite respectable in the sense that it was beginning 
to grow old. He was struck particularly in Philadelphia and 
Virginia with the number of old Georgian houses and 
furniture, which took one back to that period. In Virginia 
particularly it was interesting to come across houses and 
names connected with some of the best families in the mother 
land. In the churchyard of one of the oldest churches in 
America he was pointed by a negro verger to a tomb on 
which it was recorded that the deceased died on the 31st of 
November. He then vacated the chair to his successor, the 
Bishop of Gloucester. 

The Bishop of Gloucester then took the chair and 



6 



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Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 9^ 



delivered his presidential address, which is printed in this 
volume of the Transactions. 

Canon Bazeley, in proposing a vote of thanks to the 
President, said that it was a great satisfaction to them to 
come to Vv^ells. Some, perjtiaps, felt that in Somerset they 
were poaching on their neighbours' preserves, but he knew 
that coming with the Bishop of Gloucester as President they 
would be welcome. 

The vote was heartily accorded, and Canon Church spoke 
briefly as to the history of the line room in which the meeting, 
was held. 

The President expressed regret that the Bishop of Bath 
and Wells was unable to welcome them, and sympathy with, 
him in his illness. He also thanked the principal of the 
College for lending the room. 

In the afternoon the members visited the cathedral 
buildings. The Dean gave an address as to its history and 
architecture, and mentioned that in the undercroft of the 
Chapter House, which had been used as a coal store, they 
had discovered evidence that the apartment was formerly- 
used as a treasury of the church. The Dean and Canon. 
Scott-Holmes afterwards conducted parties round the 
cathedral and other buildings, explaining matters of interest. 
In the library they were received by the honorary libraria,n,, 
Canon Church, who directed attention to the chief of the 
valuable historic possessions there. 

Subsequently the members were received at the Palace 
by Mrs. Kennion, and at the Deanery by the Dean and Miss 
Armitage Robinson, tea being most kindly provided in each 
case. 

The following notes on Wells Cathedral were prepared 
by Canon Bazeley for the programme of the meeting. 

Wells derives its name from the springs which feed the moat in the- 
garden of the Bishop's Palace. 

The city, which has been happy in having no record of revolts,. 



lO 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



sieges or battles, has grown up continuously around its cathedral ; 
and from its bishops, in olden days, has received its charters of freedom. 

Tradition says that Ine, King of Wessex, founded a college of 
secular priests at Wells about a.d. 705. In a charter of Cynewulf, 
dated 766, there is mention made of the " minster," near the spring 
at Wells, for the better service of God in the Church of St. Andrew. 

In 909 King Edward, son of Alfred the Great, formed a new diocese 
for Somerset, and placed the bishop's seat at Wells. Little is known 
of the Saxon church which served as a cathedral. It probably stood 
on the south side of the present church as foundations of a building, 
40ft. X 15ft., and a Saxon worked stone were found there in 1894. ^ 

This church appears to have been rebuilt by Bishop Robert of 
Lewes, 1136-66, but not as a cathedral, for Bishop John of Tours 
(1088-1122) had removed the See to Bath. 

The earliest architecture in the present cathedral is Transitional 
Norman of the last quarter of the twelfth century : it would appear, 
therefore, that it owes its foundation to Bishop Reginald de Bohun, 
1 1 74-9 1, and that he built the three western bays of the choir, the 
transepts, the eastern bays of the nave, and the north porch. Perhaps 
the work of construction went on during the rule of Bishop Savaric, 
1 192-1205 ; but he was often abroad, and when he was at home he 
was engaged in a fierce feud with the monks of Glastonbury. Moreover 
these were troublous times throughout the kingdom. In 1206 Jocelin 
Troteman de Welles was made bishop, and during the thirty -six years 
of his rule the cathedral, including the famous west end, was completed 
westward. In 1248 an earthquake overthrew the vaulting [tholus) 
of the central tower, and during the time of Bishop Bytton, who died 
in 1274, a good deal of work was done in the transepts, as may be seen 
by changes in the style of the architecture. 

At the close of the thirteenth century the beautiful chapter house 
with its Karly English undercroft, Geometrical staircase and Decorated 
walls was begun. During the time of Dean John de Godelee (1306- 
33) the central tower was raised in height, and the chapter house 
was finished. In 1326 the lady chapel was ready for consecration. 
Under Bishop Ralph dc Shrewsbury (1329-63) the choir was recon- 
structed, and later on the Retro-choir, connecting the Presbytery 
with the lady chajxl. was built. Bishop Harcwcll (1367-86) provided 
two-thirds of the cost of rebuilding the south-west tower, and 
Bishop Bubwith (1407-24) left by his will funds for the completion 
of its companion on the north-west. Thus the cathedral was finished, 

1 See Mr. St. Jolin Hope's paper on tlie first Cathedral Church of Wells, Somerset A. S. 
Proc, Iv. pp. 85-96, and Canon Church's remarks, pp. 35, 3^. i 



I 



I 



WELLS CATHEDRAL, WEST FRONT. 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. ii 



and later builders bestowed their energies on the surrounding buildings. 
Bishop Jocelin had built the bishop's palace about 1240, Bishop 
Bubwith built the chapel of the vijpars' close, and Bisliop 
Beckington (1443-65) recast the hall. He moreover built the gateways 
which bear his name. Dean Gunthorpe {ob. 1498) built the deanery. 

The thirteenth-century front of the cathedral was described by the 
late Professor E. A. Freeman as " a stone screen erected for the display 
of statuary." He spoke of the sculpture as the finest in England, 
but condemned this addition to the nave as " bad architecture." Be 
this as it may, Wells is justly proud of its Valhalla, and the general 
effect to the unprejudiced beholder is exceedingly beautiful. Ferguson 
said that this west front was comparable with those of Chartres 
and Rheims. Here, as elsewhere, it has been a common usage to 
underrate the artistic powers of our English sculptors, and attribute 
the carving, because it is good, to foreigners. It is difficult to persuade 
our countrymen that anything first-rate could have been done by 
natives. 

The figures are arranged in nine tiers. In the lowest tier forty-three 
niches out of sixty are empty, the iconoclast having found it compara- 
tively easy to do mischief at this low level. The statues that remain 
probably represent saints whose cult was most popular in the thirteenth 
century. The second tier consists of thirty -two quatrefoils, eleven 
empty, and the rest containing half-length figures of angels. The 
third tier, also consisting of quatrefoils, contains thirty-five subjects 
(out of forty-nine) from Holy Writ, ranging from the Fall to Pentecost. 
The fourth and fifth tiers, containing 108 figures out of 116, represent 
kings, popes, bishops and nobles. The subject of the sixth tier is 
the resurrection of the dead, the figures being nude. The seventh 
tier is full of angels, and the eighth holds the twelve apostles. Above 
all is our Lord seated in glory. A description of the west front by 
Mr. St. John Hope will be found in the fifty-fifth volume of the Somerset 
A. <S> N.H.S. Procs. and also in Archesologia, vol. lix, pp. 143-206. 
The central tower is Transitional Norman below and Decorated above. 
The north porch is part of Bishop Reginald's work (i 174-91), probably 
the last. It is difficult to explain why it is earlier than the five western 
bays of the nave. Is it possible that there was an earlier nave still 
standing when the porch was built, and that it was retained until 
Bishop Jocelin 's time for the purpose of divine worship, whilst the 
rest of the cathedral was being built ? The capitals of the entrance 
archway of the porch on the eastern side illustrate the martyrdom 
of St. Edmund. In the gable is a window which gave light to the 
parvise, the chamber above the vaulting. 



12 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



The passage over the Chain Gate, built by Bishop Beckington and 
his executors, c. 1460-70, connects the Chapter House with the Vicars' 
Close. The Chapter House is octagonal in form. Had Wells been a 
monastic institution this building would have adjoined the cloister 
on the south side of the church. The cloister was rebuilt in the fifteenth 
century, the eastern alley c. 1440-50, and the western alley c. 1460-70. 
The library over the east walk contains many interesting MSS. which 
have been turned to good account by the erudite librarian, Canon 
Church, in his papers on Bishops Reginald, Savaric, Jocelin and Roger 
in ArchcBologia, vols. 1, li and lii. , 

The sculpture within the porch is full of interest. 
The nave is a delightful example of Transitional Norman developing 
into Early English towards the west. The two arcades consist each of 
nine pointed arches with clustered columns, and capitals richly orna- 
mented with conventional foliage, birds, beasts, fishes and human beings. 
The triforium is a continuous arcade of lancet arches, and there is a 
lofty clerestory above it. The aisles of the nave are similar in style 
to the nave itself. The windows of the aisles, clerestory and transepts 
are filled with Perpendicular tracery. 

Two hexagonal chapels, opposite one another under the ninth arch, 
were erected, the one on the north side for Bishop Bubwith, who died 
1424, and left money for the library, and that on the south side for 
Treasurer Hugh Sugar. The pulpit was erected in the time of Henry 
VIII by Bishop Knight, who died in 1547. The most striking features, 
as you look eastwards from the nave, are the inverted arches forming 
a St. Andrew's Cross, with a pair of spectacles in the spandrels. Three 
such arches support the upper story of the tower, added in the 
fourteenth century to the Early English or Transitional base. 

But for this contrivance the central tower would long ago have 
collapsed, as it threatened to do soon after it was built. The choir 
screen, on which rests a modern organ, was built in the fourteenth 
century. The transepts are Transitional Norman, and are less ornate 
than the nave. Much of the interesting carving on the piers probably 
dates from the later half of the thirteenth century, when the damage 
done by the fall of the tholus, or tower vaulting, in 1 248 was made good. 
The frequent illustration of toothache in the carving is said to have had 
its origin in the miraculous power of curing this troublesome malady 
ascribed to William Bytton, who died in 1274, and was canonised. 
Two members of this Gloucestershire family were bishops of Bath and 
Wells. The font in the south transept is a pleasing combination of 
twelfth and sixteenth-century Romanesque. At the south end are 
the tombs of Bishop dc Marchia, who died 1302, and, by traditi6n, 




Kindly lent by Mr. B. T. Batsfoiul. 

THE RETRO-CHOIR AND LADY CHAPEL. 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 



13 



Joan, Lady Lisle, who died in 1463. The mention of this lady reminds 
us of the Battle of Nibley Green, near Berkeley, in 1469, when her 
young son, Thomas Talbot, was slain by the adherents of William, 
Lord Berkeley. On the east side of the eouth transept are the two 
chapels of St. Martin and St. Calixtus, now used as vestries. On the 
•south side of the latter chapel is Dean Husse's tomb, 1 305, with carvings 
of the Annunciation, etc. The corresponding chapels of the north 
transept are dedicated to St. David and the Holy Rood. On the west 
wall is a clock which always attracts the attention of visitors. Canon 
Church has described it in the Somerset A. & N.H.S. Procs., Iv, 97-103. 
The dial represents the movements of the heavenly bodies round the 
<earth in twenty-four hours and thirty days, and dates perhaps from the 
fourteenth century. The dress of " Jack Bandifer," and of the 
■" knights " who career on horseback, as though they were taking part 
in a tournament, is the outcome of restoration. The two knights who 
act as quarter-jacks, outside the transept, wear the armour of the latter 
half of the fifteenth century ; their prototypes may have fought at 
Tewkesbury, in 14.71. 

We now enter the choir, which has arcades of six bays on each side. 
The three western bays are Transitional Norman, probably the earliest 
work in the cathedral. The three eastern bays are late Decorated, 
and were added by Bishop Ralph, of Shrewsbury (i 329-63) . This bishop 
also connected the lady chapel of his predecessor with the presbytery 
by the beautiful retro-choir. Ralph also seems to have altered the 
■earlier bays of the choir by casing the triforium and reconstructing 
the clerestory, so as to match the new work. The stall work is modern, 
with the exception of the misereres, which are described in a paper by 
Canon Church read before the Society of Antiquaries, in 1896. The 
Jesse window, of remarkable beauty, over the high altar, was described 
in a sermon preached in the cathedral by Canon Church in 1890. The 
ambulatory chapels of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist 
form a second pair of transepts. The choir aisles and chapels contain 
some good sixteenth and seventeenth-century glass. The lady chapel, 
polygonal in form, was finished in 1326 ; here also is some good glass. 
One of the most remarkable parts of the cathedral is the chapter house. 
The staircase ascends from a doorway in the eastern aisle of the north 
transept. At the eighteenth step one part branches off to the right to 
the chapter house, whilst the other is continued to the bridge over the 
Chain Gateway. Each of the eight sides of the chapter house contains 
a window of four lights with Geometrical tracery. Beneath the windows 
is an arcade of fifty-one stalls. The vaulting springs from a single 
clustered column in the middle of the building. The chapter house was 



14 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



finished in 13 19, having been erected during the rule of Dean Godelee 
(1305-33) and Bishop Drokensford (1309-29). 

The deanery, which is a perfect specimen of a mediaeval dwelling, 
was rebuilt by Dean Gunthorpe (1472-98). The ground floor, with the 
exception of two halls, was occupied chiefly by domestic offices, the 
principal rooms being on the first floor.. The room in the north wing, 
described by Mr. J. H. Parker as the earlier mediaeval hall, has been 
restored by the present Dean, who, I understand, does not believe it 
ever was the hall, and uses it as his domestic chapel. The following is 
a brief summary of Mr. Parker's description of it in his Architectural 
Antiquities of Wells, Oxford, 1866 : — " This hall at its upper end has 
two beautiful bay windows with vaults of rich fan-tracery. At the 
lower end is a wide stone arch carrying a small chamber with three 
windows, thought to be a minstrel's gallery. At the north end of the 
arch is a staircase leading to the guest chambers. Under the arch is a 
recess resembling a piscina — this was used by the guests for washing 
their hands as they passed into the hall. At the upper end of the hall, 
at the back of the dais, is a room which Henry VII is said to have 
occupied when he came to Wells with an army in pursuit of Perkin 
Warbeck. The exterior of this north wing, the garden front, is very 
rich and picturerque, and is engraved in Pugin's Examples of Domestic 
Architecture. The device of Dean Gunthorpe, a gun, the Yorkist badge 
of the Rose en soleil, and the Tudor Rose, appear on the panels of the 
oriel window. The second, which was used by Edward IV, has led 
archaeologists to fix the date of the completion of the deanery as being 
previous to 1483. But they have overlooked the fact that Henry VII 
used the Yorkist badges in right of his queen, Elizabeth of York, just 
as he combined the white rose with the red. 

At Prinknash Park, in olden days one of the homes of the Abbots 
of Gloucester, and now the home of our President for 191 2-1 3, Mr. 
Dyer-Edwardes, the Falcon and Fetterlock within a Tudor or double 
rose is carved on the beam of the hall as the badge of Queen Elizabeth 
of York, Lady of the Manor of Brimpsfield, 1492. ^ 

It is likely that the deanery was finished during the earlier part 
of the reign of Henry VII (1483-98), and that these three arc the badges 
of the builder, the king, and the queen. 

The bishop's palace was founded by Bishop Joccline (1205-77), and, 
as completed in the thirteenth century, appears to have formed a 
quadrangle, the bishop's present house being on the east, the kitchen 
and offices on the north, the chapel, built by Bishop Burnell (1275-92), 

1 "History of Priiiknasli Park," by VV. Bazcley, Trans. B. & G. Arch. Soc, vol. vii.. 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 15. 



on the south, and a gateway and wall, now destroyed, on the west. 
Only the ruins of the great hall, built by Bishop Burnell, now remain. 
The gate house on the north-west was built by Bishop Ralph, of Shrews- 
bury (1329-63), and he constructed the enci'osing wall and excavated 
the moat. The interior of the palace is described by Mr. Parker in the 
Architectural Antiquities of Wells, pp. 4-15. The bishop's barn is a fine 
example of early fifteenth-century work. 

The archdeacon's house appears to have been of importance almost 
equal to that of the deanery. The house was originally built in the 
time of Edward I (i 272-1 307). The hall was large and imposing, and 
occupied the whole height of the building. It still retains its fine open 
timber roof of the early part of the fifteenth century. Polydore Virgil, 
the chronicler, dwelt in this house, and is said to have written his 
history in the solar, or attic, with the small round window, at the east 
end. This house was bought in 1879 by the Trustees of the Wells- 
Theological College, and carefully restored for the use of the Principal. 

In the evening Mr. St. George Gray delivered a lecture in the town- 
hall upon the lake dwellings of Somerset, with special attention to» 
the finds at the excavations which he is now conducting at Meare. 
This lecture in its broad outline had been read to the Society at a 
recent winter meeting in Bristol, but was not only new to many visitors 
from Gloucester and Cheltenham, but contains many references to 
the latest discoveries in the field in which the operations, which are 
conducted at the expense of the Somerset Society, were begun in 1903. 
Meare lake village lies three miles from Glastonbury lake village, 
on the fringe of what is still called Meare Poole, and is marked in 
Speed's map of the sixteenth century as a large lake. Excavations- 
have been conducted at Meare for the past three years, and whereas- 
the Glastonbury village has been wholly explored, only a few of the 
dwellings have been unearthed in this much larger and more numerous 
clusters of hearths. The dwellings consisted of circular floors of clay, 
superimposed — in one at Meare no fewer th^n eleven different hearths 
were shown and surrounded by walls of daub-and-wattle, about 
6 ft. high, the conical roof, presumably of rushes, being supported by 
a central oak post, the stump of which could be seen in several of the 
exposed hearths. Flooring-boards have been found, and thresholds- 
and door steps, and in the sub-structure of one of the recently- 
excavated dwellings at Meare have been revealed hurdlewood and 
brushwood, excellently preserved, and oak timbers and morticed 
beams. With evidence of this early carpentry and implements attending 
the Iron Age — the date of the village colony is assigned 200 B.C. to 
A.D. 60, and is entirely pre-Roman — there are also found flint chips 



i6 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



:and quite recently a polished celt of the neolithic type, which is only 
the second stone axe that has been discovered at Meare, and does 
not lead to any question as to the comparative accuracy of the date 
assigned to the colony. From the nature of the antiquities discovered 
in the villages, the type of native that immediately preceded the 
Roman occupation of Somerset was highly industrious and advanced. 

Hundreds of antiquities have been found in the villages. The 
hand-made pottery includes complete vessels up to 13 in. in height, 
•One fragment in every seven is ornamented with incised designs, some 
of which are very intricate. The ornaments and utensils are those 
of an industrious race. The inhabitants were excellent carpenters 
and craftsmen. They were skilful metallurgists, and their furnaces 
-and crucibles have been revealed. Judging from the objects of wood 
and shale, they were familiar with the lathe. Their bronze-working 
was of a high order, but enamels are absent. The iron objects are 
varied, and include currency-bars (one tin coin was found). Weapons 
are rarely met with, indicating a peaceful people. Snaffle-bits and 
other horse furniture have been found, also the remains of wheels. 
Objects of bone and antler are numerous, especially combs, bobbins, etc., 
connected with weaving, and parts of looms have been revealed. Of 
personal ornament there is a good variety, including glass and amber 
beads, bronze rings and brooches of La Tene II and III types. Corn 
is found, and several saddle and rotary querns. 

Most of the domesticated animals were of small breeds, and the 
remains of aquatic birds, including pelican, are numerous. The human 
remains of Glastonbury village were found chiefly outside the 
palisading. These individuals were long-headed, but they will perhaps 
be differentiated from the sculls of the early Iberians on some well- 
defined osteological basis. The cemeteries of the villagers are at 
present unknown. 

We are inclined to assign these lacustrine habitations to about 
200 B.C. to A.n. Co. Thjj influence of Roman culture had not reached 
these places when they were abandoned, and this exclusion of all 
but purely native art renders these early Iron Age remains the more 
important. 

On Wednesday morning an early start was made for the lake 
village at Meare. 

To the north and west of Glastonbury is a low-lying tract of peat-land 
drained by the rivers Parrct and Bruc, a locality which was probably 
once a basin-shaped estuary open to the Severn Sea. In medieval 
times this marshy groinid was drained, but at the end of the sixteenth 
century a large lake called " Meare Pool " still existed. Speed's map 



i 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 17 



also includes the name of " The Belgae," and there is a firmly -rooted 
tradition that a colony of this people formerly occupied Glastonbury. 

The Glastonbury lake village is on the east side of " The Pool," 
and since its discovery it has been completely excavated (i 892-1907). 
About ninety dwellings covered some three acres, and they were enclosed 
by a border-palisading of large piles. There was a landing-place on 
the east side. The dwellings consisted of circular floors of clay, 
superimposed, and surrounded by walls of daub-and-wattle (about 
6 ft. high), the conical roof, presumably of rushes, being supported by 
a central oak post. The clay and stone hearths were about 3|- ft. 
across. Flooring-boards have been found, also thresholds and doorsteps. 

The Meare lake village is on the opposite side of " The Pool," 
about three miles from the other village. Excavations have been 
conducted there since 19 10, and will be continued shortly. Few 
dwellings have yet been examined, and up to the present no palisading 
has been found. 

Meare, which derives its name from a large lake formerly existing 
on the north side of the village, was granted to Glastonbury Abbey 
in the seventh century by Cenwalch, King of Wessex, 643-64. 

In Domesday it is spoken of as an island of sixty acres with ten 
fishermen and three fisheries. It was one of the manors appropriated 
by Bishop Savaric, but was restored to the monks in 121 8. The lake 
was drained in 1801, but it seems probable that if the peat continues 
to be removed at the present rate it will resume ere long its original 
■character. 

The manor house, which is probably of early fourteenth-century 
date, occupies a square enclosure, a third of which consists of an open 
■court. The barn, dovecotes, and stables attached to the house were 
pulled down in 1827. The hall, which is 60 ft. by 22 ft., has a fine 
hooded fireplace and a window of five lights. The two lights below 
the transom have never been glazed, and retain the original wooden 
•shutters. 

The so-called Fish House is about 200 yards to the east of the 
manor house. The plan is a parallelogram. The ground floor is 
divided into three rooms, in one of which is a fireplace with a small 
protruding oven. 

An external staircase leads to the first floor, which is divided into 
two rooms. This house is interesting as being an almost unaltered 
.example of a small domestic building of the late fourteenth century. 

The chancel of Meare Church dates from the time of Abbot Sodbury, 
1322-35. The south door of the nave has some fine iron work of the 
fourteenth century. 

3 ' 

Vol. XXXVI 



i8 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



The visit to Glastonbury Abbey in the afternoon was made the 
more interesting by the personal guidance so kindly and courteously 
given by Mr. Bligh Bond, the Diocesan Architect to the Diocese of 
Bath and Wells. 

The Benedictine conventual Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, 
consisted at the time of the Dissolution, a.d. 1539, of a rectangular 
choir and retro-choir with five (William of Worcester says " four ") 
chapels, north and soutl' transepts each with two eastern chapels, a 
central tower, nave with north and south aisles and north porch, a 
Galilee or western narthex, and beyond this the lady chapel generally 
known as the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea. The whole length 
of the building was 580 ft., or, if a Chapel of St. Dunstan which lay 
westward of the lady chapel be added, 638 ft. For the last five 
years Mr. Bligh Bond has been engaged in excavating parts of the 
church and conventual buildings, and has thrown light on many points 
of doubt and difficulty. 

In 1908-09, Mr. Bligh Bond excavated the Edgar Chapel at the 
east end. This was built by Abbot Beere, 1493-1525, and extended 
by Abbot Whiting, 1524-39. Its total length is nearly 90 ft. 

The four western bays of the choir, the crossing with the great 
central tower 240 ft. high above it, the transepts, the nave and the 
Lady Chapel were built after the great fire, which in 1184 completely 
gutted the former churches. 

The Lady Chapel, which stands on the site of the ancient British 
wicker-work church, vetusta ecclesia, and its Celtic, Saxon, and Norman 
successors, was so far completed as to be fit for consecration by Bishop- 
Reginald de Bohun in 1186. Then Henry the Second's Chamberlain, 
Ralph Fitz Stephen, who was Sheriff of Gloucestershire, 1 171-74,. 
went on with the rebuilding of the major ecclesia, and when Henry II 
died, in 1189, it was well advanced. For a while, however, owing 
to the disputes between Bishop Savaric and the monks, the work 
was arrested, nor was it quite finished until 1303, 119 years after its 
commencement. 

In the meanwhile the Galilee was constructed, in the Early English 
style, to connect the great church with the lady chapel. 

A Gloucestershire Abbot, Adam dc Sodbury, 1322-25, vaulted 
part of the nave, and Abbot Walter Monyngton, who I imagine belonged 
to the Herefordshire family of that name, * vaulted the choir and added 
two bays to the Presbytery. 

Mr. Bligh Bond has been able to show that the two western towers 
of the nave were built between 1235 and 1291, and that the date of 

1 Records of Gloucester Caihedral, vol. ii. p. i68. 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 19 



the north porch was 1303-34. On the south of the GaUlee, attached 
the south-west tower of the nave, he has found traces of a small building 
which he conjectures may have been the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, 
built by Abbot Beere, c. 1520, for his la^V resting-place. 

The conventual buildings appear to have followed the usual Bene- 
dictine plan, and were on the south side of the church. On the east 
of the cloisters, adjoining the south wall of the south transept were the 
sl)rpe or passage leading to the monks' cemetery, the rectangular 
chapter house, rebuilt 1 342-1420, and the under croft of the great 
dorter or dormitory. To the south of the cloister was the under croft 
of the refectory or f rater, with a lavatory and wardrobe in the cloister 
walk, as at Gloucester. To the west of the f rater were butteries, 
pantries, and the great kitchen. On the west side of the cloister would 
be the guest house, almonry, etc., etc. The abbot's house stood against 
the south-west angle of the refectory, and the prior's lodgings are 
believed to have been more to the eastward. 

The abbey arms were : " vert, a cross buttonee argent, on a canton 
of the last the Virgin Mary, holding in her right arm the Holy Child, 
and in her left hand a cross proper." 

Of all this once magnificent abbey, the following parts alone remain 
above ground : The piers of the central tower with two transitional 
Norman arches and the ruins of an eastern chapel on the north side, 
and one arch on the south side, four bays of the south aisle of the choir, 
the wall of the nave adjoining the north cloister walk, the eastern arch 
of the Early English Galilee, and the ruins of the Transitional Norman 
lady chapel or Chapel of St. Joseph. 

South of the Galilee are scanty remains of the almonry (?), and 
beyond these the abbots' kitchen, which has been better preserved 
than any other part. The outer walls form a square, but each of the 
angles, which served as fireplaces and chimneys, is cut off diagonally 
by inner walls forming an octagon. From these eight walls springs a 
steep stone-tiled octagonal roof, which is crowned by a double lantern. 
On the south of the lady chapel, in what was the cemetery for distin- 
guished patrons of the abbey, is a sacred well. 

Though some pilgrims may approach Glastonbury in a spirit of 
healthy scepticism, this abbey will always have an attraction, greater 
perhaps than any other in the country, because of its antiquity, and 
because of the beautiful legends which have mingled with its history. 
It would appear to have existed in some form as early as the fifth 
C(>ntury ; and as Somerset was not conquered by the West Saxons 
until they had become Christian, it was never completely destroyed, 
nor were its earlier inhabitants exterminated. 



20 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



If it be true that Arthur, whose name is said to mean an over-king, 
led the British forces to victory against the Saxons at Mount Badon, 
A.D. 520, why should it not be equally true that he and his queen 
were buried at Glastonbury ? Geraldus Cambrensis tells us that he was 
present, in 1 1 9 1 , when a large flat stone was found bearing the following 
inscription : — Here lies buried in the island of Avalonia the renowned 
King Arthur. Below this stone, he says, were the bones of Arthur and 
Guinevere. Leland, in the time of Henry VIII, saw the tomb in the 
choir, to which these precious relics had been removed. Older than the 
legend of Arthur and the Holy Grail is another, anent the coming of 
Joseph of Arimathea, and his burial at Glastonbury. That this was 
generally credited in the early days appears most probable, and there 
are grounds for supposing that the story is one which, though employed 
by the Glastonbury fathers for their own purposes, was by no means 
-entirely their own invention. As late as 1662 Joseph's reputed tomb 
was still pointed out in the chapel which bears his name. 

The Celtic Abbey of Glastonbury owed its renovation in the beginning 
of the eighth century to Ine, King of Wessex, and to his spiritual adviser, 
Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne. At the close of the tenth century 
Dunstan became its abbot and reformer. Under the patronage of the 
Norman king it became so rich that it owned one-eighth of the Somerset 
land. Bishop Savaric, of whom we have heard above, obtained a 
grant of this abbey from Richard I, and assumed the title of Bishop of 
Bath and Glastonbury. In 1218 the monks were freed from this 
subjection. The last Abbot of Glastonbury sat in Parliament in the 
summer of 1539, together with the last Abbot of Gloucester. That same 
year witnessed his cruel and unjust execution on the summit of Glaston- 
bury Tor. William Parker died a natural death a few months previously, 
•or Whyting's fate might well have been his also. 

In the evening the annual dinner of the Society was held at the Swan 
Hotel, with the President in the Chair, the Bishop of Gloucester, and the 
members were afterwards the guests, at the Town Hall, of the officers 
and members of the Wells Natural History and Archcxological Society. 
At this meeting a valuable and charmingly simple collection of silver 
plate, dating from the reign of Charles II, and including a fine salt and a 
flat-topped tankard belonging to the vicar's choral, was shown, and 
the members enjoyed the privilege of listening to an address from Mr. 
H. E. Balch, F.S.A., upon the structure of the ancient water courses 
■of the Axe through the Mendips, and the discoveries of various ages 
found at the outlet of that river at Wookcy Hole. Mr. Balch has, of 
course, had an important predecessor in antiquarian research at Wookey 
in Professor Boyd Dawkins, who devoted his energies to what is called 




0^^3l^.st 7 89 to 

* 1 4 1 ■ I 1 I I t 

Scale of Inches 

Kindly lent by Mn Balch from " Wells N.H. & A.S's Report." 

COMBS AND IMPLEMENTS OF ANTLER, WOOKEY'S CAVE. 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 21 



the hyena cave. But Wookey Hole has been known from time im- 
memorial. Its very name is the Welsh for a cave, and its famous 
" Witch " has sunk deep into the legendary lore of Somerset. It was 
despoiled, too, of its many natural beauties'in stalactite and stalagmite 
pillars in the eighteenth century,when Pope built his villa at Twickenham 
and wished to decorate his grotto — a piece of vandalism which might 
have been made more thorough if subsequent caves, difficult of access 
and not yet opened up to the ordinary visitor, who is not prepared to 
dirty his clothes, had been known in that day. In five years' devoted 
work, entirely voluntary and prolific of many valuable discoveries, 
Mr. Balch and his colleagues have accomplished much to give accurate 
knowledge to the many scenes enacted in the spacious recesses of Wookey 
Hole in ages long ago. The story of the goatherd gained in the narration 
because the spot where this simple shepherd of the Iron Age had died 
and fallen away was shown, and the place where he stabled his goats 
was pointed out — goats that died of starvation tethered to a staple 
because their herdsman was too enfeebled to let them go. The " finds " 
too in the gradually accumulated earth at the mouth and first few yards 
of the cave are of a kind that enable Mr. Balch to enter into spirited 
rivalry with Dr. Bulleid and Mr. St. George Gray in the excavations at 
the lake villages of Glastonbury and Meare. At Wookey it has been 
placed beyond doubt that the chief civilisation was of the same period 
as that at the lake villages. Members of the same tribe occupied both 
places, the " Hole " being given over to the poorer crowd, while their 
wealthier colleagues enjoyed comparative immunity from danger 
(malaria excepted) in the security of their wattle dwellings on the 
margin of the lake. 

In the course of the excavations pottery of exceptional interest 
has been discovered, the Celtic level having developed, as the entrance 
of the cave dwelling was approached, in such a way as to prove an 
occupation almost confined to the entrance in the earlier years. Several 
variations of ornate designs in the C curve occurred at the very base 
of the deep levels, and lay beneath the ashes of the first fires lit in the 
cave. This pottery doubtless belonged to the incised ware which 
in France is confined to Armorica, and which is held to be related to 
the painted ware of the other parts of Gaul. The work done at Wookey 
Hole must be taken to prove conclusively that the pottery of the deeper 
levels, closely agreeing with that of the lake villages, must range 
back at the least to 200 to 250 b.c. Allowing even this, the rate of 
accumulation of the floor debris must have been much more rapid 
in the earlier part of the occupation. The strange mixing of animal 
(food) bones and shattered human bones has continued, though they 



22 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



are not found in the earliest deposit in which is the pottery decorated 
with C curves. Human jaw and limb bones, embedded in undisturbed 
ash, and purposely crushed and broken, have constantly occurred. 
Amongst the finds are weaving combs, a decorated antler cheek piece, 
iron and bronze objects, bone pins, needles and other implements, 
pottery moulding implements and other objects. 

The lecture, which was a most instructive preliminary to the visit 
to the cave, v/as admirably delivered by an antiquary whose appetite 
seems whetted by success for further discovery, and was made the 
more interesting by the excellence of the slides illustrating the caverns 
and the various discoveries in bones, iron implements, and highly 
ornate pottery. 

Another full day faced the members on the last morning of their 
meeting. A varied and interesting programme had been arranged, 
the neighbourhood of Wells providing ample material for the morning 
rotmd, despite the fact that on the first day of the meeting several 
hours had been officially devoted to a survey of the antiquities of 
the city. Although the Cathedral and the mediaeval buildings of the 
Bishop's Palace and the Deanery had been inspected on that day, 
there was more Lhan sufficient remaining to keep several members 
of the party away from the vast and profoundly ancient recesses of 
Wookey Hole, which was an alternative portion of the morning's 
programme. Those who did not dive into the depths of the " Hole " 
enjoyed an exceptional opportunity of viewing parts of the Vicars' 
Close that are seldom open to visitors : they were able to inspect 
some of the fourteenth-century houses, and under the guidance of 
the Rev. W. E. Hodgson, Priest-Principal of the College, they were 
shown the hall and Chapel, and had explained to them the historical 
value of the . picture hanging in the hall, and showing the vicars 
petitioning Bishop Ralf to give them a dwelling-place. The picture 
is believed to be a copy made in Elizabeth's reign of an older 
picture. 

A visit' was first paid to the Vicars' Close, or Close Hall, as it was 
always called in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which 
was first built about 1346-48 by Bishop Ralf, who incorporated the 
vicars into a college. The buildings consist of two rows of houses, 
twenty-six in all, originally divided into about forty sets of chambers 
of the same size and design. Each habitation had a living room with- 
a bedroom above, a yard at the back, and a little garden in front bounded 
by a dwarf wall with a gateway. The late Mr. J. H. Parker restored 
one set of chambers (No. 22) to almost the original pattern. Bishop 
Ralf built the hall (except the eastern part near the entrance gateway, 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 



23 



added about 1500 by Richard Pomeroy, a vicar) and the store chamber 
beneath the hall, and the kitchen, buttery, and bakehouse. He also 
probably built the lower story of the chapel (though some say this 
was built in Bishop Bubwith's time (1407-24),) incorporating in the 
spandrels of the arches of the windows some fragments of sculptured 
ornament of an earlier date. The chapel was originally entered from 
the west end. Bishop Beckington's executors spent a large sum of 
money, on the close towards the end of the fifteenth century building 
the vicar's library over the chapel and restoring or rebuilding the houses. 
The arms of Beckington or his executors appear on all the octagonal 
chimneys of the close. 

Bishop Beckington (1443-65) himself built both the chain gateway 
across the road connecting the Vicar's Close with the Cathedral, and 
the grand flight of steps with the tower leading from the close to the 
hall over which is the vicar's exchequer, with a muniment room and 
also a strong room in the tower itself. The hall with these accom- 
panying buildings is quite unique and well worth careful attention. 
The interior of the hall is now divided into two portions, which detracts 
from its beauty. The eastern portion retains much of its old oak 
panelling of beautiful linenfold pattern: there is also a pulpit over 
the fireplace, made in the thickness of the wall. Beneath the hall is a 
large chamber, the old storehouse of the vicars, which, with the old 
kitchen and brewhouse and bakery, now forms a dwelling-house, once 
restored and occupied by J. H. Parker, now in the possession of the 
writer of these notes. The old fireplace with an assortment of spits, etc. , 
still remains in the kitchen. These buildings are of much interest, 
and present some problems to the student of architecture. 

There is extant an account of the consecration of the chapel in 1496, 
but whether this was to a second consecration is uncertain. The vicars 
possess some valuable seventeenth-century silver and a quantity of 
pewter. 

Before leaving the close a device of the builders to give it an 
appearance of greater length than it really possesses should be noted. 
The width from house to house at the top end is 56 ft., and at the bottom 
or south end 65 ft., while the width between the garden walls is 19 ft. 
at the top and 26 ft. at the bottom. There used to be two wells in 
the close, one at each end. 

The party v/as received at St. Cuthbert's Church by the Vicar, the 
Rev. Prebendary Beresford. 

The date of the first church is unknown, but the dedication implies 
a Saxon origin, for St. Cuthbert was not a saint who would be favoured 
by Norman builders. This dedication to a northern saint is curious, 



24 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



but is due perhaps to the veneration in which he was held by King^ 
Alfred. 

This Saxon church or chapel was replaced by a larger Norman 
building in the twelfth century, being endowed by Bishop Godfrey 
(1123-35) with half a hide of land. All that remains of this Norman 
building is a fragment of a piscina and a piece of moulding on the 
western exterior of St. Cuthbert's chapel by the south porch. Probably 
through the instigation of Bishop Jocelin (1206-42), who gave the 
advowson to the dean and chapter, the citizens rebuilt their church 
in the Early English style. This thirteenth-century church was 
cruciform in shape with a central tower, but the only remains of it 
in the original style are a window in the south transept and another 
on the north side of the church in the building generally known as the 
exchequer, and the capitals, bases, and parts of the shafts of the pillars 
in the nave, which were heightened when the church was rebuilt 
later. 

Building of some sort was going on most of the time from about 
1340 till the days of Henry VII. In the earlier part the chancel was 
restored, and the chapels on the north and south sides of the nave were 
built, the former, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, being a guild chapel 
for the merchants of the town. During the end of the fourteenth 
century and the first half of the fifteenth century a great reconstruction 
took place, amounting to a rebuilding of the church. 

The magnificent west tower, described by Freeman as second to no 
other in Somerset except Wrington, was completed by 1430. " The 
old central tower with its lower arches was left standing, but both the 
chancel and nave and aisle were raised in height, and the old bases 
and piers and capitals were used again, the shafts being increased by 
several feet to allow of the flat roof of the nave aisle. Above the nave 
arches rose the clerestory windows, with the flat roof and the flat timber 
ceiling with its carved figures, angels, and shields." 

There are two wonderful reredoses in the north and south portions 
of the transept, but they have been sadly mutilated. Both the altars 
in the transept were dedicated to tnc Blessed \'irgin Mary, the reredos 
on the south side illustrating the genealogy of Our Lady and the 
prophecy of Isaiah xi. i. 

The central tower fell at the beginning of the reign of Elizabeth, 
and was not rebuilt, which is probably an advantage, as the low arches 
supporting it must have spoilt the general effect of the later work. 

There is a beautiful pulpit of the reign of Charles I. 

A defect in the exterior of the tower, which detracts from its beauty, 
should be noticed : the windows have been almost filled up with *flat 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 



25 



stones, which give it a bhnd appearance. This cannot be an original' 
arrangement. 

Another party visited "Wookey Hole, which is the name of a cave 
within two miles of Wells. It is an active waterway, the subterranean 
Axe flowing through its entire length. It is hollowed in dolomitic 
conglomerate, which here abuts against the carboniferous limestone, 
filling in an early gorge. 

There are several levels, through one of which, high above the river,, 
the cave is entered. 

On the eastern side of the ravine are numerous tributary caves, left 
behind in the formation of the valley, and one of these is the Hyaena 
Den of Professor Boyd Dawkins, 

Mr. H. E. Balch, F.S.A., writes : " A few years since we accidentally 
discovered that the entrance of the great cave had been used as a 
dwelling, and for some years a party of volunteers, under my direction, 
systematically excavated the floor debris, with the object of proving 
the extent of this occupation. This certainly commenced at a very 
early date in the early Iron Age, and terminated with the evacuation 
of Britain by the Roman legions. 

" The debris of the Roman age was only six inches in thickness, 
though it practically covered the whole period of the occupation. The 
pre-Roman deposit below was in places as much as four feet in thickness, 
and near the top of it was found a denarius of Narcia, b.c. 124. A 
wealth of pottery, implements of iron, bone and antler, spindle-whorls 
and weaving combs, and many other things were found. 

" The cave people grew wheat and beans and peas on the 
neighbouring slopes, and used both saddle querns and rotary querns 
to grind them. They kept goats, and pigs, and cows, and used the 
latter, as well as ponies, for draught. The presence of human bones 
in the same condition as, and mingled indiscriminately with, the food 
bones, has presented a problem which calls for consideration. The 
burial customs have not been made clear by any finds yet made. The 
early pottery is by far the more ornate and beautiful, and seems to 
belong to that phase of La Tene art which found its expression in the 
incised ware of Armorica, which was to a large extent contemporaneous 
with the painted pottery of 400 b.c. onwards. 

There is much to suggest that the whole find taken together indicates 
a date for the commencement of the early Iron Age in Somerset, as 
early as 200 to 250 B.C." 

A description of Wookey Hole and its ancient tenants, by Professor 
Boyd Dawkins, is reported in the 55th volume of the Somerset A. and' 
N.H.S. Procs. 



•26 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Professor Boyd Dawkins said that Britain was once part of a great 
continent, and that, unaffected by any Gulf Stream, its climate was 
arctic in the winter and almost tropical in summer. This being so, 
such northern animals as the reindeer, the lemming, and the cave 
bear at one time, and the lion, the mammoth, the leopard, and the 
bison at another, contended with man for existence and superiority, 
whilst hyaenas, hunting in packs, preyed upon them all in turn, and 
gnawed their bones in the caves which the River Axe had worn away 
in the limestone rocks of Mendip. The people who lived at that time 
m Somerset were closely allied to the Esquimaux of the present day 
in race, habits, and simplicity of art. 

After lunch the members went on to Croscombe. 

The Church of St. Mary consists of a chancel, nave with aisles and 
clerestory, and western tower with spire. There was an earlier church of 
which parts have been incorporated in the present building. This had 
fallen into disrepair in the fourteenth century. The restoration, which 
was brought about by the revival of trade and the religious zeal of 
the lord of the manor and the parishioners, was carried on between 
1400 and 1440. The Perpendicular tower, clerestory, and casing of 
nave walls, and most of the windows of the church, are of that date. 

At a later period, 1506-13, the chapel, now used as a vestry and 
organ-chamber, the eastern termination of the chancel and the two- 
storeyed guild chapel and treasury at the south-west corner of the 
south aisle were added. Amongst the fifteenth- and early sixteenth- 
century benefactors were the families of Palton and Botieux, Bisse, 
Mayow and Denshyll, and their arms and trade signs, such as a roll 
of cloth, may be seen on the bosses of the roof and the fifteenth-century 
carved benches. 

In the seventeenth century were erected the beautiful Jacobean 
screen and pulpit, on which are the arms of Hugh Fortescue, then lord 
of the manor, and Arther Lake, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1616-26. 

The chancel roof bears the date 1664, and three escutcheons bear 
the arms of Fortescue, Granville, and Northcote, all Devonian families 
of note. 

A paper on tlie seven Croscombe religious trade-guilds appears in 
the Somerset A. and N.H.S. Procs., vol. v. 

From Croscombe the journey was resumed to Shepton Mallet. 

This town, which is still the market centre of a large district, was 
once famous for its weaving, and flourished greatly under its religious 
and secular lords, the monks of Glastonbury and the Malets respectively. 

There is a fine market cross, fifty feet in height, erected about 
A.D. 1500 by Walter and Agnes Buckland. * 



By kind permission of Mr. C. Horton, 

CROSCOMBE CHURCH SCREEN. 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 



27 



The church lost most of its architectural interest in 1837, when 
the choir chapels, transeptal chapels, and nave^aisles were swept away, 
and wide aisles were built on their sites. 

The Transitional Norman arches of the nave show that the church 
was founded in the latter part of the twelfth century. The chancel 
arch, with the beautiful clustered brackets frdm which it springs^ and 
the two arches of the chancel next to it are Early English. 

The Perpendicular western tower was built at the end of the 
fourteenth century, the fan-vaulting being one hundred years later. 
About A.D. 1 500 the clerestory was added to the nave and the magnificent 
panelled ceiling was constructed. Mr. F. J. Allen in his paper on 
this church in the Somerset A. and N.H.S. Procs., vol. lili, says that 
" this ceiling is far the finest of its kind in existence." There are 
350 carved panels and many more bosses, all different, and there are 
thirty-six angels acting as supporters. There was a doom picture 
over the chancel arch. The rood staircase remains, and is used for 
access to the fine stone carved pulpit. 

Two knights in armour, probably Malets, lie uncomfortably on 
window sills. 

The east end of the chancel is modern, but contains an original 
Early English piscina. 

At Shepton Mallet members separated for their return home, some 
travelling by Bath and others by Wells and Yattpn. The more 
fortunate ones journeyed to Bristol by way of Stanton Drew, in order 
to visit the great stones there. 

The megalithic remains at Stanton Drew, " though far less imposing 
than the great circles of Avebury and Stonehenge, are more perfect 
than the one and probably more ancient than the other." 1 

Adjoining the churchyard is a stone called " the cove," about which 
a- great deal that is purely imaginary has been written. 

The great circle, 368 ft. in diameter, contains thirty stones, some 
■of which have been nearly buried in the ground by a former owner. 
To the north-east of this circle is another, much smaller, 97 ft, in 
diameter, consisting of eight stones only. To the south-west is a 
third circle of twelve stones with a diameter of 145 ft. Short avenues 
■of stones run from two of these circles. 

Most of the stones standing are from 8 to 13 ft. high, and twenty 
tons in weight. They were probably brought from Harptree Ridge 
on Mendip, some six miles distant, and erected here by Celts of the 
Bronze Age, or more probabl}^ as they are all unhewn and are untouched 



1 Professor Lloyd Morgan. 



28 Transactions for the Year 1913 



by any bronze tool, by their Neolithic predecessors who constructed 
the long barrows of the Cotteswolds. 

These circles are indeed marvellous when we consider how scanty 
must have been the knowledge of mechanics possessed by their builders. 
Just contemplate the time and human strength that must have been 
expended in raising these stones from their native bed and rolling 
them to their present-resting place. Then for what purpose were 
they erected ? For sun-worship ? For the cult of hero ancestors ? 
For great tribal meetings ? For astrological research ? Who can tell ? 
In each generation students of pre-historic lore may enunciate fresh 
theories, but certain knowledge is as yet unattainable. Every new 
suggestion is worthy of consideration until a better one appears. 

Professor Lloyd Morgan most kindly sent the following notes on the 
nature and purpose of these stones : — 

At Stanton Drew, near Pensford, some 6^ miles south by east of 
Bristol, there is a group of three stone circles whose erection is popularly 
ascribed to the Druids. The larger of the three, known as the Great 
Circle, is 368 ft. in diameter, and seems to have been originally con- 
stituted by about thirty rude and unhewn megaliths somewhat unevenly 
spaced. Some of these still stand, others have fallen, yet others are 
buried and invisible. The position of the buried stones is revealed in 
dry seasons by the withering of the grass above them, and has been 
placed beyond question by a careful probing of the earth. The majority 
of the visible stones are composed of a hard silicified breccia, of Triassic 
age, and were in all probability transported by the circle builders from 
Harptree Ridge on the fringe of the Mendips about six miles distant. 
Here similar weathered blocks still lie on the slopes of the hill. Other 
materials were however used. Two of the smaller stones are of 
sandstone, the source of which is doubtful, but is probably Old Red 
Sandstone from Mendip, two of oolite, probably from Dundry, and 
one of comparatively unaltered breccia (" dolomitic conglomerate ") 
also from Harptree Ridge. A short " avenue " of stones in parallel 
lines leads out from the great circle towards the east-north-east, and 
probably indicates a sunrise bearing on some agriculturally important 
day of the year. 

Near the Great Circle is a smaller ring known, from its position 
as ihe North-East Circle. It has a diameter of 97 ft., and is constituted 
by eight large and massive blocks of silicified breccia, one of which 
(if indeed it docs not represent more than one) is broken and recumbent. 
From this circle, too, there runs a short " avenue " bearing a little 
south of cast, in wliich one stone is of oolite. 

The third circle lies at a. distance of 237 yards to the south-west,. 



Wells and Glastonbury Meeting. 



29 



has a diameter of 145 ft., and is constituted by twelve smaller stones, 
most of them of the same silicified rock; but one is of slightly 
altered dolomitic conglomerate, and one of sandstone. 

Near Stanton Drew Church, about 180 yards west' by north of the 
-third circle is a dolmen (" The Cove ") composed of the relatively 
unaltered breccia, one of the uprights of which is 10 J ft. high, 7^ ft. 
broad, and 2 ft. thick. 

A large recumbent sandstone megalith (" The Quoit ") lies near 
the road at a distance of about 618 yards to the north-east of the Great 
Circle ; and two smaller oolitic stones lie 1,100 yards north by east of 
that circle, in a field known as the Middle Ham. On Broadfield Down, 
about 61 miles distant, is a dolmen (" The Waterstone ") bearing a 
little north of west. 

That the dolmen and these outlying stones form part of a definite 
scheme of construction seems probable from the facts that, according 
to the careful survey of Mr. C. W. Dymond, F.S.A., (i) the Quoit, the 
centre of the Great Circle, and that of the South-West Circle are nearly 
in the same straight line ; (2) the Cove, the centre of the Great Circle 
and that of the North-East Circle are again in very nearly a straight 
line ; and (3) the bearing of the Cove from the centre of the South-West 
Circle is very nearly the same as that of the Middle Ham stones from 
that of the Great Circle. These can scarcely be regarded as mere 
coincidences. Mr. Ernest Sibree has suggested that there are other 
interesting relationships, which indicate not only a unity of plan but 
a connection with the method of dealing with the cycle of the year. 
Further research on these lines may afford a clue to the state of culture 
of the circle-builders and the race to which they belonged. 

The megalithic remains are undoubtedly very ancient, but opinions 
•differ as to the race by whom they were placed in their present position. 
By some they are regarded as the work of the Neolithic Mediterranean 
race who were in possession of England before the Celtic incursion. 
By others they are ascribed to these later bronze folk invaders. 

As to their purpose, by some they are regarded as temples. Others 
look upon them as burial-places. The view, however, that is gaining 
ground is that they are connected with astronomical observations of 
guiding value to a people whose practical interests were agricultural. 

An exhaustive account of these circles will be found in Mr. C. W. 
Dymond's memoir on the Ancient Remains of Stanton Drew (1896). 
Sir Norman Lockj'^er deals with Stanton Drew from the astronomical 
standpoint in his work on Stonehenge. Mr. Sibree's conclusions have 
been communicated to the Bristol local newspapers. 

Thus ended a most enjoyable and well-organised meeting. It was 



30 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



the first time that motors were used by the Society for the conveyance 
of members, and that they worked so well with the brakes was due 
to the excellent management of Mr. Lewis Way, The Society was 
received most kindly and hospitably by the dignitaries both of the 
Cathedral and of the City, and we owe a deep debt of gratitude to the 
Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells, whose absence from the meeting on 
account of illness was regretted by all, and to Mrs. Kennion, as well as 
to the Dean and to Miss Armitage Robinson for their hospitality, and 
for their permission to visit the Palace and Deanery ; also to the Dean 
and to Canons Church and Scott Holmes for their kindness in receiving 
members at the Cathedral and Library and explaining their history and 
interest. Our best thanks are due also to the Mayor, the Corporation, 
and the Town Clerk of Wells for receiving us in the Town Hall, and 
allowing us to see their Corporation Insignia, Plate and Charters, and 
to the Mayor for his kindly hospitality ; also to the College of Vicars 
Choral for exhibiting their most interesting collection of Silver Plate. 
The most interesting lectures delivered by Mr. St. George Gray, F.S.A., 
Mr. H. Balch, F.S.A., and Mr. Bligh Bond, F.R.I. B.A. on the Lake 
Villages, Wookey Hole, and Glastonbury Abbey, were a great help to 
members in bringing before them the chief points of interest in the 
scenes which they visited ; and they were very grateful for the kind 
welcome accorded to them by the members of the Wells Natural History 
and Archaeological Society. Also our best thanks are due to the Vicars 
of the Churches of St. Cuthbert, Wells, Croscombe and Shepton Mallet 
and to the occupier of land at Stanton Drew, for allowing us to visit the 
churches and ancient remains under their care. Lastly, but certainly 
not least, we were indebted to the" Rev. W. E. Hodgson, Principal of the 
College of Vicars Choral, for so admirably discharging the office of Local 
Secretary, and to Canon Bazeley for the archaelogical notes which we 
have incorporated in our account of the meeting. 



PROCEEDINGS 

At the Autumn Meeting, 

At Gloucester, Tredington, Stoke Orchard and 
Swindon, 

September 2nd, 1913. 



A LONG period has elapsed since our members have had an 
opportunity of visiting Gloucester Cathedral at one of their 
regular meetings. The ground they covered on this occasion, 
which was made the more interesting by the inspection of the 
Church and Manor House of Tredington, and the churches of 
Stoke Orchard and Swindon, was last visited by the Society 
in 1889, under the presidency of Mr. Agg-Gardner, M.P. 
A return to the Cathedral of Gloucester was made out of 
comphment to the President, the Lord Bishop of Gloucester, 
who had sung the praises of his fine edifice when he had 
attended the Wells meeting in the summer, as it were, tO' 
adjust the balance of his sympathy betv/een the two dioceses. 
Gloucester Cathedral was therefore visited by members, 
with the exception of the nave, which was closed on account 
of the necessar}^ preparation for the Three Cnoirs Festival. 
And as the crypt and triforium were also withheld from view,, 
the examination was confined to the eastern portion of the 
building, to the choir and its transepts, the presbytery with 
its ambulatory and chapels, and the lady chapel. In the 
south transept more than a hundred members and associates 
had assembled to hear a brief address from the Sub-Dean, 
the Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, to whose Mastership 
a canonry of the cathedral has been annexed since 1713. 



32 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



After listening to the Sub-Dean the members were divided into 
parties under his guidance, as well as that of Canon Bazeley and Mr. 
Waller, to whose care as an architect is entrusted the maintenance of 
the fabric of the Cathedral, as well as that of Tintern Abbey. They 
explained the architectural beauties, and narrated the history of this 
eastern limb, with its story going back to St. Petronilla's Chapel in the 
first Abbey Church of St. Peter, Gloucester, founded by Osric in 68 1. 
In all probability this early chapel was on tne site of the northern chapel 
of the lady chapel, a supposition which leads to its being the burial-place 
of the Northumbrian king and his sister, Kyneburg, the first abbess. 
Mr. Waller had much of interest to say about the amazing architectural 
delicacy of the panelled facing superimposed upon the older and heavier 
Norman pillaring of the choir, and explained what risks the architect of 
the fourteenth century took in supporting a beautiful and heavily- 
embossed vaulting upon the slender support of this Perpendicular facing. 
Risks were undertaken which would not be dared to-day, and yet the 
venture was justified, as it had stood the test of five hundred years, and 
had not shown signs of decay until the fall of stone from the vaulting 
near the episcopal throne a few years ago — greatly endangering the 
bishop's life — ^ed to a careful survey and to necessary repairs. The 
builders of Perpendicular days also trusted to fortune in the delicate 
fabric of the tower, which they had raised three times higher than that 
of the Norman building — to 250 feet — without enlarging the Norman 
foundations. This venture has also stood the test of centuries, although 
the top story of the tower is only nine inches thick, or the size of a brick, 
in the depth of its panelling ; and it has to carry the weight of pinnacles 
at each corner of twenty tons each, and also to withstand the wind 
pressure, often equivalent to many tons, of a gale blowing up the Severn 
•Channel. Across the north and south transept arches of the tower are 
the exceptionally beautiful and ingenious flying arches, designed to give 
aesthetic finish rather than architectural support to the groining of the 
roof. These light arches, which seem suspended in mid-air, have served 
Mr. Waller as an index of the stability of the tower. They are the 
lightest piece of masonry in the building, and would be the first to be 
affected by any subsidence or defect in the heavy masonry above. He 
compared them to a doctor's thermometer, and held them in great 
esteem. A visit was also made to the library, where some of the 
manuscripts dating from monkish times were shown, and in the Lesser 
Chapter House were arranged several books of great value, one being the 
Coverdale Bible, dated 1536. It is one of two perfect copies, the other 
being recently sold by Lord Jersey for ;^soo. The valuable Saxon MSS. 
narrating the life of St. Mary of Egypt were also exhibited in this f oom. 




i 

GLOUCESTER CATHEDRAL, CHOIR AND LADY CHAPEL. 



Gloucester Meeting. 



33 



Canon Bazeley gave an address in the Boteler Chapel of the Cathedral 
on the rule of Abbot Boteler, 1437-50 a.d., and on the heraldry and 
sculpture of the reredos and the floor tiles. ^ . In his opinion it bears 
internal evidence that it was used as a chantry chapel by the Abbot and 
the Boteler family. It is situated at the north-east angle of the choir, 
and has five unequal sides. The reredos, which has been much injured, 
•still contains twelve statuettes and many heraldic shields though by 
no means all the shields that were originally there. The nine principal 
statues have disappeared. They were probably destroyed or removed 
from their brackets in 1 548, and the twelve statuettes which remain 
appear to represent twelve of the Apostles, including St. Paul. 

The following notes were written for the programme by Canon 
jBazeley : — 

In 1330-37 the south transept, called in the abbey registers St. 
Andrew's Aisle, was transformed from Norman into what we see at 
present : the earliest example of Perpendicular work in existence. The 
chapel on the east, with its ancient reredos, was decorated by the late 
Mr. Gambler Parry with wall paintings illustrating the history of St. 
Andrew. 

St. John Baptist's Chapel on the north contains the remains of the 
Teredos erected by John Tyron. In the ambulatory we have two 
chapels, one called St. Philip's on the south-east, and another known as 
Boteler's Chapel on the north-east, dedicated to the Holy Trinity and 
in honour perhaps of St. George or SS. Edward and Edmond. In the 
north transept, St. Paul's Aisle, transformed in 1368-73, we have the 
•chapels of St. Thomas of Canterbury on the east and St. Dunstan on the 
■south. The vestibule of the lady chapel stands on the site of the eastern 
Norman chapel, destroyed about 1345 in order to make room for the 
great east window, unless indeed the de Willington lady chapel in 
1224-27 was a new erection, and not, as many believe, merely the adorn- 
ment of the Norman apsidal chapel. 

The lady chapel, built between 1457-99, principally in the reign of 
Edward IV (1461-83), has a chapel on either side with a minstrels' 
■gallery above. The chapel on the north side probably occupies the site 
of St. Petronilla's Chapel in the first abbey church of St. Peter, 
Gloucester, founded by Osric in 681. If so, here was the burial-place 
•of the Northumbrian king and his sister, Kyneburg, the first 
abbess. 

The whole of the eastern limb is very rich in sculpture, stained glass, 
-tombs, mediaeval floor tiles, heraldic shields and badges, and ancient 
inscriptions, but the vast majority of visitors give but a hasty glance at 
all these treasures of ancient ecclesiastical ajrt. 

4 ' 

Vol. XXXVI. 



34 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Boteler's Chapel derives its name from Reginald Boteler or Boulars,. 
Abbot of St. Peter's, Gloucester, from 1437 to 1450. 

It bears internal evidence that it was used as a chantry chapel by the 
Boteler family. It is situated at the north-east angle of the choir, it has 
five unequal sides, and is separated from the ambulatory by a light stone 
screen. The brackets remain which supported the back of the altar,, 
but the slab and the legs on which the altar rested in front are gone. 

The reredos, which has been much injured, still contains twelve 
statuettes and many heraldic shields, though by no means all the shields 
that were originally there. Mr. Dugdale very kindly photographed the 
statuettes for me, and about 1880, with the help of Mr. J. D. T. Niblett's 
notes, I copied the bearings of the shields. Mr. Howitt some years later 
drew them for Mr. C. H. Dancey, and I believe his drawings are now in 
the public library. See also Fosbrooke's History of Gloucester, fol. p. 128. 

A few days ago I examined these shields again and found that the 
heraldic bearings and tinctures had become during the last thirty-three 
years still more indistinct and difficult to decipher. 

I now propose to describe the statuettes and shields. The nine 
principal statues have disappeared. They were probably destroyed or 
removed from their brackets in 1 548 by order of council, dated February 
iith [Dixon's Hist, of Church of England, II, 492). 

The twelve statuettes which remain appear to represent twelve of 
the apostles, including St. Paul, (i) Apostle holding book in right hand 
and staff in left, (?) St. Jude. (2) St. Matthew with a locked tax 
gatherer's purse hanging from his right wrist. (3) An apostle holding 
a boat in his two hands, (?) St. Simon Zelotes. (4) St. James the Less 
with fuller's club and book. (5) St. Bartholomew with flaying knife.. 
(6) St. Paul with sword and book. (7) St. Peter with book and key, 
(8) St. Philip with three loaves. (9) An apostle holding up his right 
hand and grasping a halberd with his left, (?) St. Thomas. (10) St. 
John with serpent coming out of a chalice in right hand and palm branch 
in left. (11) St. James the Great with pilgrim's staff and the book of 
the gospels in his hand and cockle-shells on his cloak. (12) St. Andrew 
with his transverse cross. 

Upper row of Shields : — 
(i) and (25) " Argent a cross gules," St. George. 

(3) " Gules seven masclcs 3.3. and i. argent," Guise. 

(4) " Ermine a millrind sable," Mill of Harescombe. 

(5) " Quarterly per fess indented argent and azure," Acton or 
Langley. 

(8) " Gules a chevron ermine between ten crosses patty argent," 
within a bordure of the last. Berkeley of Beverstone or STo:pE. 



Gloucester Meeting. 



35 



(11) " France quartering England," 

(12) " Gules diagram of the Holy Trinity or." 
(16) " Or a chevron gules," Stafford. 

(18) " Gules three covered cups or," Boteler of Hardwicke, 
Abbot Boteler. 

(19) " Argent on a quarter gules a rose or," Bradstone. \ 

(21) " Argent a fesse sable in chief three hurts," Langley of 
Siddington. 

(22) " Gules three lions passant impale argent," Gifford of 
Brimpsfield. 



(1) St. George. 

(2) " Argent a stag's head cabossed gules," A Parke, Boteler and 
Tyre of Hardwicke. 

(3) " Gules a fesse cheeky or and azure," Whittington of 
Pauntley. 

(4) " Sable a cross fleurie or within a border engrailed argent, in the 
first quarter a mullet pierced of the second," Greville. 

(5) "Or between two bendlets gules an escallop in chief sable, 
Tracy. 

(6) ■' Gules on a chevron argent three bars gemelles sable," 
Throckmorton. 

(7) Berkeley. 

(8) " Gules a fesse between six martlets or," Beauchamp. 

(9) " Quarterly argent and gules 2nd and 3rd fretty or, over all a 
bend sable," Despencer. 

(10) France quartering England. 

(11) " Azure a cross fleurie between five martlets or," Edward the 
Confessor. 

(12) " Sable two keys in saltire surmounted by a sword in pale or," 
(tampered with), St. Peter's Abbey. 

(13) " Gules two swords in saltire point downwards argent pommelled 
and hilted or bladed argent," St. Paul. 

(14) " Azure three crowns or," St. Edmond. 

(15) England quartering, " lozengy " (Fosbrooke says "2nd and 
3rd or a cross azure "). 

(16) " Argent and gules three fusils in fesse gules," Montacute. 

(17) " Argent a fleur de lys between three bulls' heads cabossed 
sable," Walrond or Bulleyn. 

(18) " Azure an eagle displayed within a double tressure fleurie 
counter-fleurie argent," Vampage. 



(25) St. George. 
Lower row of Shields : — 




36 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



(19) " Azure a chevron between three falcons' heads erased gules," 
Cassey of Cassey Compton and Deerhurst. 

(20) ''Or a chief indented azure," Boteler. 

(21) " Argent on a bend sable three calves passant or," Veale. 

(22) '■' Argent on a cross sable a leopard's face or, in dexter chief a 
fir-cone gules" (Fosbrooke says "pomegranate"), Brydges. 

(23) " Sable two bars sable within a bordure gules," Deane. 

(24) St. George. 

Fosbrooke gives many of these shields, but the tinctures are not 
always as above. It is impossible to be sure of them. I have to thank 
Mr. F. Were, who has examined the reredos since our meeting, for some 
suggested corrections. Rudder has confused this chapel with that of 
St. John Baptist, which is at the north end of the south transept, behind 
the choir stalls. On the floor of Boteler 's Chapel are many interesting 
tiles bearing (i) three covered cups, (2) a fish, (3) a cross fleurie between 
two birds, (4) a lion's head reversible, etc., etc. There was also an 
■escutcheon in this chapel bearing three golden cups, but it disappeared 
long ago. 

After lunch members travelled by motor car or motor brake to see 
Tredington church which was described by Canon Bazeley. 

The Manor of Tredington was part of the great lordship of Tewkes- 
bury, and shared its fortunes until the time of Henry VII, when it passed 
into the hands of the king. Queen Mary granted it to Anne, widow of 
Sir Adrian Fortescue. Sir Francis Fortescue was lord in 1608 ; William, 
Lord Craven, in 1712 ; Augustus Berkeley Craven in 1785 ; and 
William, Earl Craven, in 1825. But none of these dwelt at Tredington. 
The principal resident landowners in the time of King James I were 
Thomas Surman, Charles Cartwright, and Charles Bick. The following 
descendants of Thomas Surman appear to have been owners of a house 
and estate in Tredington : John Surman, died 1687 ; William Surman, 
who married Jane Packer, an heiress, died 1742 ; William Surman, 
<lied s.p. ; his brother, John Surman, in possession 1803 '> and John 
Surman, D.L., who gave a flagon to the church in 1887. 

A stream called the Swillgate, which rises at Marl Hill, Cheltenham, 
flows through Swindon, Stoke Orchard, and Tredington towards 
Tewkesbury, and there are many traces of the ancient road, known as 
the Ridgeway, which passed through the same villages. It was along 
this road that Edv-ard IV marched on May 3rd, 147 1 ; and he spent the 
night before the Battle of Tewkesbury at Tredington, either at the old 
rectory or the manor house. The advowson of the living belonged to 
Llanthony Priory, and after the Dissolution to the Fortescues and 
Cravens. The Bishop of Gloucester is now the patron. ^ 



Gloucester Meeting. 



37 



The Church of St. John the Baptist consists of a nave with south 
porch, south and north doorways, and a western bell tower, rebuilt in 
the nineteenth century, and a chancel. 

There was a chapel attached to the north side of the nave. 

The Norman south doorway is of two orders with a hood-moulding 
decorated with pellets and dragons' heads. The inner order springs 
from detached shafts and carved capitals. The north doorway, now 
bricked up, has an interesting Norman tympanum. The subject of the 
carving may be the adoration of our Lord by two evangelists. The 
central figure holds a pastoral staff, but has no nimbus. The door with 
its ancient ironwork has been removed to a private residence. It surely 
ought to be repaired and replaced. 

Let into the floor of the porch are the fossil bones of an ichthyosaurus, 
or some other extinct saurian. How they came there I know 
not. 

The plaster has been stripped from the inner walls. This gives the 
church a cold, vault-like appearance which was never intended by the 
original builders. The plaster should be replaced. 

The low, twelfth-century chancel arch remains, and there are traces 
of the rood beam and rood loft. In the rood beam are mortice holes for 
the crucifix and the figures of St. John and St. Mary. A stone seat runs 
along the north side of the chancel. Some fragments of stained glass 
remain. There is an aumbry, or cupboard for the sacred vessels, in 
the east wall of the chancel. The altar rails are Jacobean, of the time 
of Archbishop Laud. It has been thought that the carved flat stone, 
covering a nameless tomb, opposite the entrance to the south porch, is 
the original altar slab. If this could be shown to be the case, the slab 
should be placed on the Holy Table, which is now too small for such a 
large chancel, and lacks dignity. 

In the churchyard are the steps and a very attenuated shaft of a fine 
fourteenth-century cross. On the summit of the shaft, which is 12 ft. 
8 in. high, a Maltese cross has been placed in modern times. There are 
holes drilled in the shaft indicating that some object has been affixed to 
it. A cross of similar date at Stalbridge, Dorset, has attached to its. 
shaft a figure of the patron or donor beneath a crocketed canopy. 

The ancient wooden campanile was replaced in 1883 by a half- 
timbered tower, the gift of the late John and Elizabeth Surman. The 
five bells were cast by the Rudhalls at Gloucester, three in 1 700, and two 
in 1760, and bear the names of William Surman, William Cartwright, 
and Charles Bick. The nave is ceiled with plaster and is ornamented 
with rude figures. 

The communion plate consists of a small Elizabethan chalice and 



38 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



paten cover, hall-marked 1576, and a flagon given in 1887 by the late 
Mr. and Mrs. John Surman. 

The parish register dates from 1550, but is imperfect. 

In the autumn of 1610 the plague raged at Tredington, and a fourth 
of the inhabitants perished. It broke out again in the spring of 161 1, 
and three members of the Cornwall family were buried within eighteen 
days. It would be an interesting inquiry whether there are more than 
the usual number of deaths recorded in 16 10 and 161 1 in the registers 
of neighbouring Gloucestershire parishes. 

The illustration of the tympanum has been very kindly lent by 
Charles E. Keyser, Esq., F.S.A., from his beautiful work on Norman 
tympana. 

On leaving the church the party went to Tredington Ccurt where 
they were courteously received by the owner, the Rev. W. Surman 
Mansell. 

The party then left for Stoke Orchard, which derives its name from 
the family of le Archer, who held the manor from the time of Richard I 
till 1350. Lettice, wife of Robert the archer, paid four marks for having 
her dowry near Cleeve, a.d. 1196 (Rot. Pip. 7 Ric. I). In 1285 Nicholas 
the archer helc" part of Stoke Archer of the king in capita, by the service 
of the serjeanty of finding one man with bow and arrows in time of war 
for forty days at his own cost (Kirby's quest). He died in 1309, seized 
of 240 acres of arable and five acres of meadow land, his son, Edmond le 
Archer, being his next heir, aged forty years and more (Inq. P. M. 2 Ed. II, 
No. 39). Edmond died in 13 14, his son, Geoffrey le Archer, being his 
next heir, aged twenty-one (Inq. P. M. 7 Ed. II, No. 7). Geoffrey died 
in 1349, leaving his daughter, Joan, wife of Sir Thomas Berkeley of 
Coberley, his sole heir, aged twenty-four (Inq. P. M. 24 Ed. Ill, No. 74). 
After the death of Joan, who married as her second husband William de 
Whyttington, her Manor of Stoke passed to her son, Thomas of Coberley. 
He died without issue, leaving his manor to his half-brother, Sir Thomas 
Berkeley. This knight died in 1405, leaving by his second wife, Elizabeth 
Chandos, two daughters, co-heiresses. The elder, Margaret, who was 
the wife of Nicholas de Mattesden, had a son, Robert, who died without 
issue ; the younger, Alice, married Thomas Brydges, and had a son, 
Giles Brydges, Lord Chandos, who after a while inherited the whole 
manor (Inq. P. M. 47 Ed. Ill, No. 551, and 6 Hen. IV, No. 5). See also 
Trans. B. 6^ G. Arch. Soc, vol. xvii, pp. 96-125. In Queen Elizabeth's 
reign the manor of Stoke Archer passed by marriage to Sir John 
Kennedy, and he sold it to Sir Richard Baker. The Bakers sold it to 
the Baynings, who held it for four generations. It then became 
the property of the Rogerses of Dowdeswell. < 



Gloucester Meeting. 



39 



Anolher manor was held by the de Clares, Despencers, and 
Beauchamps, and came to the Crown after the death of Anne Neville. 
Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, died in 1^14, seized at Stoke Archer 
of one capital messuage with garden and curtilage adjoining, 230 acres 
of arable land, seven acres of meadow, two acres of pasture, and a 
certain old water mill (Inq. P. M. 8 Ed. II, No. 68). 

One of the ancient manor houses probably stood on the site of the 
Manor Farm, now occupied by Mr. Thayer. Parts of the moat remain. 

The church of Stoke Orchard, a chapel of Bishop's Cleeve, consists 
of a nave and chancel, with a campanile or bell turret over the chancel 
arch. The nave has north and south doorways and small round-headed 
windows deeply splayed. The shaft and imposts of the chancel arch axe 
Norman, the arch itself is Perpendicular. 

The side windows of the chancel are square-headed, and the late 
fourteenth-century east window is pointed with two lights. There are 
mural paintings on the west wall. There is a similarity between the 
Church of Stoke Orchard and Postlip Chapel. The font is Norman. 

The communion plate consists of a slender chalice and a paten cover, 
with the hall-mark of 1618. The two bells have no inscription. See 
Trans., B. 6^ G. Arch. Soc. vol. xiv, p. 201, and vol. xxviii, p. 32. 
The view of the church is from a sketch by Mr. Petit, 1847. 
The company then made their way to Swindon, which appears to 
have been part of the original endowment of St. Oswald's priory, 
Gloucester, granted by Ethelred and Etheltheda in 909 ; but in the time 
of the Confessor, Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, obtained possession 
of it. Stigand was deposed by the Conqueror, and the manors belonging 
to St. Oswald's which he held in Gloucestershire, Swindon, North 
Cerney, Churchdown, Hucclecote, Compton Abdale, and Widford (now 
in Oxon), were placed under the protection of Thomas, Archbishop of 
York, and remained in the hands of his successors till the dissolution. 
■ Parishes thus held have no history. Their inhabitants lived and died 
in peace. I find Robert Moryn paying aid for making the Black Prince 
a knight in 1349, for half a knight's fee in Swindon. A hundred years 
earlier Simon Moryn, " lord of Swindon," leased his mill " below Arle " 
to Simon the Chaplain, son of Michael the Miller of Arle, and Simon gave 
it to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Gloucester {Calendar of Glos. Corp. 
Records). Simon Moryn was the son of Robert Moryn, a coroner of the 
county, who died in 1246. The Moryns were a Gloucester family who 
gave their name to Moryn's Mill on t'Wyver, which, however, passed out 
of their hands in 1220. The chaplain's deed of gift (Cal. No. 478) 
contains many Swindon place-names, amongst others the Sandy Way, 
i.e. the Sam, a British or Roman road. The mill was called Priest's 



40 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Mill, no doubt because of the gift of it by the Chaplain. It was on the 
Swillgate ; but his father's mill at Arle was on the Chelt. Priest's Mill 
existed within the memory of many inhabitants of Swindon in the field 
opposite the church, but it has now entirely disappeared. 

After the Dissolution all the manors of St. Oswald passed into lay 
hands. Swindon was held successively by the families of Clifford of 
Frampton, Walwyn, Trotman, Ashmead, Stormy, Stratford, Beale, and 
Stratford. A branch of the Surman family lived at Swindon Hall, and 
it passed with an heiress to the Goodlakes. 

The Church of St. Lawrence, Swindon, consists of a nave with aisles, 
a chancel, and a western hexagonal tower. The nave, with the exception 
of the east wall of the south aisle, was entirely rebuilt about seventy 
years ago, and is therefore not of archaeological interest. The chancel 
was also restored, but it retains its fourteenth-century character. The 
chief interest of the church lies in its hexagonal tower, which has been 
ably described by Dr. A. Harvey in the Proceedings of the Clifton Anti- 
quarian Club, vol. V. It seems probable that this tower was built as a 
nave of a small Norman church, and that the nave, destroyed about 
1845, was an after-thought of the twelfth -century builders. As at 
Ozleworth, which we visited last year, each face of the uppermost stage 
has a two-light Norman window with a semi-circular arch. 

A fourteenth-century traceried window was inserted in the west face 
in the fourteenth century, when much else was done to the church. 
There is a Norman doorway with moulded arch, jambs and shafts in the 
north-east face of the tower. A porch of Norman character was added 
in the nineteenth century. Internally the tower has three stages ; but 
there is evidence that before the fourteenth-century window was inserted 
the tower was open to the roof. 

The tower arch, which is eleven feet wide, is ornamented on the west 
side by massive circular shafts with plain Norman capitals, whereas on 
the east side it is perfectly plain. This fact, and the unusual position 
of the doorway on the north instead of the west face, certainly favour 
Dr. Harvey's contention that this tower, though comparatively small 
in area, was intended by its builders to serve as the nave. 

The blocks of these illustrations of Swindon Church have been very 
kindly given to this Societ}' by the Clifton Antiquarian Club. 

jMembers then drove on to Arle House, where they were most kindly 
and hospitably welcomed by Mrs. Welch, who provided afternoon tea. 

Canon Bazeley was asked by Mr. F. Were to call the attention of our 
members to the dials scratched on our church walls, with a view to notes 
being made of such as exist. They appear on fifty or sixty churches in 
Somerset and on many churches in Gloucestershire. j 



NAVE OF SWINDON CHURCH. 



Gloucester Meeting. 



4^ 



Sometimes pieces of the gnomons are found in their holes. The dials 
are commonly from five to seven ft. above ground, and vary according 
to the orientation of the church. No figures are found, but holes marked 
the time of day as the shadow of the gnomon fell upon them. It is. 
supposed that these dials were made for the use of the clergy and the 
ringers. 

After the Bishop had expressed the thanks of the members to Mrs. 
Welch for her kindly hospitality, the company separated for their homes,, 
most of them finding their way by motor cars to Gloucester. 

And so ended a very pleasant day. The thanks of members are due 
to Mr. Roland Austin, who so kindly discharged the duties of Local 
Secretary, to Bishop Mitchinson, Canon Bazeley and Mr. Waller, for 
conducting them round the Cathedral, to the clergy of the churches 
visited, and to Mrs. Welch for so courteously receiving them at Arle 
House. A special word of thanks also is due to Canon Bazeley for 
preparing the archaeological notes for the programme, which proved tO' 
be so helpful. 



THOMAS BEKYNTON. 



By The Right Rev. the LORD BISHOP OF GLOUCESTER, D.D. 
A Presidential Address delivered at Wells on June 3rd, 19 13. 

Those of us who drove over from Bristol this morning, as 
we came down the road from the top of Mendip, caught our 
first ghmpse, at a turn of the road, of a group of buildings, 
which, in the words of the late Professor Freeman, " has no 
rival either in our own island or beyond the seas." The 
buildings, with which you who are strangers to Wells 
hope to make a closer acquaintance within the next 
few days, have changed little in outward appearance 
since two Oxford students are said to have looked down 
-on them some four hundred and fifty years ago from 
the same range of the Mendip Hills ; and their conver- 
sation, as they gazed on them, has happily been preserved 
for us in a contemporary MS., an extract from which 
was first published by Wharton in the Anglia Sacra ; ^ 
and a brief account of it may fitly serve as an introduction 
to what I have to say to you to-day. The conversation 
begins by one of the two undergraduates calhng for a halt 
on the brow of the hill, and pleading to be allowed to lie 
down and rest awhile before descending to the village 
which he descries below. " Village, indeed," says his 
■companion, who evidently knows the place well, " why, 
you ought to call it a city," and in justification of this he 
proceeds to describe in glowing terms the glory of the lovely 
cathedral church of St. Andrew, and the Bishop's Palace 
surrounded on all sides by streams of running water, and 

1 Vol. ii, p. 357. It is also printed in Bekynlon's Correspondence, 
vol. ii, p. 321 (Rolls Series), t 



Thomas Bekynton. 



43 



girdled with a delightful range of walls and towers. He 
goes on to dwell with enthusiasm on the learning and princely 
munificence of the bishop, who has added lustre to the city, 
provided the cathedral green with gateways and towers, and 
greatly improved the palace and surrounding buildings, so 
that he deserves to be called not indeed the founder, but the 
ornament and glory of the church. He then passes on to 
praise the affability of the courteous dean, the urbanity of 
the canons, renowned for their hospitality and kindness to 
-strangers, in inviting whom to their houses they seem to 
vie with each other. ' Then the " inferior clergy " and the 
vicars choral come in for their share of praise, and we hear 
■of the harmony and orderliness of the citizens, the excellence 
•of the local government of the city, the cleanness of its streets 
(down which even then the streams of water were running) , 
and the charming position of the city, which, we are told, 
is called Wells, so named by its original inhabitants from 
the wells which rise within it and flow forth from it. 

Altogether it is a most pleasant picture that is given us 
■of the place in which we have met together for our annual 
gathering, and of its inhabitants, and as the buildings 
remain unchanged, so we have only to introduce into the 
■extract the names of the present bishop and dean, and of 
the holders of the various posts and offices mentioned, to 
make the description of the men also applicable to the 
present day, and to find in this ancient document a true 
account of Wells and its principal inhabitants in this year 
of grace 1913. But it is the bishop introduced into the 
picture whose acquaintance I am specially anxious for you 
to make to-day, as his name stands high in the list of the 
benefactors of Wells, and he was in many respects a typical 
mediaeval prelate ; and as you wander round the city you 
can scarcely fail to notice his quaint device, the canting rebus 
•of the " beacon " on the top of a ton," referring to his name 
of Bekynton, which is, for example, a conspicuous object 
•on the great gateway leading from the market place into the 



44 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



cathedral green, familiarly known as the " Penniless Porch. 
I propose, then, to give you a brief sketch of his career. 

Thomas Bekynton, as his name indicates, was a native 
of the village of Beckington, some three miles from Frome^ 
and thus was born (probably about 1390) within the limits 
of the diocese over which he was afterwards to preside. 
Educated at WiUiam of Wykeham's recent foundations of 
Winchester and New College, Oxford, of which he became a 
Fellow, and from whence he took his degree of Doctor of 
Laws, he entered in comparatively early days into the 
service of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, whose Chancellor 
he became about 1420, and shortly afterwards we meet with 
him as holding various ecclesiastical preferments, as the 
living of Sutton Courtney in Berkshire, the Archdeaconry of 
Buckingham (1422), and a prebendal stall in York ; and 
the estimation in which he was held is shown by his 
appointment as Dean of Arches in 1422, and Prolocutor of 
the Lower House of Convocation in 1433, 1434, and 1438. 
About this time he passed from the service of the Duke of 
Gloucester to that of his nephew. King Henry VI, as whose 
secretary he appears to have acted as early as 1437, although 
his formal appointment dates only from 1439. The position 
he had now attained is indicated by the importance of the 
embassies in which he was employed. Even in 1432 he had 
apparently taken part in the abortive efforts made to 
negotiate a treaty of peace with France. But more important 
was the embassy to Calais under Cardinal Beaufort in 1439, 
when a more serious effort was made to come to terms with 
the French. Of these negotiations we have a full account 
from the pen of Bekynton himself, ^ who acted as secretary, 
though, truth to say, we gather from a private letter of his 
which still remains that he was thoroughly bored by the 

1 " Journal of the Proceedings of the Ambassadors who were sent 
to the Marches of Calais in June, 17 Henry VI, 1439, to treat for peace 
with France." Proceedings of the Privy Council, vol. v, p. 334. The- 
authorship is certain, as *' Ego Bekynton " occurs in several places. 

2 Correspondence, vol. i, p. 103. 



Thomas Bekynton. 



45 



proceedings, which ultimately proved unsuccessful, as the 
French insisted on harder terms than any which Beaufort 
was prepared to accept. 

The next embassy on which Be£:ynton was employed 
was of a more romantic character. It was to negotiate a 
marriage for the king, who was now over twenty years of 
age. The Count of Armagnac was the father of three 
daughters, and suggested that one or other of these might 
prove a suitable bride for the young King of England. 
The proposal found favour in this country, and an embassy, 
consisting of Sir Robert Roos, Dr. Thomas Bekynton, and 
Sir Edward Hull of Enmore in Somerset, was accordingly 
dispatched to Bordeaux to conduct the negotiations. This 
is certainly the most entertaining episode in the whole of 
Bekynton' s career, and fortunately we possess not only a 
small collection of his private letters, written on his journey, ^ 
but also a very full diary of his doings from day to day, 
which was kept by one of his suite. A translation of this 
was edited by Sir Harris Nicolas, and published in 1828, ^ 
and in it we can trace Bekynton's footsteps and proceedings 
from his start at Windsor on June 5th, 1442, till his return 
to England and audience with the king at Shene, on 
February 26th, 1443. 

From "Windsor the journey was made by easy stages to 
Plymouth, whence he was to sail for Bordeaux, stopping at 
Henley-on-Thames, his living of Sutton Courtney, Great 
Bedwyn, where he held a prebend, and Devizes, and from 
thence, by way of his native place, Beckington, where he 
stopped for dinner, and whither the Tord de Hungerford 
sent him two flagons of wine in bottles, to Wells, where he 
supped, and the next day drank with the precentor, and 

1 The Letters of Queen Margaret of Anjou. Ed. Cecil. (Camden 
Soc, 1863.) 

2 A Journal by one of the Suite of Thomas Beckington. With Notes 
and Illustrations. By Nicholas Harris Nicolas, Esq. London. 1828. 
The Journal, in the original Latin, French, and English, is given in an 
Appendix to Bekynton's Correspondence, vol. ii, p. 177, seq. 



46 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



was there installed in the choir " as Prebendary of Worminster^ 
to which stall he had been collated by Bishop Stafford some 
three years before. From Wells he passed to Glastonbury, 
where he supped with the Abbot, who lent his lordship 
a horse ; " and so to Taunton, whence he turned aside to 
Enmore, to visit his colleague in the embassy, Sir E. Hull, 
and hold conference with him on the state of Guienne, the 
country for which they were bound. The information which 
he received from Sir Edward caused considerable alarm to 
the worthy doctor, who wrote forthwith to the king and to the 
Lord Chancellor, expressing his fears lest the embassy should 
be " nought or little fructeux," and his own person should be 
in jeopardy. In spite of his fears, however, he went forward 
past Tiverton to the castle of the Earl of Devon, where he 
dined, and it is recorded in the diary that he " afterwards 
drank on the road to Exeter, and there supped and passed 
the night." At Exeter he spent some days, dining with the 
dean, the chancellor and some of the prebendaries, and 
receiving a present of a buck from Tiverton. This we gather 
from the diary, but Bekynton's own letters from Exeter show 
that he was not altogether satisfied with the good cheer 
provided for him by the hospitable Chapter, for he complains 
of " being now in the uttermost parts of the world," and 
" in the land of wilderness," where, as he says twice over, 
there is " fern and fiefs enough, but good ale none or httle." 
Still rather anxious " touching the great jeopardy in passing 
unto the country that we be sent unto," he rode forward to 
Plymouth, where he received letters from the king modifying 
the instructions previously given, which had apparently 
specified one of the count's daughters in particular to be 
treated for, whereas now the king was anxious that they 
should treat in general that he might have the choice ; and 
therefore in order that he might be guided in his decision 
he wished them to employ an artist to paint the portraits 
of all the three ladies " in their kertelles simple, and their 
visages, hke as ye see their stature and their beauty, and 



Thomas Bekynton. 



47 



colour of skin, and their countenances, with all manner of 
features ; and that one be delivered in all haste with the 
said portraiture to bring it unto the king, and he to appoint 
and assign which him liketh." Fortified with these fresh 
instructions, Bekynton and Sir Robert Roos embarked on 
board the Katharine of Bayonne, at 6 p.m. on Tuesday, 
July loth, and landed at Bordeaux on the afternoon of 
Monday the i6th, when they " breakfasted with Sir Robert 
Clifton, Constable of the Castle, and supped at an inn.'^' 
And now began a long and weary time of waiting, for the 
English cause in Guienne was steadily losing ground, and 
(perhaps not unnaturally under the circumstances) the Count 
of Armagnac was playing a waiting game. It was but a sorry 
tale that the ambassadors had to report to the king, of the 
loss of town after town which fell into the hands of the French 
king, who was ravaging the country almost up to the gates 
of Bordeaux itself. Still they remained at their post, and 
on October 22nd Sir Edward Hull, the third of the com- 
missioners, joined them from England, bringing with him 
Hans the painter, who was to take the likenesses of the three 
ladies, and who was at once sent forward to begin his work,, 
with letters to the count's council making suggestions for 
pushing forward the negotiations with regard to such 
important matters as the bride's dowry, the trousseau, styled 
" the paraphernalia or female ornaments, commonly called 
le chambre," the place to which the bride should be con- 
ducted at " the charge and expense of his lordship, with the 
homage, etc." This looked more like business ; but still the 
matter dragged, though on November 22nd the arrival of 
the artist was reported, and the commissioners were informed 
that he was " every day diligently employed on the work for 
which he came." 

Some time later they were assured that within four or 
five days the first of the three portraits would be on the 
canvass, and the others would soon be finished. A month 



4S Transactions for the Year 1913. 

later the ambassadors had to write again to complain of the 
delay, and to beg that the artist might be sent back to them 
as soon as possible, as they were evidently in despair of 
bringing the negotiations to a satisfactory conclusion. There 
was no response to this for some time, and the year drew 
to a close with no change of the position. The new year 
opened with an amusing exchange of presents. Beckington 
gave his companions each a scarlet hat, and received himself 
two pots of green ginger, some spiced wine mixed with honey, 
and wafers, as well as apples ; and from the lady of the inn 
he received a mysterious gift described as " lemog fixed in a 
rod of lorey with a little book in the middle " (lemogiam 
fixam in una virgula de lorey cum lihello in medio), which the 
editor of the diary interprets as something good to eat, 
consisting of a lemon and sweetmeats. The festival was 
scarcely over before the ambassadors lost patience, and 
determined to return to England without further delay. 
Accordingly on Jan. loth Beckington embarked, without 
the portraits, in the Helen of London. Scarcely had he done 
so when letters arrived stating that one of the portraits was 
really finished, and explaining how the work had been 
delayed by the severe cold which congealed the painter's 
colours, so that he could not complete it sooner. It was 
added that he was beginning to work at the others, which he 
hoped to finish shortly, " weather permitting." The letters 
came too late to prevent Beckington's departure. He only 
heard of them after his arrival in England. He finally 
sailed from Bordeaux on Jan. 14th, putting in on his way 
at the port of Crowdon in Brittany, where, says the diarist, 
he " heard masses, and afterwards my lord ate oysters." 
He arrived at Falmouth on Sunday, Feb. loth, and thence 
made his way to Maidenhead, where he found the king, and 
made his x^eport, the journey having proved, as he had all 
along anticipated that it would, " httle fructeux." A few 
days later he dined with the king at Shene, and so the diary 
-ends. The king never got his pictures to select his l^ride 



Thomas Bekynton. 



49 



from, and, as everybody knows, within two years married, 
not one of the three daughters of the Count of Armagnac, 
but that strong-willed lady who so completely dominated 
him, Margaret, the daughter of Rene of Anjou, titular King 
•of Naples, Sicily and Jerusalem. 

1 have dwelt at some length on this episode in Beckington's 
life, because it is probably new to most of my hearers, and 
gives an interesting picture of the times ; but I must pass 
rapidly over the events of his episcopate. The reward of his 
services was not long in coming. Almost immediately upon 
his return he was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal, nor 
was ecclesiastical preferment delayed much longer. To tell 
the truth, he himself had done a good deal to make the way 
for this easy, by lavish presents of scarlet broad cloth and 
other gifts to the Pope himself, and to some of his officials 
at Rome some years before, for details of which the curious 
must be referred to the volumes of his official correspondence. ^ 
Anyhow, when on the death of Archbishop Chicheley a few 
months after Bekynton' s return to England, John Stafford, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, was translated to Canterbury, 
the vacant See, which, as the vacancy was due to translation, 
was " provided for " by the Pope, was refused by Ayscough, 
Bishop of Salisbury, the king had no difficulty in securing 
it for his secretary, ^ and Bekynton was consecrated on 
Oct. 13th, 1443, in the old collegiate church of Eton, and 
■celebrated his first mass in pojitificalihus in the chapel of the 
king's new college there, the walls of which were sufficiently 

^ See Correspondence, vol. i, Letters 124, 165, 166, 167, 168, 124, 
178, 179, 180, 181. 

2 There are several letters in the Correspondence concerning the 
appointment. Apparently it was expected that Ayscough would go 
to Wells, and that Bekynton would succeed him at Salisbury ; and 
Bekynton was over hasty in paying the first-fruits on appointment to 
the last-mentioned See, which, however, he seems to have been allowed 
to transfer to Wells, and thus was saved from having to pay them 
twice. See Correspondence, vol. i, Letters 115, 125, 126, 127, 177, 187, 
225. 

5 

Vol. XXXVI. 



50 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



advanced for this purpose, with the help of a tent for a 
roof. 1 

Up till now Bekynton's career had been far more that of 
a courtier and statesman than of an ecclesiastic, and " his 
personal history after he became bishop," says the late 
Mr. Gairdner, " is uninteresting." 2 For some little time he 
was apparently still employed in the king's service, and the 
diocese was administered by suffragans, the first of whom^ 
James, Bishop of Achonry (who also acted as Suffragan of 
Sahsbury and Worcester), received his commission a fortnight 
after Bekynton's consecration. Later on the same post 
was held by John, Bishop of Tenos in partihus infidelmnir 
while William, Bishop of Zidon, also appears to have helped 
for a time. ^ 

The twenty-one years of Bekynton's episcopate (he died 
at Wells in January, 1465) were troublous ones for the 
country, as they witnessed the outbreak of the Wars of the 
Roses, the battles of St. Albans, Wakefield, and Towton^ 
and the proclamation of Edward IV as king ; but the diocese 
of Bath and Wells seems to have suffered from the 
disturbances of the time less than some others, nor did the 
bishop attempt to follow the fortunes of the king whom he 
had served for so many years. He was excused from 
attendance in Parliament on the ground of age and infirmity 
in 1452, and again in 1461, and his episcopate as a whole 
must be pronounced uneventful, although he was an active 
administrator, and there are episodes in his government 
of the diocese which ought not to be overlooked, as, for 
instance, his inquiry into the " various excesses and abuses " 
prevailing among the vicars choral in 1450, and his 
publication of fresh ordinances for them, in addition to those 
of Ralf of Shrewsbur}^ who first incorporated them as a 

1 Rcgistrum Stafford, fol. clvii, 6, quoted in Correspondence, vol. i, 
p. cxix. 

2 Dictionary of National Biography, vol. ii, p. 87. 
^ Stubbs, Registnim Sacrum, pp. 199, 200, 208. 



Thomas Bekynton. 



51 



college. To this may be added his correspondence with 
the Abbot of Glastonbury, over which he claimed the right 
of visitation, a correspondence whioh exhibits him in the 
light of one whom it would be better to have as a friend than 
an opponent ; and lastly his regulations for the observance of 
decency by the bathers at Bath. 

But that which gives him a special claim to be remembered 
in Wells is his work as a builder and princely benefactor of 
the city. The cathedral church itself was already complete,, 
and if Bekynton did nothing to the fabric it was, as the late 
Professor Freeman has said, " because there was really 
nothing for him to do." The surroundings, however, owe 
much to him. It is believed that the western wing of the 
cloisters, with the rooms above it, and the organist's house 
hard by — now, alas ! a ruin, but which some among us can 
well remember as still standing — was his work. Hard by 
the spot where we are met together stands the matchless 
" Chain Gateway," uniting the cathedral church, by means 
of the Chapter House stairs, with the Vicar's Close on the 
other side of the road, and this is certainly due to him. 
The original Close itself is the work of Ralf of Shrewsbury,, 
and the chapel at the north end of it of Bubwith ; but 
Bekynton or his executors repaired the houses throughout, 
and added the room above the chapel. It was he, too, who 
erected the three famous gateways leading from the city tO' 
the palace and the cathedral green, locally known as the 
Bishop's Eye, the Penniless Porch, and Brown's Gateway, 
The Palace was much in need of repair when he came into 
possession of it, and he could get nothing from his 
predecessor. Accordingly he spent large sums of money 
upon it in his hfetime, and left £100 to his successor for 
dilapidations. 

Much of his work here has since been destroyed, including 
a tower, and cloister to form an inner court ; but there is 

^ Cathedral Church of Wells, p. 145. 



52 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

apparently a good 'deal still remaining. ^ Besides this, he 
built a range of fifteen houses on the north side of the 
market place, which he granted to the Dean and Chapter. 
The houses are still standing, though sadly modernised ; 
and a further benefaction of his to the city was the conduit 
erected in the palace gardens, and connected with the 
high cross in the market place, thus furnishing the city 
with a constant supply of running water. The deed of gift 
still remains among the MSS. belonging to the cathedral 
church, where those who are interested in such matters 
may read the condition attached to it : " For this benefit 
the master and burgesses grant that they and their successors 
shall once a year visit the place where the said bishop is 
buried in the Church of St. Andrew, to render prayers to 
God for his soul." ^ Whether the condition is still fulfilled 
to-day it is for the Mayor and Corporation to tell us. 

One other work of Bekynton's remains to be mentioned, 
and that is his own tomb in the cathedral, which he con- 
secrated on January 15th, 1452 (just thirteen years before 
his death), when we are told that he " said mass for his own 
soul, for the souls of his parents, and of all the faithful dead, 
in the presence of a vast congregation gathered to gaze on 
their great bishop, decked in all the ornaments of his office." 
The actual tomb is still there, with its two effigies of the 
bishop as he appeared both in life and in death, in the south 
ambulatory of the choir, but alas ! it has been robbed of its 
splendour, for the chapel which surrounded it is gone. When 
Britton published his volume on Wells Cathedral in 1824 he 
describes the chapel as " now most lamentably broken and 
•defaced," but it was still standing, between the second and 

^ See the account ^iven by Chyle in Reynolds's Wells Cathedral, 
p. li, and Chancellor Holmes' description of the Palace in the Proceedings 
of the Somersetshire Atchceological and. Natural History Society, 3rd Series, 
vol. XV (1909), p. 42. 

2 Calendar of the MSS. of the Dean and Chapter of Wells, vol. i, 
P- 433- 



Thomas Bekynton. 



53 



third arches from the east end of the choir on the south side, 
and a representation of it is given in plate xiv of his work,, 
with the following description : — 

" This (i.e. the chantry) is designed in the most florid 
style of decorated architecture ; and, although partly 
of wood, excites great interest for the excellence of its 
execution and the elaborate manner in which it is 
wrought. The western side is entirely open with the 
exception of a compartment of rich screen work near the 
top, which, among other ornaments, exhibits two demi- 
angels displaying shields of the five wounds and having 
large expanded wings, the feathers of which are so 
profusely spread as to fill the spandrils below the 
cornices. All the canopy or roof is underwrought with 
elaborate tracery, including pendants, quatrefoils, 
panelled arches, etc. On the south side is a small 
piscina, and over the eastern end is an enriched canopy. 
Small graduated buttresses, having rich pinnacles, 
sustain the sides of the chapel, and the mouldings of 
the cornice are ornamented with rosettes and fruited 
vine branches." 
To-day we look in vain for the chapel. The canopy 
indeed exists, but all the rest is destroyed, and even the 
canopy has been rudely divorced from the tomb to which it 
belongs, and now stands in a meaningless position in the 
Chapel of St. Cahxtus in the south transept, where it serves 
as a sort of baldachino to a hideous modern stove. ^ It was 
therefore with real joy that some of us read not long since 
in the appeal for funds for various necessary works put forth 
by the present Dean and Chapter this mention of their desire 
to replace in its original position the canopy of Bishop 
Bekynton' s tomb. " The restoration of this chantry, con- 

1 This statement is, I am happy to say, already out of date, aa 
the stove referred to atove has already been removed by the Dean and 
Chapter (Dec, 191 3), but the canopy still remains divorced from the 
shrine. 



•54 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



templated by the Chapter in 1899 and abandoned on account 
•of expense, would be a duty of gratitude to a great bishop, 
one of the chief benefactors to our church and city, and the 
recovery of a most stately historical monument, solemnly 
dedicated in the fifteenth century, and desecrated in the 
nineteenth." 

I need hardly add that the Dean and Chapter will have 
the warm sympathy, and, I trust, the generous support of all 
who love the Church of Wells in their laudable endeavour 
to replace the canopy in its rightful position. 

One word only remains to be added to complete this 
slight sketch of the history of the famous fifteenth-century 
prelate. It is that he has not escaped the fate of our own 
Osric at Gloucester. Like him, he has been spied upon by 
curious eyes, for nearly four hundred years after his death, 
in March 1850, his tomb was opened, and his skeleton, that 
of a tail man with a well- formed skull, was found, though 
much decayed, yet still lying undisturbed in the place 
where the body had been originally laid in January, 1465. ^ 

And here I must end. We cannot claim Thomas 
Bekynton as one of the saintly bishops, who are not wanting 
to the See of Bath and Wells. But, as I said at the outset, 
he deserves to be remembered not only as a typical prelate 
of the fifteenth century, but also as a generous benefactor 
not to Wells alone, but to Winchester and Lincoln College, 
Oxford, also, on both of which he has left his mark ; and 
it will, I hope, add to the pleasure and interest of your visit 
here to feel that you know something of one of those whose 
works you will admire, and whom ^ve may fairly style the 
last of the great episcopal builders of Wells. 

^ See Correspondence, vol. i, p. 125 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE LEIGH WOODS, IN 
THE PARISH OF LONG ASHTON, COUNTY OF 
SOMERSET. 

BEING A PAPER READ BEFORE THE BRISTOL MEMBERS OF THE 
BRISTOL AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
ON MONDAY, DECEMBER QTH, I913. 

By lewis J. U. WAY, F.S.A. 

The city of Bristol is fortunate above its fellows in the 
possession of objects of natural and historic interest in its 
immediate vicinity, not the least of which are the far-famed 
hanging woods of Leigh, situated on the farther shore of 
the River Avon, the city's western boundary, in the parish 
of Long Ashton and County of Somerset. Stretching from 
the river bank up the precipitous sides and over the summit 
of its confining cliffs, these woods enclose within their leafy 
area the sites of two prehistoric camps, divided the one 
from the other by a deep combe or ravine, properly called 
Stokeleigh Slade, but now known by the appellation of 
Nightingale Valley. The camps lie north and south ; the 
northern is called Stokeleigh, the southern Burwalls, 
modernised into Bowerwalls. Stokeleigh still exists, un- 
injured, save by the hand of time ; Burwalls with its 
triple rampart has given place to villa residences, gardens 
and pleasure grounds. 

The aim of this paper is to trace from as early a date as 
possible the successive private ownership of the camps and 
their surrounding woods, which taken collectively are called 
the Leigh Woods. To accomplish this we must seek infor- 
mation from two sources : first from documents and deeds, 
secondly from the published records of county and city 



56 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



historians. The deeds we are fortunate enough to find at 
Ashton Court, for historians we can turn to Colhnson and 
John Latimer. 

1066. 

After the Conquest the whole Manor of Ashton was granted 
by King WilHam to Geoffrey, Bishop of Coutances, afterwards 
Constable of Bristol Castle, together with vast tracts of land 
in different parts of the country. The Exon. Domesday 
states that he had at Ashton 60 " equae indomitae," probably 
unbroken brood-mares kept for military purposes, and 64 
goats. Both mares and goats would have found a home on 
the open pasture of Ashton and Leigh Down, and sheltered 
from rain and wind within the green fastnesses of the Leigh 
Woods. At the Bishop's death in 1093 his estates passed to 
his nephew, Robert de Moubrai, and on his rebellion in 1095 
they reverted to the Crown, and were granted to various 
people, a large share going to form the endowment of the 
Honour of Gloucester. 

The first person recorded as owning any considerable 
property in Ashton is one Geoffrey de Heyrun, who 
flourished in the time of Henry L Dying in the reign of 
Stephen, he was succeeded by his only daughter and heiress, 
wife of Alexander de Alneto, de Alno or de Auno, a benefactor 
to the Priory of St. Peter of Bath, and buried at the west 
entrance of the abbey. To Alexander succeeded Robert, 
Henry, Fulk and Geoffrey de Alno or de Auno, which last in 
1259 held two carucates of land in Ashton, and dying the same 
year, was succeeded by Alexander de Auno his son, who 
owned both Stokeleigh and Burwalls, with the waste and wild 
country surrounding them, except the wood underneath 
Burwalls. 

The earliest deed we have is represented by an incomplete 
copy in the handwriting of Sir John Hugh Smyth. The 
original was produced at the Manor Court of Ashton Meriet 
on August 3rd, 1378, by the Master and Brethren of 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



57 



St. Katherine's Hospital in Bedminster as evidence that 
they should be exempt from paying suit of court for their 
lands in Ashton. 

The undated deed follows : — 

TO all Christian people by whom this present writing 
shall be seen or heard. Alexander de Alneto wisheth safety 
in the Lord for ever. Know that I out of divine charity, for 
the safety of my soul and of my wifes and of our Progenitors, 
Fathers, Mothers, Ancestors and Successors and all Christian 
Souls, have granted and by this present writing have confirmed 
to God and the Blessed Mary and the house of St. Katherine's 
of Brychtynebough near Bristol and the brothers and sisters 
there serving God and their successors in free, pure and 
perpertual alms at the desire of brother Robert then Master 
of the same place, All those lands with their appurtenances 
lying in Botercylve between the land which was Katherine 
of Ashton' s on one side and the grange of John le Gospel 
on the other, and those two acres of land with their 
appurtenances . . . 

Here the deed breaks off, and we are left to assume 
that it went on to deal with Burwalls, which belonged, as the 
following note by Sir John Hugh Smyth tells us, to St. 
Katherine's : — 

Alexander de Alneto granted Burwalls to the Hospital 
of St. Katherine of Bedminster. 

This Alexander also gave to the Hospital of Billeswick in 
Bristol a messuage and lands in Ashton. He died during the 
reign of Edward I, after having sold some of his Ashton 
estate to one William de Lyons ; his wife, surviving him,, 
succeeded to the rest of his property. Our next deed is her 
confirmation of lands to William de Lyons. 

William de Lyons is said by Collinson to have been the son 
of Nicholas de Lyons, who in 1252 was Reeve of the city of 
Bristol. Whether this was so or not, William was a man of 



58 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



wealth, who bought a considerable estate in Ashton, and 
•eventually imposed his name upon his manor there ; it is 
called Ashton Lyons to this day. He died in 1312, after having 
built a manor house, portions of which are incorporated in 
the present Ashton Court. He left three sons. Adam, the 
■eldest, born in 1287, succeeded his father, but died the year 
after. His next bi'other, Thomas de Lyons, succeeded, and 
died childless in 1318, and was in turn succeeded by his last 
brother, Edmund de Lyons, born in 1303, who much increased 
his estate of inheritance in Ashton. He died in 1367 leaving 
two sons, William who dying childless in 1370 was succeeded 
by his brother Thomas de Lyons, founder of the present 
parish church, who obtained a charter of free warren and 
liberty to enclose a park in his Manor of Ashton in 1392. 
His wife's name was Margaret ; they left no children, and so 
the family of de Lyons of Ashton ended. 

Confirmation by Agnes de Auno. 

Let present and future men know that I Agnes who was 
the wife of Alexander de Auno in my lawful widowhood and 
power have granted and by this my present writing have 
confirmed to William de Lyouns all the lands and tenements 
which he holds of the fee of the aforesaid Alexander my 
husband or in any manner can claim in Ashton. Namely : 

One messuage and one yard land with appurtenances 
which Adam Le Blound formerly held ; 

One messuage and one yard land which Adam Hereward 
formerly held ; 

One messuage and one quarter of a yard land which 
William Whateman formerly held ; 

One quarter of a yard land which William Koppe formerly 
iield ; 

One quarter of a yard land which William Le Kymus 
formerly held ; 

One messuage and half a quarter of a yard land which 
John atte Lane formerly held ; 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



59 



Six acres of land which He in Bolecroft. 
Six acres of land which lie above La Langedoune 
Three acres of land which are called le HuUe. 
Three acres of land which are called E'stgarstone. 
Six acres of land which are called Le Schupenelonde. 
Three acres of land which lie in the coombe above 
Yhonlegh. 

One acre of land which is called Holecroft. 

Three perches of land which lie in Berecroft. 

Half an acre of land which Richard le Theyn held 
extending above Endemore. 

And twelve acres of meadow which lie in the moor of 
Ashton which meadow indeed was of the lordship of the 
.aforesaid Alexander my husband ; 

And all that wood which is called Stokelegh ; 

And eight shillings of rent to be taken from one yard 
land which Adam de Lamyngton held ; 

And four shillings, one pound of pepper and one pound of 
cummin of rent to be taken from the two yard lands which 
William le Theyn and Robert de Feolonde hold ; 

And two pence of rent to be received from William le 
Theyn ; 

And two pence of rent to be taken from the tenement 
which William Hereman and Adam le Frankelcyn formerly 
held ; 

And twelve pence of rent arising from a yard land which 
Nicolas Steven formerly held ; 

And two pence of rent arising from two acres of land and 
from two acres of meadow which Robert Masseday held ; 

And two pence of rent to be taken from two acres of 
meadow which Elyas Gote held ; 

And four pence of rent arising from one acre of land which 
Matilda Yhonlegh held ; 

And one pound of cummin to be taken from three acres 
of land which Amice who was wife of Richard Hayrun 
held : 



6o Transactions for the Year 1913. 

And one pound of cummin arising from one acre of land 
which Wilham Hereman held in Ashton ; 

To have and to hold all the aforesaid tenements with 
homage, wards, reliefs, escheats and suits of court with every 
other thing and augmentation arising of freemen as well as 
of serfs, holding the aforesaid tenements for ever, and also 
the aforesaid serfs with both their offspring and their cattle 
for ever. From me and my heirs to William and his heirs, 
freely, quietly, well, hereditarily for ever. In such wise that 
I the aforesaid Agnes and my heirs shall be able to exact or 
demand nothing of right or of claim in the lands or tenements 
of the said William or of his men in Ashton for ever. Return- 
ing thence annually to me and my heirs one grain of pepper 
on Easter Day at William's own house if it shall be demanded 
by me or by my heirs for all services, suits, quarrels, exactions 
and every other kind of trouble and demand to me and my 
heirs belonging for ever. For which concession indeed and 
in confirmation of this present charter the said William has 
given into my hands a certain sum of money. Wherefore I, 
the said Agnes and my heirs, all the aforesaid tenements with 
all their appurtenances to the aforesaid William and his heirs 
against all mortals will warrant acquit and through the 
aforesaid service will for ever defend. In witness whereof 
I have sealed this present writing with the impression of my 
seal. With these witnesses Sir Nicolas of Apper Legh, Sir 
Adam of Hutton, Sir John de Sancto Laudo, Knights, Simon 
of Ashton, Robert of Stone, Robert of Acton, Adam of 
Lamiton, Thomas the priest and others. 

This document in perfect condition bears a seal of yellowish 
wax much damaged. On the seal is the upright figure of a 
female with head-dress, holding a bird. The inscription has 
mostly been broken away. There only remains AGN .... 
. . NO, which is sufficient to enable us to fill up the gaps 
and make Agnes de Auno. 

Our next deed, also undated, deals with the precipitou> 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 6i 

-stretch of wood underneath Burwalls, which was part of the 
possessions of another family existing contemporaneously 
with those of de Alno and de Lyons, namely that of de Ashton, 
lords of another manor in Ashton calfed Ashton Philips, the 
remaining wing of whose manor house at the present day is 
known as the Lower Court. 

Let present and future men know that I, William de 
Ayston, have granted and quit-claimed and by this my 
present charter have confirmed to William de Lyuns one 
messuage, two acres of land which Adam Tanqu formerly 
held in Ayston. 

And all those meadows in the manor of Ayston which are 
called Le Gores ; 

And all that wood which lies beneath Burwall in the 
same town ; 

And one messuage and one quarter of a yard land which 
Sarra le Fox held in the same town ; 

And ten shillings of rent arising from the tenement of 
Alicia Durant in the same town ; 

And ten shillings of rent arising from the tenement of 
William Le Theyn in the same town ; 

And five shillings of rent to be taken from the heirs of 
Adam le Herdare from the land which is called the Wykelonde 
in the same town ; 

And ten shillings of rent to be taken from Walter Gylle 
and Elya of Barewe for the mill of Kenscote in the same town. 

To have and to hold the said messuages, lands, meadows, 
wood and rents aforesaid with all their appurtenances 
wheresoever they be both with homages, fidehties, suits of 
court, other services, wards, reliefs, escheats and with all othre 
proofs of tenements of the aforesaid men passing from me 
and my heirs to the aforesaid William de Lyuns and his heirs 
and assigns freely, quietly, well and in peace in hereditary 
fee for ever. Returning thence annually to me and my heirs 
one half-penny of silver at the feast of St. Michael for all the 



62 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

services, suits and reliefs and all worldly demands belonging 
to me or my heirs for ever. So that I the aforesaid William 
of Ashton and my heirs are able to exact or claim et cetera ; 
nothing of right or claim in the aforesaid tenements for ever. 
For this concession, indeed, remission, quit claim and for this 
my present charter of confirmation, the said William de Lyuns 
has handed to me a certain sum of money. And for greater 
security I have afiixed the impression of my seal to this 
present charter. With these witnesses Sir John de Sancto 
Laudo, Knight ; Nicholas de Apperlegh, Roberto de Acton, 
Ralph de Lyuns, Wilham de Gatecumbe, Stephen de 
Whytewode, William then Vicar of Ayston and others. 

The Leigh Woods were by this time divided between two 
owners, St. Katherine's Hospital holding Burwalls, while 
William de Lyons held Stokeleigh and the wood beneath 
Burwalls. 

Our next deed is the first one dated, and deals with 
Stokeleigh. 

1331. 

Let present and future men know that I Edmund de 
Lyouns of Asshton near Bristol have given, granted and by 
this my present charter have confirmed to the Abbot and 
Convent of the. Church of Saint Augustine of Bristol in free, 
pure and perpetual charity all that my place of pasture with 
the woods and with all their appurtenances lying in Asshton 
aforesaid, namely, between the wood of the said Abbot and 
Convent of Leghe on the north side and the Burwalls on the 
south side, and extends to the course of the water of Aven 
on the east side below, up to Leghedoune and Asshtondoune 
on the west side above, within which place Stokeleigh, 
Ludhull, Knyghtwode are contained, to have and to hold 
the aforesaid place of pasture with the woods, footpaths, 
roads and all other its appurtenances wheresoever they be, 
to the aforesaid Abbot and Convent and their successors in 
free, pure and perpetual charity for ever. And I, the aforesaid 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



63 



Edmund and my heirs, will warrant acquit and defend 
against all men for ever all the aforesaid place of pasture 
with the woods and all other its appurtenances wheresoever 
they be. 

In witness whereof I have affixed my seal to this present 
charter. With these witnesses, Walter de Rodneye, Andrew 
de Brompton, Robert de Asshton, Joyce de Bayouse and 
John Beket and many others. Given at Asshton aforesaid 
on Friday in the feast of St. Laurence the Martyr in the fourth 
year of the reign of King Edward Third after the Conquest. 

This grant was invalid without a licence from the king. 
The next deed tells us how, pending the arrival of a licence, 
both parties agreed to take no advantage of the grant of the 
other. 

1331- 

To all Christ's faithful ones by whom the present writing 
shall be seen or heard, Edmund by divine permission Abbot 
of St. Augustine of Bristol, Nicholas by the same permission 
Abbot of Kaynesham and Edmund de Lyouns of Aysshton 
near Bristol health in the Lord. 

Let all men know that divers strifes and discords were 
moved between the aforesaid Edmund the Abbot of St. 
Augustine and the Convent of the same place on one side and 
Edmund de Lyouns aforesaid on the other, concerning the 
common of pasture which is called Stokeleigh in Asshton 
aforesaid. 

Friends intervening, and all the discords having been 
smoothed over and the parties to this then nominated, are 
agreed and united in form which follows. 

Namely, that the aforesaid Edmund de Lyouns has given 
and granted by his charter to the aforesaid Edmund the Abbot 
and Convent of St. Augustine all that place of his pasture in 
Aysshton lying between the woode of Legh on one side and a 



64 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



certain place which is called Burwalls on the other side 
stretching to the course of the water of Aven below up to 
Leghdoune and Aysshtondoune above. To have and to hold 
to the aforesaid Edmund the Abbot and Convent and to their 
successors for ever as is fully set forth in the aforesaid charter 
of enfeoffment for which grant and warrant the aforesaid 
Edmund the Abbot and Convent have given and granted to 
the aforesaid Edmund de Lyouns his heirs and assigns eight 
shillings of annual rent to be taken from all the lands and 
tenements which Henry atte Fenne holds from the same 
Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine and to be taken for 
ever as the charter to the aforesaid Edmund de Lyouns 
then made fully witnesses. Namely, the aforesaid Abbot 
and Convent of St. Augustine have granted by their 
writ to the aforesaid Edmund de Lyouns one robe of the suit 
of their Esquires with sufficient fur and three yards of cloth 
of the suit of the Abbots own pages, two white conventual 
loaves, one measure of conventual beer, a lodging, stall, hay, 
Htter and provender according to the form and tenor of the 
said writ which the aforesaid Abbot and Convent of St. 
Augustine have made to the aforesaid Edmund de Lyouns. 

And because from very many causes the said Religious 
of St. Augustine are not able quietly and peacefully to obtain 
peaceable seizin of the aforesaid pasture according t-o the 
strength, form and effect of the aforesaid charter of Edmund 
de Lyouns to them then made, without the special license of 
the Lord King, to enter upon the lay fee, so the aforesaid 
Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine as well as the aforesaid 
Edmund de Lyouns have unanimously granted with assent 
that all and singular the charters and writs above mentioned 
shall be handed over, deposited in a little box, countersigned 
with the seals of both parties, to Sir Nicholas by the grace of 
God Abbot of Kaynesham in safe custody in this form. 

Namely, that the aforesaid Abbot and Convent of St. 
Augustine at their own proper charges shall seek the hcense 
-of the Lord King to enter, to have and to hold the aforesaid 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 65 



pasture in form above said as quickly and effectively as by 
good means they shall be able to do, against the feast of All 
Saints next following, and as soon as they shall obtain and 
have the said licence, the aforesaid Nicholas Abbot of Kayne- 
sham shall be bound without delay to hand back the 
aforesaid charter of enfeoffment of the aforesaid pasture 
remaining in his custody, to the aforesaid Sir Edmund the 
Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine and the said Edmund 
de Lyouns shall be bound immediately to deliver to the sama 
Abbot and Convent seizin of the aforesaid pasture according 
to the strength, form and effect of the same charter. 

And immediately afterwards the charter of the aforesaid 
Edmund the Abbot and Convent of eight shillings of annual 
rent together with the writ of delivery and corredy abovesaid 
shall obtain in all and singular their force and effect and be 
delivered to the aforesaid Edmund de Lyouns by the afore- 
said Sir Nicholas the Abbot without any hindrance. 

And if the aforesaid Edmund the Abbot and Convent of 
St. Augustine shall not be able to obtain the license in the 
premises against the feast of All Saints aforesaid from the 
lord King, it shall then at once be fully lawful for the aforesaid 
Sir Nicholas the Abbot of Kaynesham as quickly as he shall 
b)e forewarned by the aforesaid Edmund the Abbot, to open 
the aforesaid little box and to hand back and annull for ever 
the aforesaid charter of enfeoffment of eight shilHngs of rent 
abovesaid together with the writ of the abovesaid delivery 
and corredy to the aforesaid Sir Edmund Abbot of St. 
Augustine or his assigns on that side. And the same Edmund 
the Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine grant that 
immediately the aforesaid charter which Edmund de Lyouns 
made to them at the same time concerning the aforesaid 
pasture is handed back to the aforesaid Edmund de Lyouns 
or his assign and shall come to the hands of anybody it shall 
stand for nought. 

And I Edmund de Lyouns by the presents grant that for 
Ihe rest I will neither sell, claim nor obtain any emolument 

6 

Vol. XXXVI 



66 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



or profit of the aforesaid rent of eight shillings nor of the 
delivery or corredy abovesaid until the aforesaid Sir Edmund 
the Abbot of St. Augustine shall have license by charter of 
the lord King to have and to hold the said pasture in form 
abovesaid and seizin shall have been delivered peacefully and 
fully by me to the same Sir Edmund the Abbot and Convent 
of St. Augustine according to the form tenor and effects of 
my aforesaid charter made to the same religious. 

Likewise let all men know that we the aforesaid Nicholas 
by divine permission Abbot of Ka.ynesham have granted to 
be held and by the present writ to be bound to receive, guard 
and to hand back all and singular the charters and writings 
to the abovesaid parties in manner and form above written 
the gainsaying of either party notwithstanding. 

In witness of all which matters we the aforesaid Edmund 
Abbot of St. Augustine have caused our seal to be appended 
to two parts of this indenture of which one part remains in 
the possession of the aforesaid Sir Nicholas- Abbot of 
Kaynesham and the other indeed remains in the possession 
of the aforesaid Edmund de Lyouns. 

And I the aforesaid Edmund de I^youns have affixed my 
seal to two parts of this indenture of which one part remains 
in the possession of the aforesaid Sir Edmund the Abbot the 
other ineed in the possession of the aforesaid Sir Nicholas the 
Abbot. 

And we, the aforesaid Nicholas Abbot of Kaynesham have 
signed with the impression of our seal two parts of this 
indenture remaining in the possession of the aforesaid Edmund 
the Abbot and Edmund de Lyouns. 

Given at Bristol on Thursday the morrow of St. Peter ad. 
vincula in the fourth year of Kind Edward Third after the 
Conquest. 

This deed bears two seals : First, of red wax, a single 
escallop shell in an ornamented border with the inscription, 
" Sigillum : Edmunde de KnuUe : . . . ns." The second, of 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 67 

green wax, bears a shield of arms within an ornamented 
border, viz., " Ermine, three hons rampant on a chevron," 
with the inscription, 'VSigillum dcEdmundi de Lyons." 
The seal of Nicholas de Taunton, Abbot of Kaynesham, is 
missing. 

That the licence from the king was obtained we learn 
from a note by Sir John Hugh Smyth : — 

1331- 

License granted to Edmund de Lyons to grant 200 acre 
of waste in Ashton to the Abbey of St. Augustine of Bristol. 

The licence, I fear, has perished. 

This, however, does not seem to have been sufficient to 
give the Abbot and Convent a perfect title to Stokeleigh, as 
two years afterwards we find the heads of two knightly 
houses of the neighbourhood also granting their rights in 
Stokeleigh to St. Augustine. These rights were probably 
manorial, either real or fancied, or claimed perhaps in right 
of their wives or of trusteeship ; in any case, whatever they 
may have been, Edmund de Knolle appears to have thought 
it necessary to get a grant of them to fully secure his convent 
in their ownership. 

1333, April 4th. 

To all Christ's faithful ones to whom the present writ 
shall come. Robert of Aysshton health in the Lord ever- 
lasting. Be it known that I have granted, remised, and 
altogether quit-claimed, for me and my heirs and for all my 
men and tenants for ever to the Religious men, the Abbot 
and Convent of St. Augustine of Bristol and their successors, 
all my right and claim which I had or in any way so ever 
could have or in the future shall be able to have in a certain 
common of pasture in a waste place containing two hundred 
acres with woods and other its appurtenances whatsoever in 
Aysshton and Legh. Which place indeed lies between the 
wood of Legh of the said religious on one side and the 



68 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



:Bourwalles on the other side ; and stretches to the course 
of the water of Aven below up to the western head of a close 
of the Prior of Bath called Stokeleigh above. Within which 
place Stoklegh, Ludehull and Knyghtwode are comprehended. 
I grant also that the aforesaid religious may be able lawfully 
and without any hindrance from me, my heirs and all my 
tenants to enclose the aforesaid place of waste with its woods 
and other appurtenances and to have and to hold it enclosed 
to them and their successors for ever. So that neither I nor 
my heirs nor any of our men or tenants nor anybody else for 
us or in our name shall be able to exact, sell, claim, or have 
anything of right, claim, exaction or in the 

aforesaid common of pasture or in the aforesaid place of waste 
or in any of their appurtenances et cetera, but by the present 
writ we are totally excluded thence for ever. In witness 
whereof I have affixed my seal to this present writ of quit 
claim. With these witnesses Sir John de Clyvedon, knight ; 
Walter de Rodneye, Andrew de Brompton, Robert atte Berwe, 
Robert Bavent, John de Gatecumbe, John Beket and others. 
Given at Aysshton aforesaid on the fourth day of the month 
of April in the seventh year of the reign of King Edward 
Third after the Conquest. 

Then follows a deed of equal date and exactly similar, 
•except that the rights in Stokeleigh are granted to St, 
Augustine's by John de Clyvedon Lord of Clyvedon. 

The first of these deeds is sealed with red wax, displaying 
the arms and crests of the de Ashtons, viz. " A bend over 
two fesses, for crest three torches." There is no inscription. 

The second, also of red wax, shows the arms and crest of 
the de Clevedons between two escallop shells, viz. " On the 
field a lion rampant, for crest a plumed helmet." Both are 
perfect. 

The Leigh Woods were now, save for the strip under- 
neath Burwalls, definitely alienated from the Lords of the 
Manor of Ashton, and continued the property of Mother 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



69 



Church up to the time of the dissolution of the monasteries 
by Henry VIII. So two hundred years elapse before the date 
of our next document, which brings us to the reign of 
Henry VIII, who granted the Manor of Abbots Leigh, part of 
the possessions of St. Augustine's which they had held since 
1 148, to Paul Bush, first Bishop of Bristol, who on May 25th, 
1559, regranted it to King Edward VI, who on September 23rd 
of the same year granted the reversion of it after the death 
of Paul Bush to Sir George Norton and his heirs for ever, at 
whose death, amongst other possessions, a thousand acres of 
waste are mentioned. It is probable that Sir George's heirs 
chose to include Stokeleigh in the waste of Leigh, ignoring the 
fact that it was situated in the parish of Long Ashton. 

By this time the de Lyons, the Choke, the Daubeney and 
Arundel families had in turn flourished as lords of Ashton and 
passed away, and the Smyth family reigned in their stead, 
Hugh Smyth being lord of the manor, who failing the 
possession of any definite grant of Stokeleigh, would doubtless 
claim it as part of the Manor of Ashton. The next document 
embodies a dispute between Sir George Norton and Hugh 
Smyth. 

1568. 

This indenture made the i8th day of November in the 
Tenth year of the reigne of our sovereigne Lady Elizabeth by 
the grace of God, Queene of England, Fraunce and Irelande, 
Defender of the Faith, etc. 

Between Sir George Norton of Lighe in the countie of 
Somerset, knight, of th' one part and Heugh Smyth of Longe 
Aishton in the saide Countie of Somerset, Esquyre, of th' 
other part. Witnesseth that where controversy and stryfe 
hath been between the said George Norton and the said Heugh 
touching the possession, right and title of a parcell of waste 
grounde or soyle with all wooddes thereon growinge or 
standing, sett and being in Ashton aforesaid, between the 
woode of the saide Sir George Norton called Lighe woode on 



70 Ttiansactions for the Year 1913. 

the north part and a place ealled Burwalls on the south part, 
and stretcheth to the Ryver of Aven on the east side and to 
Ashton doune and Lighe doune on the west side, within which 
saide parcell of grounde or pasture Stokeleigh, Ludhill aUas 
Lydehill, Knightwood, Ligheslade and Holmslade are con- 
teyned. And thereupon by mediation of WiUiam Lovelace 
Sarjaunte-at-Lawe and John Ippesley Esquyer it was agreed 
between the saide parties : That the saide Sir George shall 
release his title and righte and cease to make any further 
chalenge or clayme in or to the premises and that the saide 
Heughe shall reteyne have and keep to him and to his heires 
the saide parcell of grounde and other the premisses. Th^ 
said Sir George Norton therefore as well in consideration of 
perfecting the saide agreement as also for a certen sume of 
money to him the saide Sir George paide by the said Heughe 
before the ensealing and deliverie of theis presents, which 
saide some the saide Sir George doth acknowledge by theis 
presents to have received of the saide Heugh, hathe bar- 
gayned, sold, alyened, released, and confirmed, and by theis 
presents doth bargayn, sell, release and confirme to the saide 
Heugh, all and everie the saide parcell of grounde and pasture 
and all and singular other the premises together with all dedes, 
wrytyngs and charters only touchinge or concernynge the 
premisses or only any part or parcell thereof. To have and to 
hold all and singular the premisses to the said Heugh Sm^^th 
his heirs and assigns for evermore. And the said Sir George 
Norton for himself, his heirs and executors doth covenant, 
promyse and grant by theis presents to and with the saide 
Heugh Smyth his heirs and assigns that all and singular the 
premisses nowe are and so from henceforth shall alwayes be 
and contynue to the saide Heugh his heirs and assignes clerely 
acquytted and dyscharged or otherwise sufficiently saved 
harmless of and from all former bargaynes, sales, estates, 
rents arrerage of rents and of and from all other charges, 
troubles, titles and encumbrances whatsoever had, done, 
made, suffered, or comytted by the saide Sir George Norton 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 71, 

or any other claiminge in, by or under the saide Sir George. 
And the saide Sir George and his heires all and singular the 
premisses to the saide Heugh Smyth,, his heires and assigns 
agaynst him the saide Sir George his heires and assignes shall 
and doe warrant, acquyte and defende by theis presents. In 
witness whereof the parties above saide to theis present 
Indentures enterchangeablie have sett their seales. Yeven 
the dale and yere first above mentioned. 

By me George Norton 

Signed, sealed and delyvered 
in the presens of us whose 
names are hereunder written 
M. Smith 
per me William Sely. 

After this Stokeleigh remained with and passed with the 
Ashton Court estate, being as we shall see let from time to 
time for the sake of its timber and stone. 

Nearly fifty years elapse before the date of our next deed. 
Hugh Smyth was dead, his brother Matthew had succeeded 
him and passed away, and Sir Hugh Smyth, Knt., son of 
Matthew, was owner of the Leigh Woods. 

1626, March 19th. 

Indenture between Sir Hugh Smyth of Long Aishton Knt. 
and John Baylie, lymeburner of Clifton. 

Witnesses that Sir Hugh leases to Baylie, one cottage 
adjoyning and one Lyme Kill with all the quarres and the 
stones within the quarres fitt for the making of Lyme situate 
in the slade under Stokley Wood between the land of John 
Garland ahas Tovie below Rownham and the wood called 
Lye Wood with common of pasture for two pother beasts in 
the common thereto adjoyning saving all manner of trees, 
woods and underwoods thereuppon growing for the term of 
21 yeres. Paying yearly £7 : 10 : o and suite to the courte 
of Sir Hugh twice yearly uppon reasonable warning. And 



72 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

J. Baylie undertakes that on reasonable warning being given 
he will cause to be delivered unto the saide Sir Hugh at the 
west side of the passage or ferry called Rownham ferry and 
likewise at St. Augustine's back att the Great House of Sir 
Hugh there soe much good and marchantable stone lyme att 
the price of twopence the bushell and so much of courser 
lyme att the price of one half penny the bushell as the said 
Sir Hugh shall have occasion to use. And also that neither 
he nor his servants will att any time moote upp, waste or 
spoile the woods or underwoods of the saide Sir Hugh adjoyn- 
ing to the saide premisses but shall keep the same safely from 
the waste and spoile of other persons soe much as in them lyes.. 
Signed John Baylie his mark 
Sealed in the presence of Thos: Smyth 

William Prowse 
Thomas Evered. 

Sir Hugh died in 1627. His son Thomas succeeded, who- 
died in 1641, leaving his son Hugh Smyth a minor under the 
guardianship of his widow, who married as her second husband 
Colonel Thomas Pigott, of Brockley, co. Somerset. Our next 
deed granted in their names tells us that a new industry had 
sprung up in Ashton. 

1655, Sept. loth. 

This indenture between Thomas Pigott of Long AshtorK 
Esq., Florence his wife and Hugh Smyth of Long Ashton Esq. 
of the one part and John Satchfield and Arthur Satchfield 
of Long Ashton mindrey men of the other part, 

Witnesseth that the said Thomas, Florence and Hugh in 
consideration that the said John and Arthur Satchfield shall 
forthwith erect and builde at their owne proper coste and 
charge a substantial!, convenient, and necessary house with the 
appurtenances for the smelting and blowing of lead and lead 
oare on the parcell of grounde hereafter named have by these 
presents granted and demised to the said John and Arthur 
all that one quarter of an acre of pasture ground be it ijiore 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



75 



or less lyeing by the side of the river Avon under the wood 
beneath Stokeley situate within the parish of Long Ashton 
as also a competent parcell of ground ^to be taken for making 
and preparing of a way for carts and carriages to and from 
the saide house which way is to be made at the proper coste 
of the said John and Arthur Satchfield but always reserved 
out of this grant and demise all timber and timber trees now 
standing or growing upon the saide premises To have and 
to hold the aforesaid pasture and house to be erected to John 
and Arthur Satchfield for the term of one and twenty years, 
yielding and paying yearly a rent of fifty shillings and doing 
suite to the court of Ashton Lyons. 

Signed the marke of John Satchfield 
,, ,, ,, Arthur Satchfield 
Sealed and delivered in the presence of 

Tho: Everard 

Henry Gwin. 

1660, Nov. 9th. 

Indenture of this date between Thomas Pigott of Long 
Ashton Esq. and Florence his wife of the one part and John 
Painter of Bedminster Brickmaker of the other part. 
Witnesses that the first named parties have demised and 
granted for a yearly rent to the said John Painter all that 
the Quarre and stones within the Quarre fitt for the making 
of lime with the appurtenances in Stockly Coombe neere unto 
the view of the old Bloome house there between the haven 
and Stockly Wood, scituate, lyeing and being within the 
parishe of Long Ashton and now in the tenure of the said 
John Painter, to hold the same for the term of five yeares, 
paying the yearly rent of forty shillings. 

Signed, John Painter: 

Witnesses. 

Henry Flower. 
Francis Vincent. 
Edward Flower. 



74 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Before our next deed was drawn up Hugh Smyth had been 
created Knight of the Bath and Baronet. 

1667, April 3rd. 

This indenture between Thomas Pigott of Long Ashton 
Esq., Florence his wife, and Sir Hugh Smyth Knt. of the 
Bath and Baronett of the one part and Thomas Godman of 
the City of Bristoll baker of the other part, 

Witnesseth that the said Thomas, Florence and Sir Hugh, 
have demised unto the said Thomas Godman all those their 
woodes, underwoodes and coppices nowe standing and 
groweing in and upon the Slade contayning one hundred 
acres be it more or less nowe in the occupation of the said 
Thomas Godman for the terme of one and twenty years 
excepting all wayes the bodyes of all timber trees as also all 
young trees stathells, standers, and storers as are nowe 
groweing there, paying yearly the sum of five poundes and 
the said Thomas Godman undertakes that neither he nor his 
workmen will fell or cutt downe any of the said woods but 
at seasonable tymes in the yeare, that is to say, between the 
feast of St. Michael and the Annunciation of our Lady to ye 
■end yt. ye springs and issues growing in and upon ye. same 
woods may be saved and preserved according to ye. custome 
of ye. country.. 

Signed Thomas Godman 

Witnesses 

Ambrose Jackson 
Wilham Godman 
Arthur Flower. 

The next deed seems to show that the building authorised 
to be put up in the lease of 1655 had not been erected, as the 
next lessee obtains the same permission. 

1678, March ist : 

This Indenture between Sir Hugh Smyth of Long Ashton, 
Knl. of the Bath and Barronett of the one part and 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



75 



Arthur Coster of the City of London, gent: of the other 
part 

Witnesseth that the said Sir Hugh hath granted to the 
said Arthur Coster All that Quarrie commonly known by the 
name of Stoaklee Quarrie and also the Quarrie lying in the 
Slade which is now in working being in the occupation of one 
Thomas Branch with liberty to the said Arthur Coster and 
his workmen to digg, quarrie, sinke, trench and mine for 
stones in and uppon the several quarries and also the said 
Sir Hugh hath granted all that peece of waste grounde lying 
at the lower end of Stoaklee Slade and adjoyneth unto the 
river side there contayning halfe an acre togeather with all 
the wayes paths and passages to the same with full liberty 
for the said Arthur Coster to builde and erect such houses, 
outhouses, and other buildings as may be necessary upon the 
saide waste ground. The said Arthur Coster paying an 
annual rent of ten pounds for the aforesaid premises. 

Signed Arthur Coster 

AVitnesses 

William Powlett 
Hen: Lawrence 

In the next deed we find that the house called the Cupiloe 
and always so named in Ashton tax records is built. It stood 
by the river-side not far from the spot where at the present 
day the archway under the railway line gives access to 
Nightingale Valley. Meantime Sir Hugh Smyth, Kt. and 
Bart., had died, and given place to his son and heir. Sir John 
Smyth, Bart. 

1684, August loth: 

This Indenture between Sir John Smyth of Long Ashton, 
Barroriett of the one part and Talbot Clerke of Puttney in 
the county of Surrey Esq. of the other part, 

Witnesseth that the said Sir John Smyth for and in 
consideration of the sum of five pounds seven and sixpence 
paid to him in the name of a fine and also for the yearly rent 



76 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

hereafter expressed hath demised, granted and to farme letten 
to the said Talbot Gierke all those new erected buildings 
situated att the lower end of the Slade called Stoaklie Slade 
and adjoyneth to the river side there, called by the name of 
the Cupeloe with all appurtenances to the same belonging. 
As also all the Quarries called by the name of the Stoaklie 
Quarries and all that quarrie lying in the Slade with liberty 
to digg and quarrie for stone and the stone so quarried to 
carry away — and hberty to build all such further houses or 
outhouses as shall be necessary. Always reserved to the said 
Sir John Smyth all timber and timber trees, woods and under- 
woods groweing upon the said premises, and also reserved a 
sufficient way through the said half acre of ground unto the 
river side with free liberty of ingress, egress and regress for the 
said Sir John Smyth and his servants To have and to hold the 
above named premisses for the term of twentie one years 
paying and yielding annually the sum of ten pounds. And 
also the said Talbot Gierke undertaketh for himself and his 
workmen that neither he nor they shall kill, shoote, catch, 
take or destroy any of the game of the said Sir John Smyth 
as namely deere, hares, pheasants, partridges or wild fowl 
with gunns, netts, setting dogs or otherwise howsoever 
belonging unto his Royaltie of Hartcliff cum Bedminster and 
his several manors lying in Long Ashton or elsewhere without 
the leave and license of the said Sir John Smyth 

Signed Talbot Gierke 

Witnesses, Ed: Flower 
Bryan Wade 
Tho: Gostwicke 

No further evidence concerning the Gupiloe is forthcoming 
until the year 1719-20, when we have two documents which 
tell us that Sir John Smyth, being unable to obtain the rent 
due to him for the Gupiloe, is compelled to distrain for it. 

1719-20. January i8th. 

An account of goods distrained for rent due to Sr. John 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



77 



Smyth for the Cupilo in Long Ashton in the County of 
Somerset lately belonging to Sr. Peter Floyer and John 
Huggins Esq. there being three year/- and a half's rent due 
Michaelmas last past which is thirty five pounds. The said 
goods being appraised this 23rd. day of January 1719-20. 
by us whose names are under written being sworn to appraise 
the same by Mr. Saunders Constable of the Hundred. 



Imprimis, ten barels of bone ashes valued at . . L3. os. od. 

Item, the mill for grinding clay . . . . . . L3. os. od. 

Item a tun and a half of cast iron . . . . . . L6. os. od. 

Item, a shot tub and barel 6s. od 

Item, two wrought iron bars 9s. od. 

Item, two tubs 4s. od. 

Item, the bottom of the furnace and stuf round 

the works which have sum lead in it . . L3. os. od. 

Item, old wrote iron 3s. 6d. 

Item, a Grine Stone and Turner .. .. .. 3s. 6d. 

Item, two scale boards and sceives 2s. 6d. 

Item, one table board 7s. od. 

Item, one tub 2s. 6d. 

Item, two beds and the things belonging thereto Li. 15s. od. 

Item, two pair of Bellows Li. 5s. od. 

Item, a Beam and Scales and Old Iron . . . . 15s. od. 

Item, two lead cisterns L4. los. od. 

The maker of William West 

J. Watkins 1719. 



Sold the above goods to Mr. Hobbs of Bristol for which I 
had L25. 3s. 6d. 

Feb. 17th. 1719-20. 

Know all men by these presents that I Sr. John Smyth of 
Long Ashton in the County of Somerset Barrt. have made, 
ordained, constituted and appointed and in my place and 
stead putt Robert Prigg and Samuel Paul of the same place 
yeomen my true and lawful attornies for me and in my name 



78 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



and to my use to aske, requier, demand and receive Five 
pounds for half a year's rent due to me at Ladyday last for 
certain buildings called the Cupilowe with the Quarries and 
lands belonging scituate within the parish of Long Ashton 
aforesaid and on payment thereof to give an acquittance or 
other discharge for the same and for non-payment thereof 
for me and in m}' name to enter into and upon the said 
Cupilowe and premises and possession thereof for me and in 
my name to take, and further to do and exercise such other 
acts and things as shall be necessary and expedient in the 
premisses ratifying and hereby confirming all and whatsoever 
my said attornies shall lawfully do in the premisses. In 
witness whereof I have hereunto sett my hand and seal this 
fourth day of April in the year of our Lord 1720. 

John Smyth. 

Signed sealed and delivered (the paper being lawfully 
Stampt) in the presence of William Bennett, David Dyer. 

With this instance of the mutabihty of human affairs our 
documents concerning the Cupiloe and the north or Stokeleigh 
part of the woods come to an end, and we must turn our 
attention to the south side, called Burwalls. 

Burwalls. 

No early records remain to tell the history of Burwalls 
from the time of the suppression of St. Katherine's. It passed 
with the site of the hospital, which was granted in 1587 to 
Edward Herne and John Nicolas, who sold it in 1588, to 
Henry Neville, Esq., lord of the Manor of Bedminster, whose 
grandson sold it to Sir Hugh Smyth, Knt., in 1605, from 
which time it remained with the Ashton Court estate. 

1621, Sept. 30th. 

Indenture of this date between Sir Hugh Smyth Knt. and 
Arthur Tanner of Long Ashton, yeoman. 

Witnesseth that Sir Hugh has granted to Arthur Tanner 
one close of pasture or woodey grounde called Burwalls 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



79 



contayning eight acres more or less situated at the east end 
of Aishton Doune late in the occupation of one John Robinson 
deceased and one half acre of pasture called Smyth's half 
acre lying in Mearns in Long Aishton To have and to hold 
the same to Arthur Tanner and his heirs for the term of four 
score and nine years if the said Arthur and Stephen and 
Thomas Tanner his sonnes shall soe long live. 

Paying the sum of twenty shillings yearly and suite to the 
court of Sir Hugh Smyth 

Yeven the day and year above written 
Heugh Smyth 

On the back is written Arthur Tanner's lease of Bur walls. 
It was of St. Katherine's land, but they are to do suite of 
courte to the Manor of Long Ashton, and the half acre was of 
Water Smythe's land. 

In our next deed we find the first reference to the Scarlet 
Well, a stream which rises in a cavern near the summit of 
Burwalls cliff, flows down to the level of the railway line, 
under which it passes and discharges itself into the River 
Avon. William Wyrcestre gives us a description of it as it 
appeared in his day. ^ 

" Scarlet Well is the beautifully clear stream which flows 
from the cliff on the opposite side of the river in the estate 
of Leigh, and it is in height, in the upper part of the rock on 
the Leigh side, twelve feet (above the river)." 

I am indebted to the Rev. C. S. Taylor for this trans- 
lation. I forbear to inflict the Latin. At the present day 
the name Scarlet Well is somewhat of a puzzle, as the water 
is sparkling and clear, showing no trace of colour. In former 
times it may have flowed through deposits impregnated with 
iron which have since disappeared, and which certainly 
might have given the water a sanguine hue, or it may have 
.^',ained its name from the colour of the rocks over which it 
^ Dallaway, p. 54. 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



cascaded, which even now where they are not concealed by 
the ivy present after rain a distinctly ruddy tinge. In 
building the mill, of which the following deeds tell us, these 
Tocks were probably to some extent cut away. 

1649, Aug. 27th. 

Articles of agreement of this date between Sir John Smyth 
Bart, and Jeffrey Pinnell of the city of Bristol, Linendraper, 
as follows. Imprimis, that Sir J. Smyth doth demise, grant 
and to ferme lett unto the said J. Pinnell all that well or 
fountaine of water situate in the parish of Long Ashton at 
the lower end of a ground called Burrow Walls now in the 
tenure of one John Mayne the elder commonly known by the 
name of the Scarlet Well, with a sufficient way to go to the 
said well from Rownam, the said way to be made and 
maintained at the proper cost and charge of the said J. 
Pinnell. To have and to hold the said well for the term of 
.99 years. Paying annually the sum of forty shillings. 

Item, Sir J. Smyth doth also grant to the said J. Pinnell 
the revercon of all that peice of meadow or pasture lying 
above the said well now in the occupation of the said John 
Mayne the elder being part of a ground called Burrowalls 
and now held by the said John Mayne by copy of court roll 
for the term of his life and the life of John Mayne his son. 
To have and to hold the said peice of meadow unto J. Pinnell 
and his heirs from and immediately after the death of John 
Mayne and of John his son, for so many years as shall make 
up fourscore and nineteen years from the date thereof, 
together with a sufficient way for horse or footmen from 
Leigh Downe to the said well paying yearly the sum of three 
pounds. 

Item, it is agreed also that at the end of three years the 
said J. Pinnell if he think fit shall be at liberty to vacate and 
deliver up the said premisses to Sir J. Smyth, but if he shall 
decide to continue to hold and enjoy them that then he shall 
be obliged to build, erect and sett up on some part of the 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 8i 

premisses one fair water gritt mill and the same so built to 
repair and mantain at his own proper cost. 

Jeff. Pinnell. 
Witnesses ' 

Francis Pinnell. 

Fra. Carrington. 

1699, Dee. 12th. 

Indenture of this date between Sir John Smyth Bart, and 
Jeffery Pinnell of the city of Bristol linendraper. Witnesses 
that Sir John Smyth doth demise, grant and to farm lett to 
the said J. Pinnell all those new erected buildings which are 
already built and sett upp or which may hereafter be sett 
iipp by the said J . Pinnell at a certain place commonly called 
the Scarlet Well lying by the river side running from the 
-city of Bristol and now used and converted to a water grist 
mill with the stable and parcel of ground above the said mill 
hereafter mentioned (that is to say) from the Rock by the 
Stable to the point of a rock that runnes out into the river 
below the house, being in length facing the River 140 yards, 
;and from high water marke upp the hill being the south part 
thereof 94 yards and at the topp from Rock to Rock being 
the south-west part thereof 94 yards and from the topp down 
to the river being the north-west part 94 yards as also a 
sufficient way to go from the downe called Ashton downe or 
hill and from Rownam to the said Mill. Yeilding and paying 
annually to Sir John Smyth and his heirs forty shillings. 

Jeff. Pinnell. 

Witnesses 

Sam. Stokes 
Henry Eastmont 
Fra. Carrington. 

We hear no more of the mill driven by the waters of the 
Scarlet Well until the construction of the Port and Pier 
Railway a century and a half later. 

7 

^VoL. xxxvi. 



82 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



We next come to a series of documents dealing with the 
Httle known chapel which Collinson tells us stood together 
with a hermitage adjoining northward of the passage house 
at Rownham Ferry. I think it possible that parts of the 
chapel may exist in the v/alls of the cottage which stands 
behind the railway line north of the house called the New Inn. 

1598, March 9th. 

Indenture of this date between WiUiam Clerk of Mynchen 
Barrowe, Som. Esq. and John Gostlette of Long Ashton^ 
sayler. 

Witnesses that William Clerk doth demise, graunt and to 
ferme lette unto John Gostlette, all that tenement or cottage 
some tyme a chappell with the curtilages thereunto adjoyn- 
inge and belonginge and also one garden or orcharde and one 
Close of pasture grounde thereunto likewise belonginge 
containing by estimacion one acre or thereabouts be yt more 
or less, with all commons profitts and commodities thereuntO' 
belonginge. All which premisses are situate, lying and being 
in the parish of Longe Ashton and nowe or late were in the 
tenure of one Katherine Berkensall widdowe. To have and 
to hold the said premisses for the term of fower score and 
nineteen years yf he the said John Gostlette, William 
Gostlette his sonne and John Dagge the sonne of Johane 
Gostlette wief of the said John Gostlette or any of them sO' 
long shall live. Yeilding and paying yearly the sum of six. 
shilHngs and eight pence. 

Johis. Gostlette, his marke. 

Witnesses 

Richard Halswel 
William Olliver. 

William Clerk was the owner of Barrow Court, which had 
been granted him by Henry VIII. He had also acquired 
the greater part of a small manor in the parish of Ashton 
called Ashton Theynes by purchase from Christopher Kenn. 
His son Christopher Clerk sold it in 1603 to Sir Hugh Smyth . 



An Account of THE: Leigh Woods: 



83 



Knt. The chapel cottage at Rownam formed part of this 
manor. 

1620, Oct. 27th. 

Indenture of this date between Sir Hugh Smyth Knt. and 
Ehzabeth Tanner daughter of Arthur Tanner late of Long 
Ashton deceased. Witnesses that Sir Hugh Smyth hath 
granted to her all that cottage sometyme a chappell with the 
curtilage thereunto adjoyning contayning one acre or there- 
abouts late in the tenure of one John Goslet To have and to 
hold the same to the said Elizabeth for the term of fourscore 
and nyneteen years. Paying yearly the sum of eight shillings 
and sixpence and suite to the courte of Sir Hugh Smyth twice 
a year at his courte of Aishton Thaynes. And the said 
Elizabeth doth undertake to do all needful reparations to the 
said premisses for which purpose it shall be lawfull for her to- 
have sufficient houseboote, hedgeboote and fierboote to be 
taken, spent and bestowed in and uppon the said premisses 
and not elsewhere. 

Sealed in the presence of 

William Prowse 
Thomas Myehell 
Endorsed, Elizabeth Tanner's counterpart for the 
Chappell at Rownam. 

1642, March 29th. 

I, Thomas Start of London maryner and Elizabeth my 
wife formerly Elizabeth Tanner daughter of Arthur Tanner 
deceased late of Long Aishton. For the sum of L20 paid us 
by John Mayne of Long Aishton shippwright and Agnes his 
wife have granted unto them all the tenement or cottage 
formerly a chappell for the residue of the term for which we 
hold it by lease from Sir Hugh Smyth deceased. 
Signed and sealed in the presence of 

Roger Chambers 
Thomas Tanner. 



§4 Transactions for the Year 1913- 

1642, Aug. i8th. 

On the back of the last appears the following : 
I, John Mayne of Long Aishton, shippwright, assignee of 
the within demised tenement doe hereby surrender and yield 
Tip into the hands of the Right Worshipful Florence Smyth, 
widowe, now Ladye of this tenement the same covenant 
granted and all the estate and term hereby demised, to hold 
to her and her assigns for ever. 

Signed, John Mayne his mark. 
In the presence of Jo. Herault and John Edwards. 

1642, Nov. nth. 

Indenture of this date between the Righte Worshippful 
Florence Smyth of Long Ashton in the county of Somerset 
widdowe and John Mayne of Long Ashton, shippwright, 
Agnes his wife and John Mayne their sonne. Witnesses that 
the said Florence Smyth for and in consideration of a 
surrender of the cottage hereafter demised which was held 
for the term of 99 years determinable on the death of 
Elizabeth Tanner and for the sum of L14 to her in hand paid 
by the said John Mayne the elder, hath demised, graunted 
and to ferme letten unto the said John Mayne, Agnes his wife 
and John Mayne their sonne, All that tenement or cottage 
sometyme a chappell with the curtilages thereunto belonging 
and also one garden or orchard and one close of pasture 
ground thereunto also adjoyninge, conteyning by estimation 
one acre or thereabouts with all commons, profitts and 
commodities thereunto belonging All which premisses are 
situate, lying and being in the Parrishe of Long Ashton afore- 
said and late were in the tenure of one John Goslett and nowe 
are in the holding of one John Paradice. To have and to 
hold the said premisses to John Mayne the elder for the term 
of his natural life, with remainder, after his decease to Agnes 
his wife for the term of her natural life, with remainder, after 
her death and that of her husband to John Mayne the younger 
their sonne, for the term of his natural life. Yeilding and 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 

paying annually the sum of six shillings and eightpence of 
lawful money of England and doing suite to the courte of the 
manor of Ashton Thaynes. 

Signed, John Mayne his marke. 
Witnesses, Tho. Evered. 

Jo. Herault. 

From this time forward we hear no more of the chapel 
cottage. Our next deed takes us back to Burwalls. 

1649, March 3rd. 

Indenture of this date between Stephen Tanner of Long 
Ashton clothier, one of the sonnes of Arthur Tanner, late of 
Long Aishton deceased and Thomas Tanner of London, 
maryner, one other of the sonnes of the said Arthur Tanner. 
After reciting Sir Hugh Smyth's lease of Burwalls of 1621, 
it goes on to witness that Stephen Tanner for the sum of 
Li 2 paid by Thomas Tanner sells to him for the rest of the 
unexpired term the lease granted to their father by Sir Hugh. 
Witnesses, 

William Mines, 

The mark of Pope Playsterer and John Hart well. 

1649-50, Feb. 14. - 

Deed of sale between Thomas Tanner of Shadwell in the 
parish of Steponheath alias Stepney in the county of 
Middlesex maryner and Robert Simpson of Shadwell yeoman. 

Witnesses that for the sum of £50 Thomas sells to the 
said Simpson all his household goods whatsoever including 
Sir Hugh Smyth's lease of Burwalls made to Arthur Tanner. 

After this by some means or other the lease falls into the 
hands of John Mayne, who already held the Chappell cottage. 
I have not been able to find the deed of transfer from Robert 
Simpson. 

1651, July 16 : 

Indenture of this date between Thomas Pigott Esq. of ^ 



36 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Long Asht on, Florence his wife and Hugh Smyth Esq. of the 
■one part and John Mayne of Long Ashton, shippwright, Ann 
his now wife and John their sonne of the other part, 
witnesseth that in consideration of the surrender of the 
lease of 1621 and for the sum of £7, T. Pigott, Florence and 
Hugh have granted zo John Mayne, Ann and John all their 
close of pasture or woody ground called Burwalls and the 
half acre called Smyth's half acre but alwaies reserved out of 
this demise all tymber and tymber trees growing uppon the 
said premises. Paying yearly twenty shilhngs and suite of 
courte to the manor of Long Ashton 

Witnessed by Francis Vincent 
Tho: Everard. 

Memorandum on the back : 

The within mentioned half acre of pasture was long before 
the ensealing hereof exchanged for half an acre of meadowe 
lying in the east moore at a place there called Underbill 
belonging to a tenement no we in the possession of John 
Saunders called Hunt's house. 

1686, Oct. 25th. 

Indenture of this date between Sir John Smyth Bart, and 
John Maine the younger of Rownam. 

Witnesses, that Sir John Smyth grants to John Maine all 
those two cottages or dwelling houses with two little garden 
splotts thereunto belonging the one of them now in the 
tenure of the said John Maine and the other late in the 
occupatoon of Anthony Feild deceased together with all 
outhouses, ways, watercourses etc. all which premisses are 
situate at Rownam and lieth neer the River side there. To 
have and to hold the same for 99 years if the said John Maine, 
Cisly Maine now wife of the said John Maine, Edward Mayne 
and Deborah Mayne sonne and daughter of the said John 
Mayne or any or either of them so long shall live. Paying 
yearly the sum of five and twenty shilhngs and doing suite 



An Account' of the Leigh Woods. 



87 



unto the courte of the said Sir John Smyth for his manor 
of Ashton Lyons twice a year. 

Signed, John Maine Junr. his mark. 

Witnesses, 

Mary Flower 
Susannah Mathews 
Edw. Flower. 

This is the last deed having to do with Burwalls and its 
adjacent houses. We find nothing more about it until the 
nineteenth century sale to the Leigh Woods Land Company. 
The cottages here dealt with stood on the site of Clifton 
Bridge or Rownam railway station. 

In the foregoing account of Stokeleigh we have arrived 
at the year 1684. No further deeds concerning it exist until 
about a hundred years later. In the meanwhile Sir John 
Smyth was dead, as was also his son and heir, Sir John Smyth 
the second, whose brother-in-law. Sir Jarrit Smith, Bart., was 
now, with Edward Gore, Esq., lord of the Manor of Ashton. 
This document is a letter written to Sir Jarrit by a Bristol 
worthy, Mr. Samuel Worrall ; it is dated 

1772, Dec. loth 

Merchants' Hall, Bristol 

Sr. 

The Committee of this Society having lately taken a view 
of the River and the Quarrys, found it necessary, for the 
benefit of the Navigation to order that one of the Quarrys 
which this Society hold under you should be worked and 
that a large single Rock, commonly called the Shaking Rock, 
should be taken away, so low that a tow line may with ease 
be thrown over it ; there being a great necessity for strength 
in that place to hale off the ships from the opposite shore on 
which the force of the current constantly throws them, but 
the Committee have been informed that sometime ago when 
the Quarrymen were working at the Quarry and Rock abpve^ 
mentioned, they were forbid by your orders , and they 



88. Transactions for the Year 1913. 



therefore decline working there again ; the Committee 
therefore ordered me to write to you on the subject and to 
acquaint you that it is not intended to remove the Shaking 
Rock quite away and therefore destroy the boundaries of 
your Manor (which they understood to be your objection) 
but only to reduce it so low that it may not be an impediment 
to the towing of Vessels in that part of the River, and they 
will leave it in such a state that it may answer all the purposes 
of a boundary ; And with respect to the Quarry care will be 
taken that it shall be worked in such a manner as not to 
occasion any inconvenience to your Manor, but only to 
render the Navigation of the River more easy. It will be 
very acceptable to the Committee to have a line of approval 
from you, that the Workmen may be satisfied. 
I am, 

Your most obedient servt. 

Sam: Worrall 

To Sir Jarrit Smith Bart. 
Long Ashton. 

The Shaking Rock must have stood by the second tunnel 
from Clifton Bridge Station. 

Mr. Worrall was Clerk to the Merchant Venturers, having 
succeeded Mr. Thomas Fane in 1757, about the time he 
succeeded to the Earldom of Westmoreland. Worrall was a 
lawyer, became a partner in a local banking firm in 1766, and 
acquired considerable wealth. Worrall Road, Clifton,, 
commemorates him. In 1786 he was dismissed from office 
by the merchants for using disrespectful language to Mr. 
George Daubeny. The vacancy was filled by the appointment 
of Mr. Jeremiah Osborne, who died in 1798. Sir Jarrit 
Smith's reply to the Merchants has not survived. 

We now reach an interesting bit of local history, namely 
the beating of the bounds of Abbots Leigh, which marches 
for a considerable distance with Long Ashton. 

A letter from W. Barrett, the Bristol historian, to ^Sir 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 

John Hugh Smyth, son and heir of Sir Jarrit, announcing, 
the perambulation of Wraxall, is also of interest. 

1788. 

Wraxal, Oct. 10: 1788 

Dear Sir, 

You will excuse my enclosing this notice in a Letter 
to you, but as it was necessary to inform you of the occasion 
that Sr. Charles Bamfyld has appointed this Day for the 
purpose and Mr. Spenser might not possibly see you ; I took 
ye. liberty to do it myself ; and if you will please to let one 
of your servants give this notice to be read Sunday in the 
church of Ashton by the Clerk of your parish it will be doing 
ye business secundum legem. I should be glad to see you at 
Wraxal, when you ride this way, ye history begins now to 
confine me closely to it ; we are got to ye 300th page. I beg 
my compliments to Lady Smyth and am 

Most truly and sincerely 

Yours W. Barrett 

Notice is hereby given that on Monday Sennight the 20th 
of this instant there will be a perambulation of the parish of 
Wraxall in order to ascertain the Bounds of the said Parish 
and all whom it may concern may attend. Sunday 
I2th Oc: 1788. 

Note by Sir John Hugh Smyth Bart. 12th Oct: 1788^ 
notice was given in Ashton Church that Wraxal parish 
intended to perambulate their Bounds on Monday 20th Oct: 
that day I attended at Fayland and proceeded most part of 
the way with them (to Nailsea Heath). They began on the 
west side the gate leading to Mr. Whitehouses estate and 
proceeded after a narrow path thro' the Fern to a small combe 
on the hill and kept on the west side that combe to the 
Lipstone. 

We. gather from the account which comes next that 
Stokeley was in hand in 1788, and supplied timber and 
firewood. . ■ 



■90 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



James Abbots acct. of Wood sold by him at 
Stokeley 1788 
To Cash received of Mr. Blannin for 8 ton 19 cwt. 

of Boat Timber at £1 5 per ton .. .. £11 3 9 
To ditto of him for 4 pieces of Timber measuring 

I7i ft. at I5d. per foot 113 

To Do: of Mr. Poultney for 700 double bond 

Fagots at 14 / per hundred . . . . . . 4180 

To Do: of him for 100 single bond Fagots at . . 50 
To Do: of Mrs. Daltera for 100 single bond do. 5 o 

To Do: of Samuel Reed for 200 do: at 5s. per 

hundred 10 o 

To Do: for 400 single bond Fagots myself at 5s. 

per hundred . . 100 

To Do: of Samuel Rumley for some small boat 

timber .... . . 5 6 

19 8 6 

On the other side follows : ' 
By Cash paid for making 1500 single bond Fagots 

at 2 / hundred i 10 o 

By do: paid for cutting 54 ton 5 cwt. of coalpit 

timber at is. per ton 2 14 3 

By do: paid for cutting out the Boat timber . . i i o 
By do: paid hauhng 9 ton 10 cwt. Boat timber 

at 3 /6 per ton i 13 o 

By do: paid for making 700 double bond Fagots 

at 3s. per 100 iio 

By do: paid H. Chaplin for 3000 Fagots at 7d. 

per 100 17 6 

By do: paid for cutting posts and poles for Sir 

J. H. Smyth's use 16 6 

By due to ballance 9 i5 3 

19 8 6 

Ballance rec'd 14: J any. 1789 

J. H. S. 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 91 

1799. 

^ Eleven years later the neighbouring parish of Abbots 
Leigh resolved on a perambulation/- and accordingly sent 
notices to Long Ashton. 

To the Parishioners of Long Ashton. 

Take notice that the parishioners of Abbots Leigh intend 

to perambulate the Boundaries of the parish on Tuesday the 

Twenty-second day of this instant October, begining at a 

place called the Hugstone on Leigh Down — at 10 o'clock in 

the forenoon, when and where all persons interested are 

desired to attend. By order of the Lord of the Manor 

Abbotts Leigh 

, F. T. Mansfield 

15, Oct: 1799. 

The following is in the hand of Sir John Hugh Smyth : — 
Saturday 19th October 1799 notice was sent to Tho: 
Crib, Clerk of the parish of Long Ashton, to be set up on the 
Church Door and also to give notice in the Church, that a 
perambulation was to be made for the parish of Abbots 
Leigh, on the Tuesday following the 22nd of October, at 
10 o'clock in the morning, to begin at the Hugstone. 

That day went on the hill to the place aforesaid where 
I saw the perambulation began, they went to the right 
i)oundary till they came about half way the ridge of stones 
leading towards Beggars Bush, when Fowler of Leigh aged 64 
informed them he went a perambulation for Leigh about 
50 years since and that they then went below the ridge of 
stones to the middle of the Combe, On that I went to them, 
Seeing they were at a stand, and informed them they were 
proceeding wrong, that I went round the boundary 41 years 
since and we then went after the middle of the stone ridge 
to a stone a little above Beggars Bush ; They still persisted 
and dug up a turf, I forbid them and told them it was 
actionable, as I claimed the Manor of Ashton to the centre of 
the ridge of stones on the north west side the combe, at 



92 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Beggars Bush I informed them that I remembered L. A 
cut on the lower side that bush, I informed them that from 
thence we proceeded to a yew tree leading towards Stokeley, 
where a psalm was sung and from thence proceeded to the 
corner of Leigh Wood, Mr. Dyer of Failand said he had twice 
attended at perambulations for Leigh and that both times 
they went the boundary as I showed them. Fowler, notwith- 
standing the above, and to whose advice they listened, led 
them from the arch below Beggars Bush, to a stone where 
Mr. Daniel fancied he saw the letters L. and the other side 
an A. I viewed the stone, but could see nothing of it, they 
went from thence to the corner of Leigh Woods next Stokeley, 
at that place Mr. Mansfield and Mr. Daniel proposed a. 
reference to settle the matter, I said I had no objection,. 
Mr. Mansfield said he should be here again in May and then 
it might be done. 

Persons who were at the Perambulation 17 May: 1758 

Moses Barns 

Will: Cambridge 

Mr. G. Pomroy met us at the ridge of stones and 
went to the corner of Stokeleigh 

John Howard 

Tho: Poultney 

J. Knight 

A Psalm was sung at ye. Lipstone and at the Yew Tree 
between Beggars Bush and Stokeleigh. 

We hear no more of the Leigh Woods during Sir John 
Hugh Smyth's time. He died in 1802, and was succeeded 
by the eldest son of his brother, Thomas Smyth, of Heath 
House, Stapleton, who became Sir Hugh Smyth, third 
baronet of the second creation. In his time all over the 
country an outcry arose against the depredations of footpads, 
travelling tinkers, gipsies, and the like, who harboured in 
the waste places and common lands which existed to an 
enormous extent in England, with the result that : 



I showed the boundaries 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



93 



1813. 

On May ist, 1813, was passed an Act of Parliament for 
■enclosing lands in the parish of Lon^ Ashton, reciting that 
there were within the said parish several commons and waste 
lands containing together 690 acres or thereabouts, and 
reciting that Sir Hugh Smyth, Bart., and William Gore 
Langton, Esq., were lords of the Manor of Long Ashton. 

For dividing these lands Young Sturge, of the city of 
Bristol, and John Brown, of Brislington, Gent., were 
appointed commissioners, who awarded to Sir Hugh Smyth 
for his right of common and all other his rights and interests 
in and upon the said waste lands in respect of his freehold 
•estates in Long Ashton, amongst other portions one piece of 
land, part of Ashton Hill, containing 84 acres or thereabouts. 

1824, 1829. 

Henceforward the greater part of these 84 acres of 
common land which lay between the former park wall and 
the Camps of Burwalls and Stokeleigh became part of the 
Leigh Woods, a smaller portion was thrown into the park 
and enclosed by a new wall. Sir Hugh Smyth dying in 1824, 
the Leigh Woods passed to his only brother, Sir John 
Smyth, Bart., who in 1829 sold 4 J acres for making an 
approach from the Leigh Road to the Suspension Bridge, 
which was not actually built until many years afterwards. 
The price of the land was fixed by a jury at 1,107. Sir John 
is pilloried by John Latimer in his Nineteenth-Century Bristol 
in the following words : 

1842. 

" In the autumn of 1842 public attention was called in 
the local newspapers to the destruction of the natural beauties 
of Leigh Woods and of the Somerset bank of the Avon by the 
proprietors of the property. From statements in the Press, 
it appeared that a portion of the ancient British camp had 
been converted into a potato garden ; the wood was let as a 



94 



Transactions for the Y^ear 1913. 



rabbit warren ; many of the large trees were cut down, and 
sylvan spots of eminent beauty, open to the public from time 
immemorial, were hedged off from pedestrians, who were 
insultingly driven away by the man who had taken possession 
of the place. All this was done, it was added, in order that 
the poor annual pittance of £20 sterling might fall into 
* coffers already overflowing,' and letters addressed to the 
owner of the estate were contemptuously ignored. On the 
river bank, the destruction worked on another property by 
pickaxe and blasting powder was playing still greater havoc 
with scenery of surpassing grandeur and beauty. A 
conservative editor remarked : ' Of the unintelhgent, 
unscrupulous and merely mercenary and vulgar character^ 
of the general invasion of which this fine scenery has long 
been the victim, there can be in every generous and feeling 
mind but one opinion.' The protests of the pubHc were, 
however, of no effect. A toll was demanded of everyone 
entering Leigh Woods, while on the other estate every large 
tree was cut down in the wood overhanging the river from. 
Stokeleigh Camp to opposite Cook's Folly. In July, 1849, 
the restrictions imposed upon pedestrians frequenting Leigh 
Woods were abandoned, and the boorish potato grower 
disappeared." 

1849, 1852. 

Latimer forgets to add that the disappearance of the 
potato man and abandonment of the toll coincided with the 
change of ownership of the Ashton Court estate, for Sir 
John Smyth died a bachelor on May 19th, 1849, 
sister Florence, widow of John Upton, Esq., of Ingmire Hall, 
Westmoreland, reigned in his stead. This lady was 
empowered by virtue of a royal licence dated June 28th^ 
1849, to take and use the surname of Smyth only. She died 
in 1852 (July 15th), and was succeeded by her grandson, 
John Henry Greville Upton, Esq., who was a minor, and 
immediately assumed the name of Smyth. 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 95 

1^54. 

" On September loth, 1854, a murder was perpetrated in 
Leigh Woods by a man named John WilHam Beale, who had 
Hved as butler with various families in the neighbourhood: 
His victim was a woman named Charlotte Pugsley, who had 
some time been a fellow-servant of his. On the day before 
the murder Beale, who had left the district to serve with a 
gentleman near Daventry, went to a country house at 
Freshford where- Pugsley was cook. She had previously 
given notice to leave, and departed with her companion for 
Bristol, informing the other servants that they were about 
to marry and emigrate (Beale had a wife living). In the 
evening of the following day they were observed walking 
together in the rabbit warren on top of Nightingale Valley. 
Next day Beale returned to his employer's at Daventry, with 
the woman's luggage, which he stated had belonged to his 
sister, whose funeral he had just attended. The body of 
Pugsley was found on the same day by one of Mr. Miles' s 
gamekeepers. The woman had been shot in the head, which 
was nearly severed from the body by a gash in the throat, 
and her remains had been thrown over the precipice over- 
hanging Nightingale Valley, but had rested on a ledge about 
twelve feet from the summit. It was not until nearly a 
fortnight after that Pugsley' s friends suspected that she was- 
the victim, and by that time the features were no longer 
recognisable. Identity was, however, established by means 
of the clothing, and by a peculiar tooth. No adequate 
motive for the deed was discovered. Beale's wife lived in 
the neighbourhood of Daventry, and the money possessed 
by Pugsley did not exceed a few pounds. The murderer was 
tried and convicted at Taunton Assizes in the following 
December, and was executed in January, 1858, refusing to 
admit his guilt even on the scaffold." — Latimer, Nineteenth- 
Century Bristol, p. 354. 

1857- 

On June 2nd, 1857, Greville Smyth came of age. On 



'96 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



February 24th of the same year he freed from the entail 
certain portions of his estate, including wastes, warrens and 
-commons left him under Sir Hugh Smyth's will, vesting them 
in his uncle, Arthur E. Way, Esq., to be held in trust. 

1859. 

On April 25th, 1859, Smyth was created a baronet, 
being thenceforth known as Sir Greville Smyth. In i860 he 
,^ave ;f2,5oo towards building the Suspension Bridge, provided 
it were increased from twenty-four to thirty feet in width. 
For this gift he was granted free passage for his carriages for 
"thirty-five years, which privilege he enjoyed to within a few 
years of his death. 

To continue the story of the Leigh Woods we must again 
turn to Latimer's invaluable History, where we find the 
following :— 

1862. 

During the autumn of 1862 an advertisement appeared 
in the local Press offering prizes for the best designs for 
laying out about 170 acres of Leigh Woods, including 
Nightingale Valley, for building, sites. It was subsequently 
announced that prizes had been awarded to two firms which 
had responded to the invitation, and in the spring of 1863 it 
was understood that approval had been given to a design 
which mapped out the locality for 850 houses, with an 
extensive hotel, and a bridge over the valley. The prospect 
of the destruction of the sylvan scenery occasioned deep 
regret amongst the public, and evoked bitter comments in 
the newspapers. After an interval, however, the Mayor 
(Mr. S. V. Hare) was informed that Sir Greville Smyth would 
spare the woods provided the Corporation undertook to lease 
them for fourteen years, at a rental of £500 per annum, and 
a ready -money payment of £300. The Mayor, in reply, 
suggested an extension of the proposed term, or a sale of the 
ireehold to the Corporation, but was informed that no 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



97 



alteration could be made in the terms. The Finance Com- 
mittee having declined to approve of a short lease of 
unproductive land at a rental of £3 an acre, the matter came 
to an end. In September, 1864, it was stated that Sir 
Greville Smyth had sold the woods to a London speculator 
for £50,000, and that the purchaser had sent down a plan of 
his intended operations. The plan showed some 800 
tenements, many of them of a poor character, several 
of them small shops, to be erected on the romantic site, 
thereby, of course, making it an eyesore to Chfton. As 
might be expected, the Mayor and others who saw it were 
appalled at the threatened desecration, and a private meeting 
was called to consider the offer of the speculator, who 
required ;£io,ooo for his bargain — that is, that the citizens 
should pay him £60,000. Suspicions as to ihe-bona fide 
character of the speculator's threats were, however, excited 
in many minds. In spite of the menaced devastation, it was 
■soon clear that the city would not subscribe the exorbitant 
amount demanded, and the next tidings of the projector 
were that he had failed to pay the first instalment of the 
purchase money, and had departed to speculate in parts 
unknown. It being apparent that the permanent preservation 
of the scenery depended solely on the public spirit of the 
citizens, the Leigh Woods Land Company was formed by a 
few generous-minded persons, with Sir George Thomas as 
chairman. The result we shall presently learn. 

1863. 

In June, 1863, a Bill authorising the formation of the 
Bristol and Portishead Pier and Railway Company received 
the Royal Assent. The construction of the line began in the 
tollowing year. Amongst the buildings removed during the 
laying out of the railway were two or three dwellings called 
in the old directories Chocolate houses, on the shore of the 
Avon, nearly opposite the Hotwell, which were amongst the 
favourite summer resorts of working-men and their families. 

8 ' 

Vol. XXXVI. 



98 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



These, of course, were our old friends the Scarlet Well mill 
and the remains of the smelting-house called the Cupiloe, at 
the foot of Stokeleigh Slade, which, having survived the 
industries formerly supporting their occupants, had come 
down in the world, and were finally swept out of it by the 
relentless tide of modern progress. 

In view of the negotiations with the Land Company, 
inquiry was made as to whether Sir Greville Smyth was 
absolute owner not only of the surface but also of the mineral 
rights of the land proposed to be sold, when it was discovered 
that though the surface was entirely his, a third part of the 
mineral rights were vested in his distant cousin, WilHam 
Henry Powell Gore-Langton, Esq., of Newton Park, Somerset^ 
inherited as part of his share of manorial rights from Edward 
Gore, Esq., grandson of Sir John Smyth, Bart., who had died 
in 1726. To get over this difficulty the following agreement 
was drawn up : — 

1865, Dec: 1st. 

Indenture of this date between W. H. P. Gore-Langton 
of the one part and Sir J. H. Greville Smyth, Bart., of the 
other. Witnesses that in consideration of the sum of £2,000 
the said W. H. P. Gore-Langton agrees to exchange his 
one-third share of the mineral rights of the land in question 
for the mineral rights under a piece of land on another part 
of the Ashton estate. 

This was duly signed and witnessed. 

The way was now clear for Sir Greville Smyth to conclude 
negotiations with the Leigh Woods Land Company. 

1865, Dec: 30. 

By Indenture of this date between Sir J. H. Greville 
Smyth, Bart., of the first part, the Leigh Woods Land Co. 
Ltd., of the second part and George Oldham Edwards of the 
City of Bristol, Banker, and Wilham Henry Harford of the 
same city. Banker, of the third part 



i 



An Account of the Leigh Woods. 



99 



Reciting, that Sir Greville Smyth had contracted with 
the said Company for the sale to them at the price of £40,000 
of the Leigh Woods, 

And reciting that the Company had paid to the said Sir 
Greville £5,000 part of the said purchase money 

And Reciting that it had been agreed that the payment 
of the sum of £35,000 the residue of the purchase money, 
should be secured in the following manner, that is to 
say 

£5,000 on or before the 29th of Sept. 1866 
£5,000 on or before the 29th of Sept. 1867 
£5,000 on or before the 29th of Sept. 1868 
and £20,000 on or before the 29th of Sept. 1875 

Witnesses that the said Sir Greville Smyth, by the 
direction of the said Company has granted unto the said 
G. O. Edwards and W. H. Harford 

All that piece of land, containing about 168 acres in the 
parish of Long Ashton, bounded on or towards the north by 
land of Sir William Miles, Bart. ; on or towards the south- 
west by the turnpike road leading from Bristol to Portishead 
and by a small strip of land awarded by the enclosure 
Commissioners for a Public Stone Quarry ; on or towards 
the south by a close of land, lately sold by the said Sir G. 
Smyth to the Bristol and Portishead Pier and Railway 
Company, and on or towards the east by the River Avon. 
Save and except that portion of the said land which had 
been sold to the Chfton Suspension Bridge Company. To 
have and to hold the said land subject to the rights of way 
belonging to the towing path along the River Avon, to the 
use of the said G. O. Edwards and W. H. Harford and their 
heirs 

Upon trust that the same might be a security for the 
payment of the said sums of money with interest at the 
times appointed. 

Then follow clauses giving the Company full powers to 
cut up the land into building lots, to sell it, to make roads 



100 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



over it, and to fell the timber, without any interference from 
Sir Greville Smyth or his heirs. 

Executed by the said Sir J. H. Greville Smyth, Bart., 
G. O. Edwards and W. H, Harford, and duly attested. 
Sealed with the seal of the Leigh Woods Land Co. Ltd., and 
executed by two of the Directors. Memorandum of seal 
being affixed, signed by two Directors, and countersigned 
by the Secretary. 

Of the 168 acres thus acquired about sixty were set apart 
for ornamental purposes and twenty for roads, leaving about 
eighty acres eligible for building lots, the ground rents of 
which it was anticipated would eventually bring in some 
^3,000 per annum. The last instalment of the purchase 
money due to Sir Greville Smyth was paid in 1875. 

The spade of the builder made short work of the camp 
and ramparts of Burwalls, which, with the rest of the woods 
on the south side of Nightingale Valley, gradually assumed 
their present aspect. The financial success of the Company, 
or otherwise, hardly comes within the scope of this paper. 

1892. 

On August ist, 1892, the foundation stone of a church 
to serve the now numerous inhabitants of the Leigh Woods 
as a place of worship was laid by Lady Sm3^th. This church, 
dedicated to St. Mary, was consecrated by Bishop Bromby 
on October i8th, 1893. 

No further step of importance took place in the history 
of Leigh Woods until the year 1909, by which time the land 
south of Nightingale Valley having been fully developed, 
the Company naturally directed its attention to the northern 
side, and rumours became rife that Stokeleigh and the land 
surrounding it was to share the fate of Burwalls ; a short 
road, as a matter of fact, was constructed close to the Leigh 
Court boundary wall, a continuation of which would have 
pierced through the heart of the remaining woods. 

At this juncture a gentleman residing in the woods nobly 



x\n Account of the Leigh Woods. ioi 

came to the rescue, and acquired by purchase the remainder 
of the estate, as witnesses the following Indenture : — 

1909. 

Indenture of Conveyance dated the 15th day of May 1909 
between the Leigh Woods Land Co. Limited of the one part 
and George Alfred Wills of the other part witnesses that the 
said Company in consideration of a certain sum of money 
paid to them by the said G. A. Wills sell and convey to him 
his heirs and assigns the estate above named. 

Its continuation sets forth Mr. Wills' generous intentions: — 

And whereas the said G. A. Wills is desirous of vesting 
the said hereditaments in the National Trust for Places of 
Historic Interest or Natural Beauty in order that the same 
may be held for ever for the benefit of the Nation in accord- 
ance with the National Trust Act of 1907 Now this Indenture 
witnesseth that the said G. A. Wills conveys unto the 
National Trust all those lands, hereditaments and premises 
containing by estimation 80 acres and 22 perches, formerly 
part of the Leigh Woods estate, situate in the parish of 
Long Ashton co. Somerset comprising Nightingale Valley 
and part of the hanging woods all which premises are 
delineated on the plan annexed To hold the same in 
accordance with the Provisions of the National Trust Act 
of 1907 for the reasonable benefit of the pubHc, subject to 
such regulations as the Council of the National Trust and 
the Committee of Management of the Leigh Woods constituted 
by an Indenture of even date herewith may from time to 
time think proper. In witness whereof the said G. A. Wills 
has hereunto set his hand and seal and the National Trust 
have caused their common seal to be affixed. 

Signed, sealed and delivered by the above named George 
Alfred Wills in the presence of E. J. Swann, J. P. 

and Henry Napier Abbot. 



102 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

A certain part of the sustentation fund for the upkeep 
of the woods was provided from shares in the Leigh Woods 
Land Co., left by a donor at the disposal of the Merchant 
Venturers' Society, for promoting the acquisition for the 
benefit of the public of these woods. The Society of Merchants 
are represented on the Committee of Management. 

With this most generous gift, which was duly lauded not 
only in the local but in the national Press, as indeed it 
deserved to be, having traced the descent of the Leigh Woods 
from Norman bishop to mediaeval knight, noted their transit 
from knightly hands to the keeping of Holy Church, seen 
them once more revert to the Lords of Ashton, whence 
through the channel of a modern Limited Company they 
passed into the custody of the liberal-minded donor who 
made the nation his debtor, I may fittingly bring this account 
to a close. 



BRISTOL ARCH^OLOGICAL NOTES FOR 1912.^ 



XIII. 

By JOHN E. PRITCHARD, F.S.A. 

In taking up the phrases one has seen so frequently used 
in recent times in our newspapers, such as the " City's 
changing aspect," or " Bristol's enterprise," it may be 
interesting to-night to investigate some of the events of 
the past year which the writers had in mind, as well as 
other statements connected with our local history which 
need the light of careful consideration and correction. 

An eminent eighteenth-century writer once said that : — 
" Those who have declared themselves of a particular 
opinion, cannot bring themselves to think they could 
possibly be in the wrong ; consequently they cannot 
persuade themselves of the necessity of re-examining 
the foundation of their opinion." 

Though this was, I believe, written from a political 
standpoint, somehow I think it just suits our case ; and in 
venturing to take the latter half of this sweeping assertion 
first, I venture to hope — nay, I am confident — that after 
looking at some recent statements carefully and comparing 
them with hard facts, we shall find that after all there will 
be a ready admission of the inaccuracies pointed out, 
followed by an effort to set them right. In Bristol we should 
at least prefer fact to fiction. 

But before referring to those matters, let me take some 
other events which have occurred during the past year. 

The first note of alarm occurred about a year ago, when 

1 Read at the Bristol Evening Meeting, February 3rd, 191 3. 



104 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

I heard from one of the Trustees of Ridley's Almshouse, ^ 
which is situated at the corner of Milk Street and Old King 
Street, that the city had acquired a strip of their land for 
necessary street widening upon which still stands one of the 
two remaining Watchmen's Boxes in this city, known, 
as some are aware, as " Charlies' Boxes." {See illustration.) 

To us in Bristol accustomed to the guardianship of a 
police force second to none in England, it is difficult to 
realise the state of things which existed in the old days and 
nights of watchm.en, when these curious boxes were necessary, 
and no member of this Societj^ can, of course, remember the 
quaint, if sometimes contradictory, cry recorded to have 
come from these old fellows when on their rounds, such 
as : — 

" Past one and a cloudy night ; " 

or 

" Two o'clock in the morning, a fine frosty night." 
Many anecdotes exist about these old characters, and 
relating to the watch box that used to stand nearly at the 
top of the ascent leading from College Place to Brandon Hill 
more than a century ago, it is said that : — 

" One night, about eleven o'clock, two young gentle- 
men were returning from dinner at Clifton, when passing 
the watch box they discovered ' Charley ' inside as fast 
asleep as Somnus, his lantern, as usual, hanging by his 
side. They quietly closed the door and fastened it 
outside, and then, giving the box a heave with their 
shoulders, they sent it rolhng down the hill on its side, 
Charley inside revolving with it, and coopered up as if 
in a cask. The civic authorities were very irate at the 
offence, though the old watchman, rolled in his seven- 
fold great-coat, received no hurt. A reward was offered 
for the discovery of the perpetrators, and posted on all 
the watch boxes, but to no purpose — the secret was kept." 

1 Sec Trans. B, and G. ArcJi. Soc, \o\. xxxii. p. io6. 



Bristol Arch.5:ological Notes for 1912. 105 

In reviewing the subjects of the year, there is hardly time 
to touch upon the history of such an old-v/orld topic as this, 
and I will leave it for one of our members to thrash it out. 
It will form a most interesting paper for another session. 
But just let me say that local history records a very 
unsatisfactory state of things during the eighteenth century, 
as up to the year 1730 there were only twelve night watchmen 
employed for the protection of the residents of this city. 
A century later, in 1832, the Corporation established some 
day constables in addition, twelve in number, the night 
watching still remaining in. the hands of the " Old Charlies." 

These guardians,' of course, took this nickname from 
Charles I, as the " Bobbies " or " Peelers " did from Sir 
Robert Peel. 

When the police force was established in 1836, with 
a total of two hundred and thirty-two men, the old watch 
boxes became useless as such, and many of them were 
demolished, but some got merged with adjoining property, 
whilst others were rented by small traders for green-grocery 
stands, snuff and cigars and stationery, and one even was 
used as a " monster tea shop." 

The following hst of the sites of the watch boxes is 
hardly likely to be complete, but we know that one existed 
at each of the following spots in the city ; it is quite possible 
there were others : — 

Wine Street. 

Union Street. 

Horsefair. 

St. Stephen's Avenue. 

North-west side of Drawbridge. 

The Butts, opposite St. Augustine's Church. 

Top of ascent from College Place to Brandon Hill. 

Top of St. Michael's Steps. 

Old Wool Hall, Thomas Street. 

Redcliff Hill, near Trough. 

Redchff Street, by the Dundas Wharf. 



io6 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



These are in addition to the one first alluded to, and the 
only other remaining box is in Brunswick Square, erected 
at the corner of Brunswick Chapel ground and York 
Street. 

As far as one can find out, they varied considerably in 
size, and some were even movable, as we have heard. 
Government red-tape measurements were unknown in those 
days. 

The " Old Charhes " were usually recruited from old 
servants, and often too infirm to work. But they were well 
clad in thick coats provided for them, and supplied with a 
lantern and of course the requisite staff for protection against 
assault. 

During the past year it has been noticed that certain 
building changes have been going on in Queen Square, a spot 
which is gradualh^ losing its old-world character and peculiar 
charm. 

We have been accustomed in crossing this space in the 
course of our e very-day hfe to look upon the ranks of houses 
■overlooking the green sward (made historic by the famous 
equestrian figure of William III) as immovable dwellings, 
typical of the famous days of eighteenth-century Bristol, 
when its wealthy merchants of those progressive times were 
in occupation. 

It is worth while remembering that this spot was known 
as the " Marsh," and possessed a " bowling green " up to 
the time that the first house was erected for the Rev. Dr. 
John Reade, Vicar of St. Nicholas in 1701. It was here that 
modern bricks were first used for building purposes, the 
entire square being finished before 1720. 1 

Owing to the great increase of trade at this period, the 
old Custom House on the Back was insufficient, and the 
Corporation agreed to erect a suitable building in the square. 
This is clearly depicted in probably the earliest view of the 
square, drawn by W™- Halfpenny, a well-known architect 




rhoto, Fred Marsh. 



STAIRCASE— No. 15 QUEEN SQUARE. 
(demolished.) 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. 107 

circa 1735, and is distinguishable by the bold pillars to the 
basement of the building. 

The Riots of 1831 were responsible for the loss of that 
important corner block, as well as of the Mansion House, 
which stood at the other end of the same side. As all the 
intervening houses were burnt at that time, it will be under- 
stood that those that now stand on the north side of the 
square are more modern than the rest ; this will be detected 
by members if they will take a ramble through that district 
and carefully inspect the entire scene. A great difference 
will be noticeable in the houses, and the designs vary 
considerably. 

There are very few double houses, but many that are 
left are excellent examples of the period. No. 10 being one 
of these. 

Then No. 16, occupied by Messrs. Grace Brothers for 
many years as offices, is a double stone-built mansion, with 
heavy moulded pediment and cornice, backing the flour 
mills on the Welsh Back. It stands at the corner of Mill 
Lane, formerly called " Ferry Avenue," which leads to the 
ferry-boat crossing to Redcliff Parade. 

Quite recently the houses adjoining — Nos. 13, 14 and 
15 — have been demolished, and upon that space a large 
addition to the mills of Messrs. Grace Brothers has been 
made. This is a distinct innovation to the square, though 
down in the south-west corner — but not fronting the 
green — is a new brick warehouse. 

These commercial developments entirely alter the 
architectural character of the square, but we can of course 
only bow to the march of commerce. 

The fine town residence. No. 15, recently demolished, 
was one of the few stately stone-built double houses, with 
striking elevation, and bold cornice and pediment ; and 
when this dwelling was doomed the fine staircase had 
to go. 

I am glad to be able to show you some views of this 



io8 



Transactions for the Year 1913 



grand interior fitment, ^ more especially as associated with it 
were two " secret cham.bers " on the first landing. They 
each measured 2 ft. 6 in. by i ft. 3 in., thus giving suffi- 
cient space for the admission of a human being. The 
chambers were arranged for by "hinging" the beautiful 
fluted pilasters to be seen in the illustration. I do not 
remember any similar " hiding-places " in old Bristol houses. 

This is undoubtedly one of the earliest instances of the 
use of Spanish mahogany for interior work in Bristol, for it 
was only then — 1712 to 1720 — coming into use owing to its 
cost. 

This house formerly contained some frescoes on plaster 
believed to be the work of Antonio Verrio (1639-1707). 
They were remioved and presented to the city some few 
years since by Messrs. Grace Bros. These represent " The 
Judgment of Paris," and " Achilles being supplied with 
inpenetrable armour, made by Vulcan," and they can be 
seen in the Architectural Court at the Museum. 

Two other double houses stood between Mill Avenue and 
Bell Avenue (formerly Bell Lane), Nos. 22 and 25, the latter 
brick-built, with stone dressings. 

But the greatest house in the square, and the finest 
architectural example, is without doubt No. 29, which is on 
the south side. This is also built of brick and stone. It 
is approached through its original wrought iron entrance 
gate of fine design with side posts, and the house is divided 
into five bays, four storeys high. The elevation is distin- 
guishable by the introduction of the three orders of 
architecture, the Tuscan, the Doric, and the Corinthian, 
superimposed, the entire range of windows being well 
planned. The ground and first floor windows have pedi- 
ments differing, and the keystones are all carved with 
" grotesque " mask heads ; a bold straight pediment sur- 
mounting the frontage, with small dormer windows inserted 
in the roof. (See illustrations.) 

^ By the courtesy of Messrs. Hancock & Co., of Park Street. * 



I 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. 109 

Number 32 on the same side is another double-fronted 
house, but apart from this one there are no other buildings 
of importance. 

Just in passing I should like to mention two houses in 
the city which possessed similar grotesque mask-head key- 
stones as the one first noticed. The first one stood in 
Trinity Street, College Green, close to the east end of the 
Cathedral, some few years since demolished, but the other 
still stands in Dowry Square, just at the foot of Hope Hill. 
Both these houses were brick-built in the same architectural 
style. 

That Bristol should not be destitute of places of rational 
amusement, wrote Barrett in 1789, a theatre was built by 
subscription, and an elegant Assembly or Music Room is 
-erected in Prince's Street." 

When our Society spent its summer meeting here in 1906, 
a visit to this room was included in the city itinerary. The 
building, though in jeopardy then, remained intact until last 
year, when the frontage and a good part of the body was 
destroyed. The site has yet to be cleared. There is little 
to be said of it beyond what most of us know. A grant of 
land was made by the Corporation in 1753 for its erection, 
subject to a fine/' and with this proviso, that they reserved 
the right of occupying the hall for six days " in every 
year. It was finished by the end of 1755, and a performance 
■of the Messiah was given in January, 1756, in the " New 
Musick Rooms." 

Its architect is not known, but the design has been 
attributed to William Halfpenny. 

This important building stood on the west side of 
Prince Street, and possessed a fine freestone frontage, 
with rustic basement. The approach was by a flight 
of steps, and the pediment was supported by four massive 
Corinthian columns, making a very effective appearance, 
the entablature within the pediment, set above a triple- 



no Transactions for the Year 1913. 



lighted window, bearing the most interesting motto, in 
letters of lead : — 

" Cur as Cithara tollit," 
which is understood to mean that " Music dispels care," or^ 
according to the old guide writers, " Music is a specific for 
care." (See illustration.) 

It is clear to us nowadays that with so many wealthy 
families living in the vicinity of Prince Street, in the middle 
of the eighteenth century, the social life of the community 
demanded such a room ; and Bristol consequently had 
then, what she does not possess to-day, an attractive 
regulation ball-room, where subscription dances were held 
fortnightly. 

Shiercliffe evidently thought this was of such importance 
to the commercial city of Bristol that he printed in his first 
Guide of 1789 a list of the " estabhshed rules " of the ball- 
room. They are most comprehensive and worth reading. 
Important civic events must have happened in this room, 
and great persons must have attended. Latimer tells us that 
a ball in honour of the Duke of York, brother of George III, 
was held here on 28th December, 1761, and we know also 
that Edmund Burke attended the annual meeting of the 
Anchor Society in that room on 14th November, 1774, when 
the Mayor and the two Sheriffs were present. 

The ball-room was a very handsome and lofty apartment,. 
90 ft. long by 45 ft. wide, and contained some beautiful 
moulded-plaster decorations at the end facing the entrance, 
beneath which were two doorways leading to the retiring 
rooms. 1 

It was well lighted by rows of segmental-headed windows 
on both sides, and below an excellent carved and panelled 
ceiling was a cornice of considerable strength in design. 
There was a gallery at the east end. 

As we are in Prince Street, a thoroughfare totally changed 
1 For an illustration see Transactions, vol. xxix. p. 24, 



"koto, F. Little. 

OLD ASSEMBLY OR MUSIC ROOM, PRINCE'S STREET. 
(demolished.) 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. iir 

in character during the last half century, let me remind those 
who appreciate early eighteenth-century architecture that at 
the south end of that wide street, on the west side, there 
still stand — who knows for how long three most interesting 
and typical houses, known as Nos. 66, 68 and 70. 

The view on the screen will instantly prove to you that 
I am not exaggerating the importance of these buildings. 
They are stately dwelhngs, and were erected on Corporation 
land, leases being granted, according to the city records, to 
John Becher (Mayor 1721), Henry Combe (Linen Draper^ 
Mayor 1740), and other merchants, who had agreed to build 
houses upon the site.- 

One feature about these houses is that they each carry 
armorial bearings upon a scroll-work shield on the tympanum 
beneath the pediment. Few of our old Bristol houses are so 
embelhshed, and it is interesting to retain the association. 

In visiting a house in Clifton some years ago, I was shown 
an interesting Carved Stone Chimney -Piece, which had been 
removed from a mansion either in Temple or Redcliffe 
Street. 

I was informed that the arms were those of a French 
count, and no suggestion to the contrary was of any 
avail. 

The chimney-piece may not be considered of the greatest 
interest, but it had been apparently in obscurity for many 
years in one of the old mansions in the city, whence it was 
transferred to a private residence on the hill, and it is now 
finally lost to Bristol. 

From the view I am showing it will be noticed that the 
chimney-piece is of two periods, and must have come from 
two distinct houses. We know part of its history, for the 
arms are those of the " Tallow Chandlers' Company," 
and this is the first instance I can remember of these 
being so used, though many cases are known of other 
companies. 



t:i2 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



The coat is of the Tallow Chandlers' Company, incor- 
porated 1463, but this unfortunately does not prove the 
man in whose house it was erected, as there was not any 
accompanying shield bearing a family coat, and only proves 
what so many members of a company or guild preferred 
doing, using their corporate coat instead of their paternal. 
Latimer says that this Company had a Hall here, but the 
locality of it is unknown. 

The blazon is, " Per fess azure and argent a pale counter- 
changed three doves of the second each holding in its beak 
an olive branch or. On esquire's helmet (so I read it) on 
wreath argent and azure a demi-angel (? a cherub) issuing 
from clouds proper, vested azure, wings expanded and 
■crined or, on his head a cap (? of the second, i.e. az.) 
thereon a cross patty of the third, holding a "dish argent 
glorified or, thereon the head of St. John Baptist 
proper " 

Such is Burke's blazon of the crest, which must have 
given the sculptor a fine display of his skill, and I should 
think has gradually dwindled away to what the photo says 
■of it now. ^ 

The usefulness of the correspondence columns of the 
Press has again been exemplified in archaeological matters 
by getting the ancient stone replaced in its original position 
on Redland Green. 

This has been done by the city authorities with the aid 
of old photographs and ordnance plans. 

There is no evidence as to its origin, and it is not 
considered to be megalithic, but it may have been a Roman 
boundary stone. 

The old courts and lanes dividing up the back paths and 
by-ways of the old city would make a very interesting 
study, and form a charming paper for one of our winter 
evenings. 

1 I am indebted to Mr. F. Were for his notes on this shield, j 



Bristol Arch/eological Notes for 1912. 113 

I am told that an old passage, formerly named " City 
Bow Alley," between Hillgrove Street, Kingsdown, and Gay 
Street, has just been altered by the^ authorities to " Gay 
Lane." This is undoubtedly a more convenient style, but 
the identification of the old place will be a very difficult 
matter to many in the future. 

Some time since a question was asked by a corres- 
pondent in one of the local papers as to the name of 
Johnny Ball Lane, but no one has clearly answered it 
as yet. 

In an old deed relating to the Grammar School lands for 
1731 it is called Johnny Balls Lane," and in 1734 to 1744 
"John a Ball's Lane." 

Probably some member may be able to throw further 
light upon that subject. 

A letter in the correspondence column of the Times and 
Mirror a few months ago called attention to the relics of the 
fortifications of the sieges of this city to be found on Brandon 
Hill. It shows once more how carefully our historic 
possessions are watched, and in the communication referred 
to it was urged that the solitary " weather-worn iron notice " 
was insufficient to indicate the considerable remains to be 
rstill seen on the hill. 

Of course, the Cabot Tower monopolises the principal 
attention of the public who go there, but I understand from 
the caretaker of the tower that in the summer months 
numbers of visitors are largely interested in tracing the 
lines of these fortifications. 

Another descriptive notice might with advantage be 
placed on the summit of the hill, and also upon the site of 
the " water fort," which was built on the edge of the rock 
overlooking the river below. 

The slide on the screen is taken from Seyer's Memoirs 
of Bristol, in which work will be found a good account of the 
fortifications. 

9 

Vol. XXXVI. 



114 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



The present simple notice is worded as follows : — 

REMAINS OF FORT 
PART OF THE 
DEFENCES OF BRISTOL 
DURING THE SIEGES 
1643-1645 

and is hardly fixed at the right spot to indicate the story. 

Whence came the Gateway at Arno's Casth, Brislington ? — 
sometimes called Black Castle — has many times been a«^ked 
during m}^ own time, and doubtless in days long before, but 
the answers have varied considerably, and no satisfactory 
result has accrued. 

At the present time the subject has cropped up in more 
definite, or may I say in more acute form, for in the spring of 
191 1 this property, long held by Mr. Clayfield-Ireland, of 
Brislington, was submitted to public auction, and secured by 
a firm of local antique dealers. After considerable and most 
commendable renovation and some additions, Arno's Castle 
with its grounds has been planned for business purposes, and 
is now occupied. 

The Gateway which formerly stood some way down the 
lane, just off the main road, has been recently taken down, 
and is now re-erected at the corner of the property, facing 
the main thoroughfare and the Tramway's Depot, about a 
quarter of a mile from the village of Brislington. (See 
illustrations.) 

The auction particulars referred to this masonry as 
" The Historic Carved Stone Gatewa\^" and stated that it 
was believed to have been one of the old city gates. 

In due course the buildings and grounds were opened to 
the public, and a Gttide to Arno's Castle by Stanley Hutton, 
has been sold to visitors and others. 

I have no intention of giving you a resume even of the 
history of this curious pile of slag, noticed by Horace Walpole 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. 115 

when he came to Bristol in 1766, as you can easily look up 
the few known facts in local guide books ; but to those who 
do not know its history, I may say thg^t it was built by one 
William Reeve, who appears, from what little is recorded,, 
to have been very much interested in the antiquities of this 
city. 

Just about his time many of the old buildings were being 
demolished in our midst, and he was then able to secure 
some of the relics, which he incorporated in his building 
schemes at Brislington. 

Now I wish to draw your critical attention to two or 
three paragraphs to be found in the Official Guide, and the 
first quotation is as follows : — 

Page 8 : " The interesting relics are of many architectural 
styles and periods, but chiefly of the 15th,, 
i6th and 17th centuries. Among them 
are some of supreme historical interest to 
Bristolians, notably the remains of the ancient 
gateways — Newgate, Lawford's Gate, and the 
Gate of Bristol Castle." 

" This last, the most interesting relic of all 
the Gates of Bristol, is, we are inclined to 
believe, the present entrance Gateway to the 
Castle and grounds now at Brislington." 
I will not now question the gateways Newgate and 
Lawford's Gate, though even they are wholly problematical, 
for when they were demolished no one probably cared for the 
stones, and no one knows where they went, but I wish to^ 
deal solely with the so-called 

Gate of Bristol Castle, 
I claimed in the paragraph quoted to be at Brislington. 
i Students of the period of the Civil Wars unfortunately 

know that no contemporary picture or plan of the castle 
exists. A small plan of the city, measured and drawn by one 
William Smith in 1568 (in the British Museum) is the earhest 
! in existence, and upon that the castle is shown, but no gate is 

i 



I 



ii6 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

visible. Several Dutch surveyors copied Smith's plan, but 
from them we get no help. We have to jump to the year 
1671 for our next plan, which is dated some years after the 
demohtion of the fortress. 

As no castle exists to-day, we have to assume the existence 
of one, and ask ourselves as to its destruction. The most 
reliable authority must again be Latimer, who has written 
so clearly on the period of the Civil Wars. The order for 
destruction was dated by the Protector December 28th, 
1654, but it was not until the end of 1655 that the work was 
completed after m^uch difficulty. 

The fortress was destroyed. It was then that the new 
direct thoroughfare through the site of the castle, now 
Castle Street, was formed, and a bridge was thrown over 
Castle Ditch, connecting the new thoroughfare with the 
Old Market. 

As this entrance to the city was too much exposed to the 
marauding elem.ent on the Kingswood side, " directions were 
given by the Council in December, 1658, for the erection of a 
gate in Castle Street, for the protection of the new approach 
to the city." 

An order also for a second gate, " at the farther end of 
Castle Bridge," was given in the following month. The 
•chamberlain superintended the workmen engaged, and items 
for v/ages occur in his books for many weeks. The gates, 
one of which was decorated with a carving of the arms of 
the city, and supplemented by a porter's lodge, were com- 
pleted in the following year " (1659). 

It is recorded that little more than a century later 
both these gates were taken down, for the Council, at a 
meeting in May, 1762, gave orders for the demohtion of 
■Queen Street Gate, Castle precincts. 

Castle Street was demolished later, in 1766. 

Just in passing it will be well to read what Latimer said 
about Newgate and Lawford's Gate : — 

" The gateway at Newgate was partially demolished 



Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1912. 117 

about the same time (1766), the gate itself, as well as 
two interesting mediaeval statues on each side of it, being 
removed. The figures were secured by Mr. Reeve, who 
placed them on the inner side of the entrance to ' Black 
Castle.' 

" At a meeting of the Council on the 8th July, 1769,, 
a committee recommended the removal of Lawford's 
Gate, and the purchase and destruction of three 
adjoining houses, by which ' a very convenient passage 
v/ould be there opened for persons, horses and carriages." 
The chamber ordered the work to be executed forthwith. 
The two ancient statues ornamenting the gate were 
secured by Mr. Reeve, who placed them on the outside 
of the entrance arch to ' Black Castle.' " 
It is interesting to recall the fact that these four figures 
were given back to the city by Mr. Clayfield-Ireland in the 
year 1898, and are now in the Architectural Court. ^ 

So far we thus see that Bristol Castle was destroyed by 
the end of 1655, that a new gateway at the bottom of 
Castle Street guarding the ditch was erected in 1659, 
afterwards demolished in 1766. 

We will now see what the old guide writers and others 
have to say. Shierchffe, who issued the first Bristol guide 
in 1789, a remarkably interesting volume for the time — 
only twenty-three years after the fortress was demolished, 
states in referring to Arno's Vale, near Bristol, that : — 

Here is erected the old gate which formrely was 
the entrance into Bristol Castle from the Old Market, in 
which are placed, in niches, two ancient images. These 
images, before their removal hither, stood on the outside 
of Lawford's Gate, which was taken down in 1767 " 
(really 1769). 

The three later editions of Shierchffe, 1793, 1805 and 1809 
repeat the statement. 

1 These are described by R. Hall Warren, F.S.A., in Pro:. Clifton 
Aniiq. Club, vol, vi. p. 23i. 



ii8 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



The series of guides by the Matthews family overlapped 
Shiercliffe's. The first, issued in 1794, was written by the 
Rev. George Heath, and contained this paragraph : — 

" After the demolition of the Castle, two gates were 
built for the inclosure of its Precincts, Castle Gate and 
Queen's Gate, .... When the Castle Gate was taken 
away and its materials were erected on a smaller scale 
at a gentleman's seat near the road to Brislington." 
The six later editions of 1797 to 1828 are practically 
identical, as far as this subject is concerned. 

The two following guide writers, Edwards and Sheppard, 
in all their editions simply copy Heath's description. 

The Rev. John Evans, in his four editions of Guides 
and Pictures of the City, 1814-28, follows the same 
description. 

Now I should like to quote from the first History of 
Bristol, written by William Barrett, published in 1789, and 
this is what we find under the date 1766 : — 

" Castle Gate taken down and removed by Mr. 
William Reeve, Merchant, to his seat at Brislington." 
The Rev. Samuel Seyer, in his Memoirs of Bristol, 
published 1821, refers to the subject in the most casual way. 
He says : — 

" When this gatehouse (Newgate) was taken down in 
1766, instead of being placed in some other conspicuous 
situation within the city, these statues were given to 
Mr. Reeves, who set them up on the gateway of his 
stables which he was building at Arno's Vale in the 
parish of Brishngton, where they are still (1822) to be 
seen." 

It is necessary now to review these extracts from city 
documents and other sources. 

(i) The great Castle of Bristol was doomed after the 
conclusion of the sieges, when the Corporation was ordered to 
destroy it. We know this was carried out by the end of 
1655. 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. 119 

Latimer carefully records this, and Barrett makes the 
clearest statement in these words : — 

" After Oliver Cromwell was proclaimed protector, 
orders were given for demolishfrig the fortifications of 
the Castle of Bristol, which was began the 3rd of January, 
1655, to be dismantled ; and in 1656 a new road was 
made into the county of Gloucester through the said 
castle ; a gate was erected 1659 ^^alled castle gate (in 
1766 removed), before this the common road was through 
Newgate into the county of Gloucester. 

" vSince the demolition of the castle two handsome 
streets have been built on its site, Castle-Street and 
Castle Green ; on the castle orchard without the sally- 
port have risen other streets, Queen-Street, etc. And 
Cromwell's levelling orders have been so well executed 
that few traces of this venerable structure are now to be 
seen, which has made such distinguished figure in history, 
and been the subject of so much contention." 

(2) Four years later, in 1659, after the new thoroughfare 
had been cut through the castle site, the Corporation erected 
a gate at the foot of Castle Street, as well as one in Queen 
Street. 

(3) These portals protected the Castle district for about a 
century, when the corporation took them down — Queen's 
Gate in 1762 and Castle Gate in 1766. 

(4) About that time lived one Wilham Reeve, an 
individual of some wealth, who was building at Brislington. 
He appears to have obtained the stonework of the Castle 
Street Gate in 1766, and removed it to his seat at Brislington. 

It is perfectly clear to me that all the writers who referred 
to the " Castle Gate " really meant the gate erected at the 
bottom of Castle Street in 1659, demolished 1766. 

That actual spot was known as the " Castle," and Millerd 
in both his plans, the small one of 1671 and the great finished 
plan of 1673, marks the entrance there as the Castle Gate." 
What can be clearer ? 



120 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



But herein lies the absurd statements and the neghgent 
v/riting of recent years. 

The gateway at Arno's Castle has been called both 
Newgate and Lawford's Gate, often enough, doubtless, because 
the figures from these gates had been secured by Mr. Reeve 
to ornament the entrance to his stables. 

There is absolutely no evidence that the gateways even 
went to Brislington. 

We find from this recent Guide to Arno's Castle, issued 
for trade purposes, to which I have referred, that the compiler 
has dubbed the entrance gateway the " Gate of Bristol 
Castle," v/hich is an absolute absurdity. 
He further says : — 

Barrett, the first of the many historians of Bristol, 
explicitly states that in 1766 ' Castle Gate was taken 
down and removed by Mr. William Reeve to his seat at 
Brislington.' " 
And again : — 

" Latimer, the greatest authority on Bristol history, 
tacitly confirms this, for in his annotated copy of 
Barrett's History he passes by the statement un- 
challenged." (See page 9 of Guide, lines 3 to g.) 
Why, I venture to think that the compiler of this Guide 
would be eternally offended if I even suggested that he did 
not know what Barrett and Latimer had written on the 
subject of the destruction of the castle and the Brislington 
gateway. 

He knows that the castle was destroyed by 1655, and he 
must have known that when Barrett spoke of the Castle Gate 
that that historian meant the gate at the foot of Castle Street 
to which I referred just now. Who could construe the 
facts otherwise ? 

It is not right to foist upon Latimer the responsibility of 
such an astounding statement. 

Tacit confirmation indeed I I am compelled to add that 
John Latimer has over and over again written to the Ipcal 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. 121 

papers protesting against statements made in the Press that 
the gateway was an old structure, and those who appear to 
take an interest in such matters and read the newspapers 
must know this. 

Personally I have never myself been able to accept the 
absurd theory of age, and always looked upon the gateway as 
composite work. In this opinion most of our architectural 
members agree. 

And to further summarise the facts, let me remind you of 
two things, that assuming Reeve did obtain the stonework 
of the gateway at the foot of Castle Street, you will have 
observed from the facts I have narrated and the dates I have 
given that he must have kept this at Brislington for fully 
three years without any knowledge of the intended demolition 
of Lawford's Gate, which was not ordered down until 1769 
(three years later), and which probably did not take place 
immediately. 

It is therefore evident that the gateway was specially 
designed and erected to receive the four statues, two from 
Newgate and two from Lawford's Gate, any time after the 
year 1769, for which he may possibly have utilised some of 
the old material. 

Finally, I should like to say that my friend Mr. Harold 
Brakspear, F.S.A., whose knowledge of mediaeval architecture 
is unequalled, has made an examination of the gateway. 
He had no hesitation in declaring it to be principally of 
eighteenth-century design, and of very light construction. 
He says he is convinced that it is of mixed v/ork, and that its- 
erection was not earlier than late eighteenth century, though 
there are some traces of earlier tooling. The city arms on 
the inner side are probably of seventeenth-century carving. 

As it stands at present, its size would not have conformed 
to the requirements of a city gate, and it certainly was no 
part of the gate of Bristol Castle. 

It is our duty as a Society to draw attention to these 
inaccuracies, these myths, and to demand their suppression. 



122 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

I now want to say something about the pile of modern 
buildings in Denmark Street, acquired by a firm of printers 
after the Red Maids School was removed to new quarters at 
Westbury-on-Trym. 

In the newspapers of April last we were informed of the 
opening of the business there, and that the building had been 
re-named with the new title of " THE Gaunts' House." 

Some letters of protest followed this statement, one 
naturally coming from the pen of Mr. Russell Harvey ; but 
as the ancient name of " The Gaunts' House " upon a modern 
brass plate is now to be seen affixed to the nineteenth-century 
building, it is certainly our duty, as members of this Society, 
to question the accuracy of this action. 

We in Bristol have had much experience of " historic 
myths," probably more than many other places, but with the 
■education of the present day, and the existence of a 
University in our midst, it is really inconceivable that such 
a mis-statement as the one I have pointed out could come into 
operation even for advertising purposes. 

In the first place, let me remind you that this structure 
in Denmark Street was built for a specific educational purpose 
as late as 1843, for housing the charity known as the Red 
Maids' School. When that school was transferred to its new 
home, in the autumn of 1911, the pile of buildings became 
void, nameless. How then can these modern debased Tudor 
buildings be suddenly created into a mediaeval house at the 
whim of twentieth-century folk ? Surely we are entitled to 
" historical accuracy " in this matter. 

Now the managing director of the printing house replied 
to Mr. Russell Harvey's letter, and I think it may be well to 
examine that contribution carefully and see firstly if there is 
any ground for the claim he puts forth. I accept his 
challenge and will adopt his text for my theme. 

To begin with, he quotes from Barker's History of St. 
Mark's or the Lord Mayor's Chapel, and as he praises the 
author for " much careful research," I presume he made the 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. 123 

necessary study of that volume in order to publish his review 
of it. 

The first paragraph in his letter reads as follows : — 

" Like the Boys' School it (the Red Maids' School) 
has occupied three different buildings, but, unlike it, 
the third still stands on the site of Gaunts' Estate." 
The second paragraph tells us that — 

The Red Maids continued in the occupation of the 
premises described until the year 1840, when the present 
extensive school premises, with a fine Elizabethan 
frontage to Denmark Street, and still on the site of the 
old Gaunts' Hospital and on the same spot as the 
previous school, were erected." 
The date given by Barker is hardly correct, but that does 
not matter. It should be 1842. 

The third extract, which is of the utmost importance to 
■the writer of the letter, was as follows : — 

Further, a provision of the will of Alderman John 
Whitson, the founder of the Red Maids' School, stated 
that the accommodation should be provided ' either in 
some convenient room in the new mansion house of the 
Gaunts or Hospital of Queen EHzabeth, or in such other 
necessary place.' " 
Upon this he, the managing director of the printing 
Ihouse, makes a definite statement ; — 

The history of the school shows that the mansion 
house was adopted by the trustees." 
These are remarkable extracts to quote from the said 
History, but from what source Barker got his information 
we are left to conjecture. 

" On the site of the Gaunts' Estate," 
" Still on the site of the old Gaunts' Hospital," 
are statements made within two pages of each other. 

Now shall we consider the third paragraph for a moment. 
The extract quoted was taken from Whitson's will, from 
which we see that he (Whitson) knew that Queen Elizabeth's 



124 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

Hospital was carrying on its work in the house of the- 
Gaunts'. 

If the writer of the letter (the managing director of the 
printing house) who praised the History of St. Mark's, had 
quoted to the readers of the newspapers Barker's statement 
respecting Queen Elizabeth's Hospital, the conflicting 
statements of that author would have been delightfully 
exhilarating, but that pleasure now falls to me. 
On page 70 Barker writes thus : — 

" The founding of Queen Elizabeth's Hospital in one 
of the buildings of the old Gaunts' Hospital represents 
another and more agreeable aspect of the times." 
And on page 71 we find this statement : — 

" At first the school was located in the ' Mansion 
House ' of the Gaunts, a building adjacent to the 
Chapel." 

Latimer in his Annals, in referring to this foundation, 
says :— 

The Corporation next resolved on granting to the 
school, in perpetuity, the mansion of the suppressed 
monastery of the Gaunts and the adjacent orchard. 
The school was opened in the summer of 1590, when 
twelve boys were admitted : " 
and Sampson, in his History of Queen Elizabeth's Hospital : — 
" The premises used for the school were the mansion 
house and orchard of the dissolved Hospital of the 
Gaunts, the property of the Corporation, leased for 
twenty-one years at the quit-rent of £1 63, 8d. per 
annum." 

Apart from these extracts, the managing director of the 
printing house might have examined the plans (Nos. i and 3) 
inserted by Barker, which clearly marked the site of Queen 
Elizabeth's Hospital as on the north side of the chapel. 

Are not these statements clear proof that the mansion 
house of the Gaunts was the actual home of Queen Elizabeth's 
Hospital, which surely all of us know was afterwards the 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. 125 

'Grammar School, and now is the site of the Merchant 
Venturers' School ? 

But reverting again to the Red Maids' School, I should 
now like to deal with the two first paragraphs of the news- 
paper letter together, and quote Mr. Sampson, who knew 
more of the history of that school than anyone. In speaking 
of the early days of the school, founded by the executors of 
Whitson's will in 1634, he says : — 

" The house referred to was situated near the Gaunts 
in College Green." — Sampson's Red Maids' School, p. 26. 
x\nd in a declaration made by Mrs. Whitson's executors 
in 1655, we find that— 

In the lifetime of the said Exor: did fit and provide 
an house and placed and maintained therein two poor 
maids. Now it is concluded by and between the Mayor 
and Aldermen of the said city and the Feoffees of the 
said Mr. Whitson that inasmuch as since the death of 
the said Executrix lately deceased forty poor maids are 
by the tenor of the said Mr. Whitson's will to be placed 
in and provided for in an hospital the Feoffees of the said 
Mr. Whitson are to build another house near the house 
built by the Mayor etc near the Gaunts in the College 
Green, Bristol," 
May I now remind you that the last and third building 
of the Red Maids' School, to which I referred in the first 
instance, was erected between March, 1842, and August, 1843, 
upon the site of the early house. 

There is not, however, as I think I have proved, a single 
entry to be found in any of the local records in proof of the 
statement made by Barker that the Red Maids' School stands 
on the site of the Gaunts' Estate, and I think I have made it 
clear that Barker's quotations are v/holly contradictor}/. 

The land attached to the hospital doubtless was con- 
siderable, and besides fronting College Green at the upper 
part of Unity Street adjoining the church, must have ex- 
tended as far as Pipe Lane (where there are some relics let 



126 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

into the corner house, beheved to have come from the old 
foundation), and probably joined the gardens of the 
Carmelites. 

. There is no definite evidence that Gaunts' land extended 
on the south-east side towards the harbour, though it is 
quite probable. 

And as if it was necessary to be extravagantly incorrect 
in order to gain a point, listen to the s ixth paragraph of the 
letter : — 

" A line drawn in continuation of the south wall of 
the church towards Denmark Street would cut off a 
considerable portion of the school, and if the existing 
plans, admittedly conjectural, are even approximately 
accurate, the Red Maids' School must occupy a portion 
of the site of the Hospital of the Gaunts." 
Though this slicing off the plan for personal convenience 
does not affect the real issue, may I show you the picture. It 
is so delightful to realise the facts in this way, and I fancy the 
plans of Rocque (1742), Ashmead (1829) ^^^1 the present 
" Ordnance plan " will convince you. {See composite plan. ^) 

This is a case where we might have been greatly helped 
by other old plans from the original deeds, but none showing 
the whole of the Gaunts' Estate are in possession of the city, 
neither have the Charity Trustees any connected with Queen 
Elizabeth's Hospital or the Red Maids. The fact is, as the 
Rev. C. S. Taylor says, "The deeds would have lost all 
their value by the ' surrender,' and the Corporation title 
would prevail," hence they have undoubtedly long since been 
destroyed. 

Millerd's large plan of 1673, however, is interesting, as it 
clearly shows the entrance to and site of Queen Elizabeth's 
Hospital, and also indicates where the 1656 Hospital of the 
Red Maids may have stood. 

It is of course possible that the Red Maids' School may 

^ We are greatly indebted to our member Mr. S. Loxton for this 
work. 



128 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



have occupied Gaunts' land, but had that been the case one 
could have imagined that reference would have been made 
to this fact in some of the numerous documents in the custody 
of the Trustees. Whether that be so or no is not the case in 
point, for it is as clear as the " sun at noonday " that the only 
people who can claim the site of " The Gaunts' House " are 
the Merchant Venturers, whose school stands on the ground 
formerly occupied by Queen Elizabeth's Hospital and after- 
wards by the Grammar School. 

Incorporated in the business premises of Messrs. John 
Harvey & Sons Ltd., whose family has been in possession of 
those buildings since 1796, is the " master's house " of the 
Hospital of the Gaunts, where quite recently a small window 
was discovered, which I am glad to say has been opened up. 

Finally, I contend that the right to name the recently- 
vacated Red Maids' School " The Gaunts' House " is 
groundless and incorrect. 

It is to be regretted that the very charming business 
pamphlet should contain inaccuracies that have doubtless 
been circulated far and wide, for its artistic merits are 
excellent. I was favoured with a copy by the managing 
director, and value its possession as such, but naturally its 
merit has disappeared because the facts are wholly misleading. 

To credit themselves with the original site of the mansion 
of the Gaunts, and to date the house on the cover as 1220 — 
1912, has no foundation. 

Neither is it correct to imply " an unique blend of classic 
antiquity and strenuous modernity " under the circumstances. 

Mr. Russell Harvey rightly called attention to the error 
of the printing company in April last, in contesting their 
claim to the site of the Gaunts. Another contributor to the 
column of the daily paper did the same thing, but nothing 
apparently has been done. 

This is my reason for bringing the matter forv/ard, so 
that the members of this Society, and others besides, may 
know the real facts. 



Bristol Arch^ological Notes for 1912. 129 

The owners of the recently- vacated Red Maids' School 
may call their building, I presume, by almost any name they 
choose, but they cannot, with any regard to historic accuracy, 
claim to use the title of The Gaunts' House, as this right 
belongs to the Society of Merchant Venturers. 

The present owners of the modern building of the old 
Red Maids' School are certainly under a responsibility to the 
city of Bristol to rectify this matter, and they should loyally 
do so. 

As to the Archaeological Court at the Museum, it is to be 
regretted that no progress has been made during the past 
year in the better exhibition of the larger antiquities of 
Bristol, nov/ housed in the basement there. 

The three or four notices exhibited in the hall of the Art 
Gallery and the Museum indicate that " Visitors wishing to 
inspect the Architectural Room may do so on application." 

This is really an invitation to the " apartment in the 
basement," which is electrically lighted by the authorities, 
but unfortunately it does not satisfy the many students of 
archaeology and architecture who come to this city for 
training. They naturally expect to find in a city of the 
importance of Bristol ancient examples of domestic work to 
help them in their studies, artistically set up for their examin- 
ation and measurement, in some degree as they will be found 
at South Kensington. A number of students have made use 
of our specimens, but the conditions for study are not very 
helpful. The light is bad, and there are no appliances. I will 
say nothing as to the state of the apartment or the correctness 
of labelhng. 

There are rumours that the interesting collections of 
Romano-British relics are to be scientifically arranged at last. 
This will be very welcome to students of that period, who have 
been unable hitherto to find out what the city really possessed. 

Is it too much to hope that the local English antiquities 
will be taken in hand next ? 

10 

Vol. XXXVI. 



THE HISTORY OF KEMPLEY MANOR AND CHURCH. 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

By W, ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

The name Kempley appears in the Norman Survey as 
Chenepelei. In the twelfth century, when the foreign scribes 
haci learned more fully the valuations of O.E. conso- 
nants, it was spelled Kempelee (F.F. a. 7 Rich. I.) and 
Kenepelege ; later still, in "Feudal Aids," it was written 
Kempelege, and Kympeley (1331). The origin of it may be 
found in an unrecorded A.S. personal name Cynepa, ^ and the 
meaning is the pasture-land of Cynepa. The .full original 
form of the name, then, must have been Cynepanleah. 

In the Confessor's day Edric (Eadric) and Leuric (Leofric) 
seem to have been joint owners of the manor, as also they were 
of Winestune [Winson), and separately of several other 
Gloucestershire estates. Twenty years later (toward the date 
of King William's demise), Roger (second Baron of Lasci, 
near Bayeux), el(^st son of the great Baron, Walter de Laci,. 
is found by the Survey to be in the possession of Kempley, 
together with twenty-six other manors, constituting part of 
his princeley territory, the de Laci Honour. This shows that 
he had just inherited these from his father Walter, who had 
died of an accident at Hereford, March 27th, a.d. 1085. 

The Norman Survey reveals some rather surprising facts 
with regard to Kempley (cf. The Domesday Survey for 
Gloucester shire, by Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A.). Its total acreage 

1 I take this occasion to correct the version of the derivation (printed 
through an ovei-sigut in proof-reading) in my Place-Names of County 
Gloucestcvshive. The A.S. y alone can give the vowels e, u and y, hence 
Cenapa, which is only a nom. sing, for Cnapa (like Canute for Cnute), 
should have given Knapley not Kenepley or Kempley. 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 131 

extended to 1800 acres, and all of those were cultivated, 
The lord had three teams of oxen there, and the tenants had 
twelve. There were likewise twenty-four male inhabitants, 
including seven bondmen, seven bordars, and ten villains. 
No mill was there, and no priest. Moreover, the manor was 
worth £j. less than it had been in 1066, it having then 
been valued at £5. 

All this shows that the area had long been cleared of wild 
wood and was regarded as a productive property. But 
Roger de Laci did not enjoy his possessions long. RebelUng 
against William Rufus, he had the misfortune to be captured 
in 1088 by Bishop Wulstan, of Worcester, and his estates, 
saving the Manor of Halhagan, in Worcestershire, were 
transferred by the king to his brother Hugh, who held them 
until his own death in 1121, when he was buried at Ewyas 
Harold. 

It was probably during the latter' s ownership that the 
church was built at Kempley, although the paintings which 
decorate the chancel may date from some few years later. 
Hugh de Laci, who was a marked favourite with Henry I 
and his hospital-building queen, was a devoted church- 
builder. The abbey which he built at Llanthony in Wales^ 
was consecrated by Urban, Bishop of St. David's, and 
Reinelm, Bishop of Hereford, in 1109. Meantime, he had 
completed St. Peter's Priory at Hereford, wherein his father 
lay buried, and his younger brother, Walter, was a monk in 
Gloucester. 

It may be mentioned here that it is possible the two 
bishops who were depicted right and left of the chancel east 
window, standing within painted niches, may have actually 
represented the above, his two friends. Kempley lay within 
the Diocese of Hereford, and at that date the Bishops of 
St. David's were Metropolitans. It is equally possible, and 
perhaps rather more probable, that the two figures of lay 
dignitaries, one on the north and one on the south wall of the 
said chancel, may have been intended for Walter de Laci 



132 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

and Roger (or perhaps Hugh himself), and painted to com- 
memorate their piety. But, though it is difficult to surmise 
who else these could have been, neither of these probabihties 
is susceptible of proof, and must remain only surmise. 

During the fourteen remaining years of the reign of 
Henry I, until 1135, Kempley and most of the de Laci 
barony was probably in the hands of the king, the rest of it 
in those of Pain Fitzjohn (d. July loth, 1137), Sheriff of 
Salop and Justiciar, aho had married Hugh's niece, Sybil, 
mother of Cecilia, Countess of Hereford, and of Agnes de 
Monchensi. 

The manor, some thirty years after Hugh de Laci's 
decease, came into the hands of Gilbert (killed near Aleppo, 
ii63),his fighting nephew, a son of his sister Emma. After 
1163 it descended to his son, another Hugh (killed 1184), 
the fifth baron, of Irish fame, and Lord of Meath, and it 
remained in the de Laci family until the death of Walter 
•de Laci, sixth and last baron, in 1241. 

Some ten years prior to the latter date, the family of 
de Miners is shown by the Testa de Nevill to have held half 
a fee of him in Kempley. This included, as we shall see, the 
advowson of the Church of St. Mary. 

If we turn to the Feet of Fines (v. ii, p. 77), Richard I 
(1195-6), we find that a final agreement concerning certain 
hereditaments was reached in the court at Westminster 
(November 17th), before the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Bishops of London, Rochester, Hereford, Ely, William de 
Longchamp, and others, between Geoffrey de Longchamp, 
demandant, and Walter de Baskerville, tenant. The main 
matter in it concerns the entire estate of Emma de St. Leger 
(mother of Geoffrey) , both in England and in Normandy. This 
will show why and how the de Miners heiress Isabel and her 
husband, who presently (after 1232) gave the advowson of 
Kempley Ohurch to the Hospital of St. Katherine at Ledbury, 
became possessed of it. 

For the lands of Emma de St. Leger included the 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 133 

Gloucestershire vills of Kempley and Cold Aston, which most 
probably had constituted part of her dower with her first 
husband, Hugh de Longchamp, whose mother was (it is 
considered certain) a de Laci (see pedigree) , and possibly a 
sister of Gilbert, fourth baron. But it is clear, from the 
document above referred to, that she had married Walter de 
Baskerville of Eardisley, co. Hereford, after the decease 
of de Longchamp (before 1194), and that she owned land ^ 
in the vill of St. Leger, in Normandy. Moreover, it is seen 
that this Walter received certain lands of hers with her, which 
he now returned to Geoffrey, and that Walter acknowledged 
all these lands to belong by right to Geoffrey. Further, 
Geoffrey quit-claimed Walter in the matter of Eardisley 
(co. Hereford), which Walter had mortgaged to Roger Boin 
(? a Jew). And for this quit-claim, acknowledgment, and 
agreement, Geoffrey gave Walter thirty marks of silver. 

Thus Kempley was part of the heritage of Geoffrey de 
Longchamp, son of Hugh de Longchamp and Emma de 
St. Leger. The said Hugh was brother to William de 
Longchamp, the famous Chancellor to King Richard ; the 
Bishop of Ely (d. January 31st, 1197), who figured in the 
above court at Westminster, and their mother (the grand- 
mother of Geoffrey) is believed to have been born a de Laci. 
This accounts for Kempley with its advowson coming to the 
de Longchamp family. Together with Wilton, or part of 
Wilton, therefore, it was an endowment which had been 
granted by a de Laci to a near relative. 

To return to Geoffrey. It was some years after the 
date of the aforesaid agreement that he wedded Isabel, 
daughter of Henry de Miners ^ and Agnes, his wife, whom 

^ Ten librates, besides land at Kinemont (query Kiningmont) and 
Faningcurt. 

^ Son of William de Miners, nephew of Gilbert de Miners, a knight 
of Margaret de Bohun, 1166, and perhaps of Roger de Myners, to 
whom Henry II gave Westbury Manor for the service of a Soar Hawk 
or XX shihings rent yearly (Placita Q.W. an. 15 Edw. I, n. i/d.). 



134 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

we fmd enclosing land at Westbury-on-vSevern in a.d. 
1200 (Rot. de Oblatis, p. 78). The two families had been 
probably long intimate, for we find Hugh de Longchamp 
and Wilham de Miners witnesses to a confirmatio of Hugh 
de Laci, 1163-85 (cf. History of Ewyas Harold, by Canon 
A. T. Bannister, Hereford, 1902, p. 54), son of Gilbert, to the 
monks of Ewias Hirold, of a right of pasture in his forest 
of Maischoit (1163-85). 

In 1207 Geoffrey was indebted to Henry de Miners ^ for 
39 marks (Rot. de Fin. 385), and in 1217 he had seizin of 
Westbury (Ex. e Rot. Fin. 1.4, and Rot. Claus. 2 Henry HI, 
m. 4). He had signed Magna Charta, and thus was included 
among inimicos Regis Johannis, in 1216 (Rot. Litt. Claus. 
241-6), but in the following year he returned ad fidem. 
We hear next of his wife, Isabel, on May 30th, 1223, when, 
with the consent of Geoffrey, she granted to the monks of 
Winchcomb, in return for receiving fraternity, one yard- 
land, value 2s., in Hatherley, held then by Roger de Bois, 
by inheritance. The witnesses were Richard de Miners, 
Alexander de Greinville, Richard and Robert de Boys and 
John Folliot, parson of Sherborne (cf. Landboc of Winchcomb, 
1. 161). 

Roger de Bois owed fealty to Henry de Miners, Isabel's 
father, who in his earlier confirmation of the charter of 
Roger's land at Hatherle}^ (L.B.W. 1.159) calls him homo 
mens. The Fee there was held of de Miners ; Roger, 
therefore, was his homager. From the Pipe Roll, p. 2, a. 22 
Henry II, we find that William de Miners had the custody 
of Hatherley, with the daughters of Roger de Troilli, of the 
fee of Earl Richard (de Clare), and returned los. to the 
sheriff. 

Geoffrey and Isabel de Longchamp presently gave sixteen 

1 Died 12 16-17. 

2 His -ister, Liana de Hatherley, left with her Ijody also her land at 
Hatherley to Winchcomb Abbey. Cf. L.B.W. 1.156. 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 135 

acres and a manor in Cold Aston ^ to the same Abbey of 
Winchcomb for the benefit of their ancestors' souls, with the 
service of Maud, the chaplain's daugjiter, the monks to pay 
I2d. a year for a light in Aston Church for all services, save 
the king's (L.B.W. 1.233). Geoffrey's step-father, Walter 
de Baskerville, we saw, had held this land at Cold Aston in 
1195, no doubt in right of his wife, Geoffrey de Longchamp's 
mother. Isabel, in 1229, made grant of a quarter of a fee 
(or los.) in land at Culcreton, held of de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, to St. Oswald and to the Canons in Gloucester. 

But these, their pious gifts, bring us back to Kempley ; 
for in 1232 Hugh Folliot, Bishop of Hereford, founded the 
Hospital of St. Katherine at Ledbury, and Geoffrey de 
Longchamp seems to have lent his active patronage to the 
project from the first. He and Isabel, therefore, gave the 
advowson and rectory at Kempley to the hospital, and 
with these certain fields and tenements lying in that vill. 
Bishop Ffoliott later on arranged for the impropriation to 
the hospital, according to an Edwardian charter (Dugdale, 
Mon., VI, 685), after the decease of Robert, the Dean-Rector, 
perhaps c, 1248. We learn that the incumbents there, from 
1234 onwards, were committed to pay one pound of 
incense to it. ^ 

Five years later, in 1239, ^-"^ Agreement between 
William Maunsel and the Cistercian Abbey of Kingswood, 
we meet with this Robert, Dean-Rector of Kempley, and 

^ This was de Longchamp property, and had been the dower in 
part of Emma, Geoffrey's mother ; but it was held by them from the 
heirs of Walter de Clifford, who had held it from the Bishop of Worcester, 
and the last from the king — a good instance of sub-in-feudation. In 
1284-5 Ralph Pipard (d. 1309) held this fee from the heirs of de Long- 
champ. In 1346 Thomas de Dagworth held it, probably from the 
daughters of Ralph Pipard, respectively married to Edmund le Boteller 
and John Rodborough. 

2 I owe this last fact to the kindness of Canon W, Capes, of 
Hereford, as well as knowledge of a quit claim of John, the vintner, 
of Kempley, 1286. Cf. Charters and Records of Hereford Cathedral, 
1908, pp. 69, 73. 



136 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

William de Miners acting as witnesses to it. Robert is shown 
by Swinfield's Register to have been already at Kempley in 
1232 (see the List of Vicars appended, Robert the Dean-Rector 
of Kempeley) ; so that his life there was important, and it 
covered many years. ^ 

It is certain that before this time Geoffrey and Isabel 
de Longchamp had succeeded to Wilton Castle, where, no 
doubt, they chiefly resided, Henry de Longchamp, dying in 
1204, had left a widow, Matilda, daughter of Wilham de 
Cantelupe, and Wilton Castle, which was in the following year 
confirmed to his nephew, also Henry, and son of Hugh, who 
died 1212, leaving no issue. His brother Geoffrey conse- 
quently had then become his heir. 

Linton and Wilton had (likewise with Kempley) originally 
belonged to the de Lacis, and they may have been given in 
equal shares, of the value of £16 los. od., by Gilbert de Laci 
probably in 1155-6 to Gilbert Talbot and Hugh de Long_ 
champ, both of them obviously his near kinsmen. ^ In 11 79 
the two fees were completely separated, Linton going 
definitely to Talbot and Wilton to de Longchamp. It 
was thus that the latter manor descended to Geoffrey and 
Isabel. 3 Their daughter Maud later carried it in marriage 
to John, son of Henry de Grey, whose son Reginald thus 
became the first Baron Grey de Wilton. 

In the Register of St. Katherine's Hospital (now in the 
Cathedral Archives at Hereford), occurs a Final Agreement 

1 The Hospital of St. Katherine at Ledbury, retaining the church, 
pension and tithes at Kempley, was cited to justify doing this. Nov. 
12th, 1 3 18, Cf, Orleton Register, f. 82. 

2 Perhaps the gift goes behind this date. The close connection of 
the de Lacis and Talbots remains, unfortunately, obscure. But in the 
Gesta Stephani [suh anno) the famous Geoffrey de Talbot is mentioned 
in 1 1 38 as acting at Bristol with Gilbert de Laci cognatus illius, which 
might point to a sister of Hugh de Laci having been Geoffrey's mother. 
Cf. Rolls Series, Chronicles of Stephen, etc., iii. 38. 

^ Isabella's two sisters, Elizabeth and Basilia (or Dulcia) married 
respectively (i) William de Gamage, (2) Pain de Burghill (co. Hereford). 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 137 



effected before the King's Justices at Westminster in the 
Hilary Law Term of 1259 44 Henry III), between Adam 
the master of the hospital, and Reginald with his wife Maud 
(de Longchamp), regarding the advowson of Kempeley. 
From this it may be concluded that there had arisen a hostile 
suit to which this concord put an end. The hospital is- 
forthwith to have and hold all lands and tenements in 
Kempley which it had hitherto held from the parents of 
Maud there, conceding, however, to Maud twelve acres, and 
all that portion known as Netherhell (? Netherhale), and 
giving Maud ten marks of silver. This looks as though there 
had been some encroachment on the part of the hospital 
which was now rectified honourably. 

It must have been during Reginald, Lord Grey's lifetime as 
manor-lord of Kempley that the defensive western tower was 
hastily added to the west end of the church — probably c. 
1281-3, when the Welsh carried fire and sword into Hereford- 
shire, and captured Raglan. We learn from an Inquis. P.M. 
(April 2ist, 1308) that Lord Grey held the Manor of Kempley 
by the service of half a knight's fee of Roger de Mortimer and 
Theobald de Verdon, ^ who represented their de Laci forebears. 
There was then at Kempley a certain capital messuage with 
gardens and ten acres of meadow, and a park of oak saphngs ; 
also forty-five free tenants, and ten nativi, or bondmen. 

Reginald Lord Grey, first baron, became duly succeeded 
by his son John, second baron, aged 40 years or more. This 
perhaps gives us the approximate date of the marriage of 
Maud de Longchamp as 1252, with whom the de Longchamps 
personally seems to disappear from Gloucestershire history. ^ 

We have, therefore, to picture to ourselves the old and 
now isolated little church and village of Kempley aglow 

1 Theobald de Verdon (d. 1316) married Maud, daughter of 
Edmund Lord Mortimer, and was son of John de Verdon (d. 1309) 
and Margaret de Laci. 

2 Their second cousins enjoyed the Lincolnshire estates of the 
family later in the same century. See Pedigree. 



138 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



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140 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



with its curious Norman paintings, with its neighbouring 
parsonage, a goodly manor house and gardens, and a small 
park. In 1286 occurs record of a quit-claim of John, the 
vintner, of Kempley. 

Reginald Lord Grey de Wilton married Maud, daughter 
and heiress of William Lord FitzHugh, and left (besides a 
daughter Joan, married to Ralph, Lord Bassett) his son and 
successor to Wilton and Kempley, John ^ (who died early in 
January, 1324), " seized in his demesne as of fee of the Manor 
of Kempley e in co. Glouc, which he holds by the service of 
half a knight's fee of the king in chief " (LP.M.). 

" The capital messuage of the said manor with the gardens 
and dove-cote are worth per annum 44s. There are 200 acres 
of arable land, and they are worth per annum 403. ; also 8 
acres of pasture, worth per annum 8s. ; also 44 acres of wood, 
worth per annum 5s." 

The saphng oaks of his father's day have grown into trees. 

" There is there of rent of assise of the free tenants 
per annum £4 19s. 7d. at the Feasts of the Annunciation of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Michael by equal portions. 
There are there 3i lb. of pepper, price 3s. 6d., and lib. of 
cummin, price id., one pair of gilt spurs, price 6d., and one 
pair of spurs, not gilt, price 2d., at the Feast of St. Michael.'" 

In 1308 the prices of these various rents received from 
the free tenants was but little different. The pepper was 
the same, the cummin was Jd. instead of id., the two pairs 
of spurs were valued at 6d., and the total sum of rents 
£4 i6s. 4jd. 

The hospital at Ledbury continued to hold its fields and 
tenements in Kempley at a total annual value amounting in 
the fifth year of Henry VIII to £4 2s. 8d., which were looked 
after by its bailiffs. These included long leases and life leases 
of properties known there as Parson's-close or Parson's-field, 
M'odcfyld, Marlay's-mede, Carters, Edwynes, Wodewardes- 

1 See Pedigree. 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 141 



place, Edwardes-place (with Hall and Solar), Caterswalle, 
" near Robert de Bickerton's land at le vyntere street," 
Thynen-lype, Lecheholde, le Reye^ -Wygge-broke, Mulfield, 
Bradbragge, Astfeld, Kenendersland, le Woddal-Parrocke, 
Cloterboke, Frerecourte, Redole, Ffreynsshelond, Brade- 
mersshe, Akyrnburyesfeld, and long Parke. Some of the 
tenants are nativi or bondmen, others are liheri or free tenants. 
And of the latter we have the following names : Walter de 
Acorneburg, Richard Prancant (1324), John Geffray, 
Mathewe Edwyne, Isabella Janekyns, William le Holder, 
Robert Nicholas, fined (1331) for marrying a bondwoman of 
the Lord of the Manor ; William Wygge, Margaret Nootes, 
John Whyttok, Hugh de Lynch, John Wodeward, John 
Goldhull (1370), Agnes Stutte (1381), Wilham Ludby (1485), 
John ap Morys, John Elton alias Baker, William Wynyett 
(15 14), builds a Hall and Solar at Wodewards-place ; Edmund 
Willys, John Hooper (1555), Henry Webb (clerk), James 
Wynyatt, John Mayowe, Richard Milward, w^ho " is to keep 
his hedge between Gloucestershire and Herefordshire in order 
or be fined xxs." 

In 1343 Henry, third Lord Grey, died, having held 
Kempley from the Countess of March by the service of one- 
hfth of a knight's fee. The messuage is mentioned in an 
I. P.M. with its garden adjacent, worth 40s. per annum. 
The before-mentioned wood is still valued at 5s. The total 
rents, customary and free, amount to 50s., and the perquisites 
of the courts there were worth 4od. per annum. Reginald, 
aged thirty and more, is the son and heir. The latter was 
lord of the manor in 1399 (TP.M, a. 22 Rich. II), and Feudal 
Aids give him also in 1402. ^ 

The manor continued in possession of the Greys of Wilton 
even to the time of that unlucky lord who held Guisnes, 
and was captured and kept a prisoner by the French (1552) 
until Wilton and Kempley and other manors of his barony 

^ " Reg. de Grey tenet de Rege sine medio in Kempelegc." The 
de Lacis are extinct and represented by the king. 



142 



Transactions for the Year 191 3. 



were sold or alienated to pay his ransom. The only tem- 
porary under-holder of the manor and the advowson of the 
church in the fifteenth century known to the writer was 
John Abrahall, Esq., in 1463-4, ^ when Roger Penley (or 
Penvey), and his successor, Thomas Balle, were vicars. 

Few facts of interest relating to Kempley lands during the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries have come down to us.. In 
1581 (23 Eliz.) a lease was granted by William Lord Grey de 
Wilton to one Wilham Pigot of a site " whereupon in tyme 
past stode the Rectory or Parsonage of Kempley." There 
had been before the Court of Chancery two cases concerning 
land at Kempley in 1560. The one lay between Richard 
Hooper^ (PI.) and Tacye (sic) Hooper (Def.). In the other 
Margary Pyggot, ^ widow of William, was plaintiff, and John 
Wood was defendant, together with Thomas Forthey. * 

The Feet of Fines of 1600 shows that the manor had 
passed to Henry Fynche, Esq., in right of his wife, Anne Pigot 
(d. 1631), daughter of Henry Pigot, buried at Kempley. 
Her grandson, John Finch, sold it to Sir Thomas Howe. 
Soon after this it passed to Thomas Pyndar, of Duffield, co. 
Derby (about) 1680, who owned it until his decease, 1722. 
In 1693-4 he presented to the vicarage Rev. Sam. Birchett. 
In 1713 his son. and successor, Reginald Pyndar, married 
Margaret, daughter and heiress of William Lygon, of Madres- 
field, whose son Reginald thereafter took the name of Lygon, 
and died December 25th, 1788, leaving William Lygon, who 
was raised to the peerage February 26th, 1806, as Lord 
Beauchamp of Powyck, from whom Earl Beauchamp, the 
present lord of the manor, is descended. ^ 

1 I. P.M. But as we have seen that the advowson had been given 
to the hospital at Ledbury, it looks as though the holder of it must have 
represented that priory. But this was not so. The hospital had, 
doubtless, long ago renounced or sold the advowson. 

2 Qi Early Chanc. Proc, Bundle 95, No. 37. 

^ C/. Early Chanc. Proc, Bundle 146, P^o. 22. 

C/. Early Chanc. Proc, Bundle 145, No. i. 
5 The seventeenth-century manor house is now a picturesque farm 
one quarter of a mile distant from the church. 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 143 



The Church. 

The Norman church, dedicated to St. Mary, at Kempley, 
exclusive of the west tower, extend^.-in length but 55 ft., 
the nave accounting for 35 ft. 8 in., while the barrel-vaulted 
chancel is 19 ft. 10 in., the respective widths of these being 
19 ft. and 13 ft. 8 in. It is, therefore, a small church, and 
it stands in low meadow-land surrounded by old fir trees ; 
and the village, once near it, has long since retreated to a drier 
site half a mile away. ^ The late thirteenth-century tower, 
covering a plain Norman west door, has an interior 
measurement of 16 ft.- by 13 ft. 4 in. From the thickness of 
the walls, from the height above ground of the deeply-splayed 
windows, and from the absence of any entrance door (save 
from the church), this tower was obviously built for defence. 
As it had been given (until 1913) no solid foundations to 
speak of, it is clear that it must have been run up in great 
haste, probably at the period of the Welsh rebellion under 
Edward I, when Herefordshire is known to have suffered 
severely. It contains two Edwardian bells 2 and one of the 
seventeenth century. In the north wall of the chancel 
(besides an aumbry) there is a priests' door (fourteenth 
century), while a late fifteenth-century door (long since 
walled up) discovers itself in the opposite or south wall. 
The east window is an unaltered Norman light, round-headed, 
and having a quarter-round moulding on the inner face of 
the frame ; as also is the tiny north wall window. The 
fellow window in the south wall, however, has been slightly 
enlarged and given a trefoil head, and was otherwise altered 
in the early thirteenth centur}/, the head of the splay alone 
remaining original. 

The bold and well-preserved chancel-arch, of three 

^ The vicarage there was built by the late Professor Middleton 
in 1872. 

2 (i) Dilige Virgo pia quos congrego sancta Maria. 

(ii) Jesu campanam tibi semper protege sanctam. 

(iii) Thomas Felps, 1680. All prayse and glory he to God for ever. 



144 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



members, springs from original foliated caps, of a type which 
may be described as very debased Ionic-Corinthian, resembling 
those at St. Woolas, Newport. The mouldings used are the 
sunken-star on the inner, and chevron on the upper and 
outer member. All have been coloured in early days. 

The south wall of the nave, towards the chancel, contains 
in situ a piscina with a trifoliate head, suggesting that an 
altar stood close by. High above it is an ugly eighteenth- 
century window, while between it and the Norman south door 
is a fourteenth-century two-light splayed window, with 
quatrefoil head-light. Over the Norman south door, which 
shows double rows of pellet and several of chevron moulding, 
is a tympanum like that at Dymock bearing a crude rehef 
displaying a Tree of Life, resembling almost some archaic 
moth. There are the remains of a stone stoup in the east 
jamb of the door. The fine timbered porch dates from the 
fourteenth century. 

The north wall is lighted by two windows, the western- 
most of which is of very late character, and it has probably 
obliterated a much earlier one. The remaining north window 
is unspoiled Norman, and is deeply splayed. This window 
has but one small light. The roof (restored in 1670 and 
1913) is of flat timber. The entire upper wall spaces north 
and south display oaken baluster (white-washed) " struts " 
throughout their length. One of these on the north side bears 
the initials T.H. (? Thomas Howe), 1680. One on the south 
side has T.T. (Thomas Taylor, d. 1684). The newest roof 
is inserted at ten inches above the level of the late one. 
North of the chancel arch stood formerly the Pyndar 
family pew, and on the east wall of the nave is set a marble 
frame monument of the same family. Above this is a door 
opening into the roof-loft in front of the chancel arch. 

The west wall has above the door its original Norman 
west window, consisting of one round-headed unglazed 
splayed light, now opening, of course, into the first floor of 
the tower. 




CHURCH OF ST. MARY (BEFORE REPAIRS). 




CHANCEL ARCH (ST. MARY'S, KEMPLEY) 

i . 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 145 

In spite of the lack of foundations (probably the fact was 
unknown to the constructors), a small steeple was perilously 
added to the tower at a debased period, and later crowned 
with a weather-cock. This, howevef; ' had the natural and 
disastrous effect upon the already weak structure, with result 
that it had to be much shortened (probably in 1731-2), and 
in 1824 i't was finally removed. ^ The tower carries now a 
low pyramidal roof, recovered in 1913 with the fine stone 
tiles from Stow-on-the-Wold. The exterior, with several 
stepped buttresses, tells its tales of progressive settlement, 
and at the moment of the recent under-pinning there was 
danger of total collapse, from which nothing had saved it so 
much as its squared masonry. There is no string-course, 
but a sloped shelf occurs beneath the western belfry window. 
The latter is a single lancet, like its fellows, of late thirteenth- 
century style. 

The paintings in the chancel, which are all of one period 
(twelfth century) and scheme, cover the barrel-vault as well 
as the south, north, and east walls. Of these presently. 
The eastern face of the chancel arch likewise bears decorative 
colour design, in red, white and yellow, on its upper member, 
as of a zigzag parapet, while the lower and inner member 
of the arch displays ten circular discs, painted right on 
to the stone. These were all brought to light when the 
whitewash coatings were removed in 1872. The late Mr. 
Micklethwaite reproduced them in Archceologia, xlvi. 187. 

At the same date were discovered fragmentary paintings 
in the nave, belonging, however, for the most part to 
post-thirteenth century dates, together with remains of 
Elizabethan black-letter texts upon the west and north walls. 
Let us begin with these nave paintings. 

The most important paintings on the north wall of the 

£61 I OS. was paid for carrying this out, as the Churchwardens' 
Accounts show. The churchwarde»- was Richard Phelps. Barnaby 
Juckes was the undertaking party from Ledbiiry. The bells were 
xe-hung and a low roof erected in place of the steeple, as now. 

1 1 

Vol. XXXVI 



146 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



nave occur upon the two splays of the remaining Norman 
window. That on the western splay presents St. Anthony 
walking with his staff and pig, ^ upon a red background. 
On the opposite spray is portrayed the subject of the arch- 
angel weighing souls in the balance, the virgin interceding on 
their behalf ; and probably the devil was also depicted trying 
to trick the scales. But the picture is far gone. 

Perhaps an altar with dedication to St. Anthony or 
St. Peter, the favourite saint and patron of de Laci, headed 
this side of the nave. Upon the adjoining wall is depicted a 
large wheel of life, similar to one at Leominster, consisting 
of a wheel of ten spokes, each of the latter terminating in a 
disc, alternately a black and a red one. Probably a subject 
picture, representing an Age, once filled each one of these 
discs ; no true trace, however, of any one of these has 
survived. ^ ' 

Close examinations of the earliest coats of plaster upon 
this wall, in other portions of it, have revealed that at least 
two sets of paintings succeeded one another thereon, the 
later (and more friable) one abounding in traces of bright blue. 
The wall, like its fellow opposite, was painted right up to the 
present roof. Unfortunately the setting of the seventeenth- 
century oaken " struts " has so injured and loosened the mass 
of these coats of whitewash that but little can be recovered 
from the oblong compartments formed by their insertion. In 
some places a matting of cement mixed with hair causes all 
the coats to come away together, so that nothing can be 
gained at such points. The best of the surviving fragments 
(mid-south wall) shows a full-length female saint in a flowing 
black mantle, with white lining, holding a book. The head 
is wanting. This was uncovered on August loth, 1913. 

1 The pig has faded into palest brown, but its head and forelegs can 
be made out. 

2 See ArchcBologia, xxxv. 1677 for a coloured plate of this wheel 
and a paper by J. Winter Jones on " The Division of Man's Life into 
Stages." Cf. also Arundel MS., 83 f. 126 b, British Museum. 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 147 

Below, on the eastern splay of the two-light fourteenth- 
century window, can faintly be made out the figure of a 
bishop or mitred abbot, within a pointed and crocketed 
niche. On the adjoining south wall is a large area discovering 
confused subjects painted upon different layers, some of them 
quite late ones, but which were all uncovered in 1872, and 
then thickly coated with egg-varnish. There may perhaps 
have been here depicted on one of the layers some legend of 
the Cross. 

Above the west face of the chancel arch can be made out 
the remains of a Doom," cut off by the roof. The figure 
of the enthroned Christ is faintly to be traced ; likewise (rt.) 
St. John within a niche ; while the left-hand figure (the 
Virgin) has been obliterated partly by a loft-door hole and 
partly by a monumental marble. This was probably a much 
earlier painting than any other left in the nave. 

The paintings in the chancel (to which we now come) 
belong to a single scheme, that of the Glorification of the 
Redeemer, the figure of whom, seated upon a rainbow and in 
the act of benediction, within a vesica of a curious and 
unusual shape, formed by portions of three circles, occupies 
the entire centre of the barrel-vault. His feet, to the east- 
ward, are seen resting upon a large and dark circular disc, or 
world. The two Greek monograms, LH.C. and X.P.S., are 
writ large, within the vesica, on an oblong plaque or 
book. 

He is accompanied upon each side by two symbolic 
figures of the Evangelists — the winged ox and eagle on the 
south, the angel and lion on the north side, all of these holding 
oblong books. Beneath these are seen large clumsy stars, 
some of four, some of six rays. 

At His head stand two great and attenuated cherubim 
with six wings, and holding pennons. Each carries a book. 
At the south side are three tripodal candlesticks ; on the 
north side are four more, making seven (the seven golden 
candlesticks of Revelation i. 12) ; and distributed on the 



148 Transactions for the Year 191 3. 

ground colour are (north) the sun ^ and (south) the moon. 
Beyond the head of the vesica stand two very interesting 
hgures : on the south side St. Peter nimbed, carrying in his 
right hand one enormous key instead of two, and in his left 
hand a book. Opposite St. Peter (north) stands the Virgin, 
in blue, her head (with wimple) crowned, and bearing in her 
hands probably a little church (only to be made out in 
certain lights), i.e. St. Mary of Kempley. 

The border to the east and west ends of the painting is 
composed of interlacing chevrons and lozenges, in red, yellow, 
and white. On the north and south walls, above a border 
(i ft. 8 in. wide) or plinth of elongated hexagons, are depicted 
six of the Apostles seated side by side on canopied, circular- 
headed, yellow thrones. ^ St. Peter, on the north-east, carries 
his key, so that he is twice represented here. All look up 
in adoration toward Christ. At the east end of the vesica 
stand two more great cherubim, holding censers. Above the 
crown of each window in the chancel walls north and south 
is painted a many-towered city, representing Bethlehem and 
Jerusalem. The splays of these two windows are decorated 
with a dark ground, on which are red and white geometrical 
semi-circles, diminishing. 

Between each of these windows and the east wall is a 
painted canopy or niche, containing a standing lay-personage, 
wearing a purple, but white-edged, mantle over a yellow 
tunic, each one bearing a drawn sword over his left shoulder, 
and carrying a pilgrim's staff in the right hand. He faces 
west, having his feet (perhaps) naked. The fair long hair 
and beard and the actual features of him on the south wall 
can readily be distinguished. ^ These figures (as before 
suggested) may represent the de Laci founders of the church : 

1 Streams of light probably fell from these originally. 

2 The pilasters dividing these are pierced with long vertical slits 
filled in black. 

3 That on the north wall holds in his right hand his stalf, and his 
sword also is carried over the left shoulder. His cloak is yellow and 
liis tunic white. The heads are both covered by low, dark caps.* 



History of Kempley Manor and Church. 149 



perhaps Hugh (d. 1121) and his father, Walter (d. 1084), 
who were devotees to the cult of St. Peter. If that is the 
case, it is reasonable to infer that the paintings in the chancel 
may constitute an " in memoriam," carried out by their 
descendants. 

A border of geometrical lozenges, one foot in width, 
overlapping like tiles, red, white and yellow, terminates the 
decoration of the side walls. 

Upon the east wall, above the window, within three equal 
roundels, or discs, are seen three angels holding censers with 
long chains. 

On the south side of the window stands, within a reddish 
niche, a bishop, habited in a dark chasuble, lined yellow, 
with a reddish collar, and grey orphrey, and alb reaching to 
the feet. He wears a low reddish mitre, and is represented 
in the act of benediction. ^ The evidence of an extended 
right hand on the wall of the opposite (north) side of the 
same window shows that a similar ecclesiastical figure was 
painted there. 

Who, then, were represented by these two prelates ? and 
why were they necessary ? 

Probably to these questions we shall never obtain 
completely satisfying replies ; but we may conclude, at 
least, that they were friends of the de Laci family. ^ 

^ In his left hand is his pastoral staff, the blue maniple falls over 

his wrist, ending with broad tasselled ends. The stole falls as far as his 

■feet. Upon the shoes were round buckles. Near the feet, on a yellow 
roundel, is seen a blue cross. 

2 I owe thanks to Rev. R. W. Goodall, Vicar of Kempley, and 
Mrs. Goodall for some local facts relating to Kempley, and for their 
ever-ready help and kindness ; also to my friends, F. A. Hyett, for 
kindly looking through my proof, and G. McN. Rushforth, for much 
valuable help generously given from an inexhaustible store ; and lastly 
to my friend the present Dean of Hereford, and to Mr. N. Steel, Clerk 
to the Chapter, for allowing me access to their well-sorted archives. 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



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FLOWERS IN STONE AS APPLIED TO THE 
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE OF BRISTOL. 



By IDA M. ROPER, F.L.S. 

V/hen visiting our ancient churches or mediaeval buildings, 
in order to enjoy the beauties or interests preserved within 
them, one of the points certain to attract the antiquary is 
the carved stonework, whether in window, capital, corbel, or 
roof. Much may be learnt from such carvings, as the workman 
who executed them gave clear indication of the art that was 
familiar to him, and showed thereby the century in which he 
lived and the civilisation which surrounded him. 

Apart from mouldings and figures, the ornamentation to 
be obtained b}^ foliage was early recognised, in fact as soon 
as buildings of stone were erected for important public 
purposes. Going back to the period of the sculptured temples 
of Egypt and Assyria, there survive amongst the ruins 
representations of trees and vines used in decorative scenes^ 
while in the Bible the references to the ornaments shaped 
after flowers and fruits are too numerous to detail. Amongst 
the larger plants we know that about the walls and doors of 
Solomon's temple were carvings of the palm with rows of 
pomegranates on the capitals. ^ 

The acanthus leaves crowning the columns in Greek 
buildings of the Corinthian order are familiar to all, and 
these, with some leaves of water plants, were copied by the 
Romans nearly as beautifully, until the art of carving was 
overlooked in the Dark Ages. 

In England, of the few Anglo-Saxon churches remaining, 
onl}^ that one at Britford, near Salisbury, shows any orna- 
ments of foliage, and in this instance, and on Acca's Cross at 
^ I Kings vi. 29, and vm. 20. 



Church Architecture in Bristol. 155-. 



Hexham, the whole of the decoration is floral, with bunches 
of grapes and tendrils. The Norman buildings, however, of 
the many religious orders were decorated in parts by carvings 
inspired by examples from the vegetable kingdom. 

This became marked at the close of the Norman period,, 
from A.D. 1175 to A.D. 1200, when designs based on Roman 
models were common on capitals. Even at that early date 
the carvers or masons living in England were influenced by 
their surroundings, and here and there on capital or corbel 
the young fronds of the bracken fern can be recognised as 
they uncurl in the early spring, and the large arrow-headed 
leaves of the cuckoo-pint or wild arum, as carved in the 
spandrels of the triforium of Wells Cathedral. 

It belongs rather to the architect to follow the changing 
style from a.d. 1200 to a.d. 1275, the century in which fohage 
and sometim.es flowers were freely used for ornamentation 
in our cathedrals and churches, but in nearly all of them the 
marked characteristic of the period is the conventional, 
rather than the naturalistic treatment of the plants used as 
models. Although the foliage was thus altered in passing 
through the hands and mental vision of the masons, it is 
possible to easily recognise from their distinctive but con- 
ventionalised shapes the clusters of rounded leaves inspired 
by the campanula (the blue-bell of Scotland), the common 
plantain of our gardens and the trefoil. The vine leaf of 
course, is twisted over capital and boss, carrying on its 
symbolical meaning from the time of the early Fathers, and 
another leaf constantly met with is that of the holy herb, 
now known to us as the yellow avens, or herb bennet. 

For many centuries this plamt was looked upon by 
the monks and herbalists as a potent plant to protect human 
beings from the influence of evil spirits, and to cure their 
bodies of many ills, earning thereby the name of Herba 
Benedicta. The small leaves in nature are deeply cut into 
three rounded lobes, but in the conventional carving they are 
shown nearly separated into three leaflets. 



154 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

Good examples of it are seen in the Elder Lady Chapel 
-of Bristol Cathedral amongst the fancy sculptures on the 
Purbeck columns and the moulded archivolt, and again on 
the corbels of the entrance doorway into the Hospital of St. 
Bartholomew at the foot of Christmas Steps, Bristol. 

A three-leaved decoration was much favoured in all 
religious buildings in the South of England at this period, 
because the three lobes were suggested by, or emblematic of 
the Holy Trinity. 

The only flower that seems to have been used at this 
period is the rose, which was early associated with Christ the 
Saviour, and became so common in English buildings as an 
emblem of the kingly power of the Tudor sovereigns. The 
south doorway of Ififiey Church, near Oxford, dating from 
the beginning of the thirteenth century, shows a good 
■example of its use in the moulding. 

When it comes to considering the general application of 
flowers and foliage as ornaments for the various parts of the 
church buildings, it has to be remembered that almost without 
-exception they were placed there solely for decorative 
purposes and not as symbols, and hence it follows that an 
intimate connection existed between the plants and the styles 
of architecture to which they were applied. When Decorative 
architecture flourished flowers were studied and copied for 
the effects produced, and when at the end of the fourteenth 
•century the Perpendicular style was in favour the foliage 
•ornament was largely abandoned, and the plain, deep-cut 
mouldings took its place. 

The reason why such a close association of the similar 
■ornaments existed in buildings in different parts of the 
country is answered by recalling that, at the period now 
under consideration, there were no architects such as are 
recognised at the present day, whose art is occupied in 
planning, making drawings and superintending. The work 
was in those days carried on by officers often called " masters 
of masonry," who not only designed the building and its 



Church Architecture in Bristol. 155 

<iecoration, but carved these with their own hands, helped 
no doubt by other craftsmen that put into rough shape the 
ideas of the master. 

It seems certain that such workers were closely bound 
together in schools of carving which flourished where suitable 
stone was found, such as at Ham Hill by Yeovil, Doulting by 
Wells, and the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset. Each monastery 
probably had also a permanent staff of workmen attached 
to it, and by some means not clearly known the bands of 
workmen were in touch with each other to make known the 
designs, and to keep up a uniformity of style in the ornament. 
Only in such a way can the use of the similar foliage and 
flowers be accounted for at the same limited periods in many 
different parts of England. 

When regarded from a botanist's point of view, the leaves 
of those plants already named — the campanula, plantain, 
trefoil and herb bennet — that were used at this early period, 
are found to be of species with small leaves and a well-marked 
•stalk and central rib. These two characteristics of the leaves 
treated in a conventional manner rendered them specially 
suitable for the designs of the carver, who desired to decorate 
the capitals in such a way that the leaves appeared to be 
growing around them, rather than placed there to cover 
a blank space, and the knowledge of how to adapt the plants 
to this style was still on trial. 

Having experimented to produce these small conventional 
•ornaments, the craftsman passed on to more complicated 
productions, which show from the ease with which the 
different leaves and flowers can be recognised that he had 
gone more and more to Nature herself — gone, in fact, into the 
fields and woods and copied in stone the common plants he 
found growing at his feet. 

To continue the architectural aspect of the subject a little 
further, a change came again after this naturalistic period, 
and the mason showed signs of returning to conventionalised 
designs of the natural plants, so that the botanist finds the 



156 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

number of flowers and leaves grow more scarce, and the- 
source of the craftsman's inspiration more difficult to trace. 
The art of the period from a.d. 1350 onwards sought to twist 
the conventional foliage into regular or geometrical patterns, 
and to ignore the natural growth of branch and stem. 

By the beginning of the fifteenth century the curved 
forms were largely abandoned, and were replaced on capital 
and arch by mouldings more or less deeply cut. 

It is thus the fourteenth century, and especially the first 
half of it, that possesses most interest to show the develop- 
ment of " flowers in stone," a period described by a recent 
v/riter^ as " the moment when carving burst into full leaf — 
the June of architecture — before there was a sign of the 
crumpling which evidenced approaching decay." The word 
" flowers," however, must not be used with too narrow a 
meaning, but rather as including several portions of the 
plant. 

Not till the beginning of the naturalistic period does 
Bristol excel in floral sculpture, but then at once the city 
is fortunate to possess some good examples in the tower of 
St. Mary Redcliffe, built about a.d"! 1292, and in the original 
choir of the Cathedral from a.d. 1298 to a.d. 1332. These 
two buildings come within the period- of the true Decorated 
style, although the earlier portions of them, such as the 
Chapter House and the inner north porch of Redcliffe, which 
is contemporary with the lower part of the tower, show but 
few examples of the inspiration which Nature gave to the 
ornamentation of our city. 

Those portions of the Cathedral built within the time 
of Abbot Knowle, from a.d. 1306 to a.d. 1332, are the 
choir with the well-known stellated recesses and the Berkeley 
Chapel, and they show subjects clearly derived from trees, 
shrubs and herbaceous plants, reproduced in genuine 
naturalistic form and with great decorative effect. 

1 Professor W. R. Lctliaby, Hoiv Exeter Cathed^'al was Biiilt. 



t 



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! 



BRISTOL CATHEDRAL. 




OAK SHOWING GALLS. 




HAWTHORN. 

i 



Church Architecture in Bristol. 157 

The oak is the most frequent. The artist seems to have 
taken for his model in many examples the Turkey oak, 
which is common along all the Mediterranean coasts, and is 
distinguished by the long narrow and much serrated form of 
its leaves. Others again are shorter and broader, telling of 
the true English oak. 

The recess known as Abbot Nailheart's tomb, on the 
south side of the lady chapel, has a formal arrangement 
of such leaves. Another recess in the north aisle shows 
clusters of acorns amongst the leaves ; while the bosses in 
the vaulting of the vestibule of the Berkeley Chapel, known 
as the sacristy, show both kinds of leafage. 

The design of the stellated recess dividing the Berkeley 
•Chapel from the choir is unusual, because carved on the 
oak leaves are clearly shown examples of a species of 
oak-gall, placed like peas on the leaf veins, and known in 
modern times to be caused by the puncture of a small fly of 
the cynips tribe, which deposits its eggs in the substance of 
the leaf. Sprigs of oak, with acorns arranged stiffly in the 
axils of the leaves, yet excellent reproductions of nature, are 
again carved on finials of the vestry doorway, and twine 
around the capitals in the Berkeley Chapel. 

Another tree represented in the Cathedral is the 
maple, its five-lobed leaves and winged fruit forming a 
handsome border to the western Berkeley recess in the south 
^hoir aisle. This fruit, in scientific language the samara, 
consists of two nuts placed side by side, with two wings 
spreading horizontally so as to form together one straight 
line, and by this formation the maple is easily distinguished 
from the fruit of the ash and sycamore. In course of time 
the carving at the lower end of the arch became worn away, 
and at some restoration new fruits were cut, and the 
workman, being ignorant of his subject, shaped the 
wings to be at an angle to each other instead of in 
a straight line. A casual observer noted the carving, 
and thought he recognised there a representation of the 



158 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

berries and angular leafage of the mistletoe, and pondering 
apparently on the symbol of the Druids and their religious 
observances, was led to publish the statement that Bristol 
Cathedral held the unique position of showing the mistletoe 
amongst its carved stonework. Had he looked more closely 
he would have detected the maple fruits and foliage higher 
up the arch, springing from the same stem, and thus have 
avoided an error which has been copied and repeated ever 
since without any truth. The maple in fruit was a common 
ornament of bosses and corbels in many buildings of this 
period, and a century later was a close competitor of the oak 
and vine. 

So far the leaves of the beech have not been noticed in 
Bristol buildings, but they are no doubt rendered amongst 
the hundreds of bosses that adorn the various lofty vaultings,, 
because the beech took its place in contemporary roofs on 
account of the artistic treatment possible with the unfolding 
of its deeply-puckered and sHghtly serrated leaves, and of 
its connection with the use of beechen boards, on which were 
written the early Gospel extracts or books. 

In the Elder Lady Chapel is a series of rounded fruit rising 
above three concentric leaves. It is probably the apple that 
influenced the carver in his design, but the so-called " nose " 
of that fruit is simply shown by cross cuts. 

The hawthorn is the motive of another of the stellated 
recesses, the western one in the north aisle, and in the 
central finial there is a cluster of the well-known haws 
peeping out through the deep lobes of the leaves. 

Roughly carved round the arch of a small niche by the 
doorway of the Berkeley Chapel is a formal treatment of the 
foliage of the ivy, with its large egg-shaped and pointed 
leaves, showing that the design was taken from the tree ivy 
and not from the leaves spreading on the ground. 

Of the shrubs that inspired the artist the vine is the 
most frequent, appearing in all parts of the early buildings. 
Representations of it are to be found in the early sculptured 



Church Architecture in Bristol. 159^ 

monuments of Egypt and Assyria, while the Bible carries its 
history back to the days of Noah, whom we are told " planted 
a vineyard/' The vine and its fruit became a recognised 
symbol of the Church in the early cdttturies of Christianity, 
while its broad and clearly-veined leaves made it a suitable 
design for the skill of the workman, and its intertwining and 
climbing habit appealed to his requirements. 

Although the knowledge of the vine may have come to- 
the artists from the South of Europe it would have been well 
known in England, for the existence of forty vineyards is 
recorded in Domesday Book. To this day a wood near Aust 
continues to bear the name of The Vineyard," and the 
Gloucestershire Domesday mentions two arpents of vineyard 
at Stonehouse — an arpent contained less than half an acre 
of land. 

Apart from the use of the vine as an emblem of the Church,, 
it is easy to find carvings of it in the Cathedral as a purely 
naturalistic decoration, and in some parts with a tendency 
to the conventional, in which the surface of the leaves begins 
to show the curious bulbous undulations that became 
almost universal in the following century. 

One of the bosses over the Berkeley tomb in the Elder 
Lady Chapel, erected about a.d. 1327, is a life-size face 
of a woman in the veil head-dress and with an unduly wide 
mouth, from the corners of which spring the stalks of large 
vine leaves to form a circle round the head, with a cluster of 
grapes on either side covering the ears. Such bosses formed 
of a central face wreathed in foliage were very common 
devices at this period, and probably had their origin in the 
actor's dramatic mask used by the performers in the Miracle 
Plays. Such masks would be familiar objects to the craftsmen, 
who found in them a model for the grotesque. The large 
opening, left that the actor might speak his part clearly, lent 
itself when used in decoration for the starting-point of the 
surrounding foliage, and as these masks were often hung in 
vineyards in ancient times to frighten birds, this arrangement 



i6o Transactions for the Year 1913. 

of the foliage may have been suggested by the tendrils of the 
vine actually finding their way through the mouth aperture. 
In this instance, however, the woman's head, dressed in the 
head-dress of the time, is thought to be a portrait of the Lady 
Margaret Berkeley, buried in the tomb beneath in a.d. 1327. 

Another instance of a mask being the main feature of 
ornamentation is the carving of a man's head at the base 
of a pillar by the Newton Chapel. From the mouth issue two 
oak leaves, which encircle the face in place of hair, and help 
to give a grotesque appearance to the whole. 

The rose is another plant frequently carved in the stone- 
work of the Cathedral, and in its first form was double, 
like the early Provence rose of the garden, but the numerous 
petals in its naturalistic form soon gave way to the simpler 
and more easily designed single or dog-rose. It appears to 
be purely decorative, and to have probably come into use in 
the Norman period, because it was such a well-known and 
beloved flower in England, and was suitable for the simple 
ornamentation then required. 

In the arch of one of the Berkeley Chapel windows is a 
formal row of alternate solitary blossoms of the double rose, 
and the leaves symmetrically arranged in squares carved in a 
very bold style, and the single rose and leaves appear on 
finials and mouldings in the same chapel. 

Round the doorway leading to this chapel are two forms 
of ornament which have led to much discussion in the 
past. Reference will at present be made only to the inner 
one, which is a row of fruits placed touching one another and 
showing only the top portions, in the centre being a raised 
and small opening from which radiate five incised lines, as if 
to suggest the splitting open of the outer covering. There is 
no round fruit or bud in nature that agrees with these 
markings, but it may be safely considered that the 
common "hips" or fruit of the rose were the source of the 
suggestion to the workman. This seems more certain after 
observing three finials over the doorway in the south choir. 



BRISTOL CATHEDRAL. 




BUTTERCUP AND FOUR-LEAVED FLOWER. 



Church Architecture in Bristol. i6i 



of the same period, wherein one of them has groups of 
single rose flowers in gradated series, and the others 
apparently rows of fruits, similar in appearance to those 
referred to in the moulding of the smaller doorway. Similar 
finials are also in the Elder Lady Chapel, 

The hazel is another shrub to supply material to the 
craftsman, and as it grows so frequently in the district, 
a branch of it may well have been cut off from some neigh- 
bouring tree, and then copied into stone to be placed within 
the sacred building. 

It is well represented by its outspread leaves and clusters 
oi three and four nuts on the boss of the vaulting of the 
Berkeley tomb in the Elder Lady Chapel. This boss is the 
companion one to that showing the vine already mentioned. 
The stems of the fruiting branch issue from the mouth and 
curly beard of a man's mask, while the leaves and fruit spread 
out and surround the head. This is supposed to be a portrait 
of Maurice IV, 9th Lord Berkeley, who lies buried beneath 
with his mother, the Lady Margaret. 

Coming to the herbaceous plants which find a place 
on the capitals, bosses and mouldings, there is the yellow 
water lily, its thick cup-like blossoms standing erect out of 
the water being familiar objects in many of our streams and 
ponds. We find it in bud, lying on its large fiat leaves 
on a capital in the Berkeley Chapel. 

Another plant is the white bryony, the hedge vine of old 
writers, and a familiar flower of the hedgerow. 

It is shown in naturalistic style on the recess over the 

figure of Abbot Hunt on the north side of the Lady Chapel, 

with the blossoms and clearly-marked tendrils for climbing 

the into sunlight ; and again it gracefully entwines a boss in 

the Berkeley Chapel, together with its small red berries. The 

form of its leaves with well-marked veins are very graceful, 

and this plant and the meadow buttercup were much in 

favour in the Decorated period of architecture. 

Examples of the buttercup are to be found in the 

12 

Vol. XXXVI. 



i62 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



eastern Berkeley recess, where the arch is closely decorated 
with the leaves and blossoms and again in a particularly 
large form on the walls of the sacristy, with in some 
instances snails depicted crawling over them. The single 
blossoms of the buttercup in the vaulting show apparently the 
greenish yellow sepals behind the brighter portion of the 
flowers. 

As already stated, the larger row of ornaments on 
the Berkeley door has been a source of doubt to many 
observers. It has often been described as representing 
the fossil ammonite, one kind of which is found in the 
neighbourhood of Keynsham. It will be found, however, 
that a marked character of all the species of ammonites is 
a series of bars at regular intervals across the coils, and these 
ornaments have no such bars. The artist who made a water- 
colour sketch of the doorway in 1824 the Braikenridge 
Collection ^ evidently recognised the inportance of the 
ornament, and gave an enlarged drawing, which materially 
helps one to recognise in it the fruit of a small plant with 
yellow flowers of the clover tribe — medicago or medick. 
Its trefoil-shaped leaves are often met with in carvings 
of the period, but in this instance the fruit only is 
chosen, which consists of a long pod, coiled round like the 
spring of a watch, and having on its outer edge a narrow, 
crinkly border. All the medicagos that grow in England have 
these coiled fruits, but their fringe or border consists of 
prickles, and the pod is not so contracted between the seeds, 
but there is a common species of the Mediterranean, Medicago 
orbicularis, whose fruit closely corresponds with this carving, 
and is undoubtedly the source of inspiration to the artist. 
He was a clever workm.an and put great skill into the 
execution, and as in the case of some of his other carvings near 
by, was not afraid of heroic size. 

One of the two remaining ornaments of this period is the 

1 Bristol Art Gallery. 



Church Architecture in Bristol. 163 

four-ieaved flower, composed of four simple leaves or petals 
arranged to form a square-shaped blossom. 

It seems to be a simple geometric^figure, suggested by the 
common floral arrangement of the large family of cruciform 
plants, and was easily adapted to be placed at regular 
intervals or closely united in a hollow moulding, or for more 
general use as a cornice to form a light and graceful finish. 
In this form it can be seen on the verge of the slab of 
Maurice III, 7th Lord Berkeley. 

The other ornament is the 'ballflower, characteristic of 
the West of England, and found chiefly in the counties of 
Gloucester and Hereford, where its use is very common in 
church architecture. In Gloucester Cathedral the aisle 
windows of the nave are studded with no less than 1,40a 
examples of the ball-flower in each window, and in Badge worth 
Church, near Cheltenham, the hollow moulding of every 
window and doorway is profusely decorated with it. 

Many examples are to be met with in Bristol 
Cathedral, notably round the arch of Abbot Newbury's tomb 
in the Lady Chapel, and in the Berkeley Chape], where some 
are of great size. 

The origin of the ball-flower ornament has given rise to 
much speculation, and at present there is no satisfactory 
solution. The ornament is represented as a ball, partially 
enclosed in a round cup or flower, which holds it by three 
wavy lobes. By some it is supposed to be the globe flower of 
the North of England, by others to be derived from a horse 
bell or a hawk's bell, and by others again to be the young 
bud of the pomegranate. 

The ball-flower, however, has a far better resemblance 
to the ripe fruit of the juniper, and as flower or fruit should 
be apparently looked for as the motive, it is reasonable 
to think a fruit is its real origin. The juniper is alhed to the 
Scotch fir, and is common on heaths and chalky hills 
throughout the South-East of England, as well as in Northern 
Europe. The use of the juniper berries v/as well known 



164 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

amongst the early herbalists, and the name is several times 
mentioned in the Bible, so that the artists in stone wonld 
have been acquainted with its peculiar structure, and may 
well have chosen it as their model. 

So far only the floral sculpture in the cathedral has been 
mentioned, but if a visit be made to St. Mary Redcliffe, 
reproductions of the foliage of the oak and the vine, the 
four-leaved flov/er and the ball-flower, will be found in those 
parts of the building erected between a.d. 1320 and a.d. 1377, 
and in addition the church affords an example of a flower not 
noted elsewhere. The white water lily, beautifully carved 
and true to nature, appears on the outside of the tower, the 
blossoms placed singly in the arcade moulding, in a row in 
the same manner as the ball-flower is used. 

St. Mark's is the only other ecclesiastical building in 
Bristol which contains work of the purely Decorative period, 
and here the exterior and interior mouldings of the west 
window, which lights the south aisle, are covered with rows 
of the characteristic ball-flower. 

The series of capitals at the junction of the aisle with 
the chancel is an example showing clearly the special 
characteristics of early Gothic work of conventional lobed 
leaves with well-marked stalks. In such instances the leaves 
fall over in heavy clusters, and is an arrangement suggested 
by the curled volutes that distinguished the corners of classic 
capitals. Birds, suggested by the thrush, are carved on one 
of the series pecking at the adjoining leaves, and such was a 
favourite addition to the carver's design because of the 
appropriateness of placing birds amongst foliage. 

In other parts of England there are most beautiful 
examples of naturalistic sculpture ; but reference need only 
be made to the shrine of St. Frideswide, in Christ Church 
Cathedral, Oxford, and the vaulting of Exeter Cathedral, 
with its many hundred bosses. In the shrine, erected about 
A.D. 1289, there are no less than twelve diflerent plants 
represented in the carvings of the spandrels, and in^ the 



Church Architecture in Bristol. 



165 



Exeter bosses the number of floral decorations is very large 
by repetition. From these two sources it is possible to 
realise how completely the naturalistic school in its short 
reign of forty years was inspired by the flora of the fields and 
woods. Other plants made use of, in addition to those 
already described in Bristol, are found to be the pear tree, 
the birch, the poplar, the mallow, and the fig. These plants 
were probably chosen and repeated by the craftsman because 
some of them, such as the vine, oak, maple, bryony and 
meadow buttercup have broadly-shaped leaves, with clearly- 
marked veins to give, their beauty to the arch, the finial, and 
the boss, while the rose, hawthorn, ivy, and pear have smaller 
leaves, whose veins or folds lend themselves to produce an 
equally good effect in closer form. Only the very best artists 
in stone could run riot amongst the crowd of flowers and 
fruit, and such men were scarce to do the work with their own 
hands ; the average workman, therefore, had to repeat the 
designs taught to him in the school of carving, and study 
onh^ those plants with prominent characteristics, and this is 
the explanation why the total seems to be limited in number 
to about twenty different species. 

The natural foliage was carved with the utmost patience 
and loving care, and therefore settled into a fairly uniform 
type. With that uniformity came monotony, and about the 
middle of the fourteenth century it was abandoned as being 
too troublesome, and conventionalised work took its place. 
In Bristol, when the building of churches started afresh in the 
first half of the fifteenth century, at Redcliffe, and a little later 
in other churches, all the foliage ornamentation was of the 
conventional kind, with the leaves arranged horizontally on 
the capitals and in geometrical pattern on the bosses. 

Turning to Redchffe Church, the vaulting of the aisles 
and choir contains an excellent series of examples, where 
every junction of every rib in the many-ribbed vault 
is completed by a carved keystone or boss. The plants of 
the previous century are used over and over again, but in 



i66 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



addition it is possible to recognise the holly, fig, bay, hop, 
thistle, hard fern, dandelion, crinkly cabbage leaf, and sun- 
flower. 

In the Braikenridge Collection is a series of water- 
colour drawings of these bosses, which give one an idea how 
the carvers sought to decorate the intersections with floral 
designs done in the workshops and then placed in position. 
Some of the plants depicted are the vine, the hard fern, the 
oak, the ivy, the bay in fruit, a conventional leaf often used 
in architecture, the dandehon, the rose-en-soleil, a badge of 
Henry VII (a.d. 1487), therefore one of the later bosses, 
holly with prickly leaves and well-marked veins, hawthorn 
in blossom, single rose arranged geometrically on a branch, 
and dandelion and maple leaves together. 

The recesses originally erected in a.d. 1460 to receive 
the effigies of Wilham Canynges, jun., and his wife Johanna, 
are decorated in a similar manner to the earlier series 
of stellated recesses in the cathedral. The lady's recess 
has a band of oak leaves, acorns, and empty cups with two 
of the finials of ivy, while that of her husband shows the vine 
and the fig. In the Perpendicular Church of St. Thomas the 
Martyr (rebuilt a.d. 1789), there were a number of noble 
bosses, several of which, taken from the vaulting of the north 
aisle, are still preserved under the tower. The vine, the white 
bryony in fruit, and the oak with acorns and cups, are shown 
entwined in a free and graceful manner that makes them as 
handsome as anything of the kind in the city. ^ 

The handsome tombs in the chancel of St. Mark's, erected 
and restored by Bishop Salley about a.d. 1500, are good 
examples of later foliage decoration and ornate ornament, in 
which the cornice is limited to a running pattern of grapes and 
fohage and the spandrels made up of isolated leaves without 
branch or tendrils, looking as though they were gummed into 
position. Hundreds of such examples are to be seen in the 

^ Transactions, xxvii, 350. 



Church Architecture in Bristol. 



167 



stone monuments and wooden screens in the work of the 
parish churches of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and 
a good deal of modern church carving is but a copy of the 
characteristic reign of naturahstic foliage. 

In drawing to a close the consideration of " Flowers in 
Stone," it must be clear that although the work of the 
craftsman at the different periods could be excellent, yet his 
best efforts are no more than a coarse resemblance of Nature's 
handiwork ; the humblest weed that grows in the cranny of a 
wall has a beauty that no mason can emulate, and his most 
faithful reproductions must ever disappoint the true lover of 
Nature. 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE FRONTS. 



PART V. 

(c) NORMAN. 

By ALFRED C. FRYER, Ph.D., F.S.A. 

This paper continues the subject of Norman fonts, and we 
will consider sixteen bowls belonging to this period. One is 
rectangular and the remainder are circular in form. 

The capitals of early work are plain cubical masses with 
the lower angles rounded off, forming a sort of rude cushion- 
shape, like the capitals found on the north transept of 
Winchester Cathedral (1079-98). Some Norman fonts take 
this shape, and such an example may be seen in Stoke Gifford 
Church. The vicar and churchwardens in some benighted 
age thought good to partially build this font into the wall of 
the north aisle. It seems probable that this was done in the 
eighteenth century, when the nave arcade was taken down 
and columns substituted, which are more in harmony with 
an Egyptian temple than a Gothic church. 

Although the tub-shaped font was probably one of the 
earhest in design, yet the form was governed by no principle 
beyond the size of the bowl being adequate for the rite of 
immersion of infants and the presence of a drain. They 
varied largely in art, ability, and craftsmanship, and as 
refinement gradually spread over the country they increased 
in beauty and adornment. Progressive beauty and architec- 
tural science made great progress in some districts, whilst 
in other parts, where there was a lack of local ability, the 
design of form and detail of ornamentation showed httle 
originality, and were merely copies of earlier forms. T^ie 



Gloucestershire Fonts. 



unmounted tub-shaped fonts of Norman date ^ are remem- 
brances in stone of those wooden fonts which were so freely 
used in Anglo-Saxon times. ^ Tangftiere Church, Sussex, 
possesses an early type of such a tub-shaped font narrowing 
towards the base, with a bold moulding at the top and 
bottom. ^ The sides are carved to indicate the staves of a 
barrel, similar to the wooden font at St. Michael's Church, 
Efenechtyd, Denbighshire. * The tub-shaped font is not 
confined to an early period, and is found throughout the 
Middle Ages adorned in various designs and degrees of art. 

Among Gloucestershire fonts of the Norman period we 
find eight plain tub-shaped bowls of unusually massive 
construction. These fonts are at Bledington, Coin St. Dennis, 
Coin Rogers, Hasfield, Notgrove, Upton St. Leonard, ^ 
Willersey and Winson. They vary in size, and those at 
Notgrove and Willersey are about 2 ft. in height, while 
the one at Bledington is 2 in. higher ; those at Hasfield 
and Winson are only about i ft. 5 in. The Upton St. Leonard 
font possesses the greatest circumference, having a girth of 
8 ft. 6 in. round the top and 7 ft. 7 in. round the bottom. 
The thickness of the rim varies from 5 J in. at Notgrove to 

^ Early examples of the tub are at St. Martin's, Canterbury ; 
Bucknell, Shropshire ; Chesterblade, Somersetshire ; Llandewi, 
Glamorganshire; Boarhunt, Hampshire; Wolfhamcote, Warwi:kshire ; 
Avebury, Wiltshire ; Alphington, Devon ; and Avington, Berkshire. 

2 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Sgc, vol. xxxii., p. 301. The use of wood 
was discouraged, and in Western Christendom it was considered 
uncanonical, yet a Provincial Council of Scotland, held in 1225, decreed 
that the font should be of either stone or wood (Wilkins, Council, p. 623). 

3 The Tangmere font is illustrated in Bond's Fonts and Font Covers,. 
p. 30, and in Wall's Porches and Fonts, p. 290. 

* The Efenechtyd font is illustrated in Wall's Porches and Fonts, 
p. 190. It is of oak and roughly shaped externally into fourteen facets, 
below which is a course of deeply-severed, protruding bosses. The 
height is /I- in. ; the facets average 6^ in., being irregular ; the diameter 
at the top is 2 ft. 2 in. ; the bowl is i ft. 6 in. in diameter and i ft. deep. 
This font is lined with lead, but possesses no drain. 

5 The Upton St. Leonard font is illustrated in Trans. B. and G. Arch,. 
Soc, vol. xxxiv. 



Tyo Transactions for the Year 1913- 

2j in. at Coin St. Dennis and Upton St. Leonard. ^ These 
fonts are all qaite plain, with the exception of the one at 
Notgrove, which possesses a deep band of cable ornament 
round the top. Several of the fonts are suitably mounted on 
plinths, but the one at Coin St. Dennis has at some later date 
been chamfered into eight rough scallops, so as to fit on an 
octagonal pillar. The font at Winson is mounted on a modern 
pedestal, consisting of four attached pillars with circular 
bases and capitals, while the one at Willersey has been placed 
■on a circular pillar which is far too slender in appearance for 
such a large and massive bowl. For fifty-nine years (1841- 
1900) the font at Willersey was turned out of the church to 
make way for a brand new font, the gift of the Rev. Dr. 
Warneford, Rector of Bourton-on-the-Hill. It was not until 
1900 that it was brought back from the rectory garden by 
Professor Hewins during the rectorship of the Rev. C. O. 
Bartlett, and restored to its proper use. 

In the previous paper on " Gloucestershire Fonts " ^ it 
was stated that '' the font at Upton St. Leonard was 
discovered at Barnwood in the early years of the nineteenth 
•century doing duty in a farmyard, and now it stands on a 
circular plinth in the churchyard near to the south door of 
the church." Since this was written the rector and church- 
wardens have seen their way to replace it in the church. 

Within the Church of St. Swithin, at Quinton, is a circular 
font with plain bands at the top and near the bottom of the 
bowl, standing on a piece of igneous rock which has been 
■carved into twenty scallops, forming a most effective border. 

The ancient church at Stoke Orchard, near Bishop's 
Cleeve, possesses a fine cylindrical font which is decorated 

1 A font, somewhat similar in size and appearance to these tub- 
shaped bowls, may be seen in the church at Llandewi, Glamorganshire. 
The dimensions are : Height - 2 ft. 10 in. ; depth (interior) ft. i in. ; 
diameter=:i ft. 11 in. , circumference (top) ^7 ft. 8 in. ; circumference 
(bottom) = 5 ft. I in. It is illustrated in The Jour. Brit. Arch. Ass., 
vol. V. (new scries), p. 320. 

- Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. xxxiv., p. 198. t 



BULLEY. 



Gloucestershire Fonts. 



171 



with interlacing arcades of plain arches and pillars, having 
"unadorned capitals and bases. A somewhat similar font may 
be seen in the Church of St. Lawrencp, Sandridge, Hertford- 
shire, which has, however, capitals and bases so well carved 
that there is no difficulty in placing its date in the latter part 
of the twelfth century. ^ The arches sculptured on the fonts 
at both Stoke Orchard and Sandridge ^ do not, as is usually 
the case, lie over each other in crossing, but are quite fiat. 
This peculiarity is not frequently met with. 

The font at Chedworth is another cylindrical bowl, but 
not so well formed as the one at Stoke Orchard, as the 
circumference round the top is six inches greater than at the 
bottom. It has been made out of a block of local Cotswold 
stone, and unfortunately is painted a yellow colour. It is 
ornamented like the Stoke Orchard font with interlacing 
arcades of plain round-headed arches. The unadorned pillars 
possess bases but no capitals. 

At the bottom of the Norman font at Cowley four chevrons 
are carved at equal distances, while a band of ornamentation 
.4J in. in depth encircles the top of the bowl. This band is 
unique in design, and consists of a series of triangles. Each 
triangle contains two rudely-shaped lozenges fastened 
together near the apex of the triangle. The design is curious 
and not altogether unpleasing, but it does not appear to have 
been repeated elsewhere. It was probably found somewhat 
difficult to insert two lozenges in an equilateral triangle in a 
symmetrical manner. 

The circular Norman bowls at Brockworth, Bulley, 
Marston Sicca, and Owlpen are all unadorned, with the 
•exception of a simple battlemented pattern round the base 
of the last-named bowl. This font was used as a water-trough 
for a long period, but it has been restored recently and is now 

1 The font at Sandridge is illustrated in Paley's Baptismal Fonts. 

^ The font at Sandridge is adorned with eighteen arches, and the 
one at Stoke Orchard with, sixteen. The height of the two fonts differs 
-only by two inches, and the one at Stoke Orchard is slightly the smaller. 



172 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



placed in a baptistery, mounted on a new circular pedestal, 
plinth, and step. 

The circular bowl at Lasborough stands on its original 
circular pillar, having a roll at the top and bottom. For 
many years the font was thrown out of the church, and in 
1903 the Rector (Rev. D. Kitcat) gave it to the Rev. A. W. 
Douglas, Rector of Witcombe. In 1908 a short account of 
Witcombe Church was published in the Gloucester Journal, 
mentioning the font. The Rev. D. Kitcat's successor at 
Lasborough read this account, and drew the attention of the 
Patron (Colonel Holford) to the transfer, and after 
considerable correspondence the font was returned and again 
placed in Lasborough Church. ^ A replica of the font was 
made of pea-grit stone by Messrs. Martin, of Cheltenham, 
and presented to Witcombe Church by Colonel Holford, 
which was dedicated on the 8th August, 1909. 

1 Lasborough Church was rebuilt in 1861. 



i 



Gloucestershire Fonts. 



173 



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NOTE ON THE ENTRY IN DOMESDAY BOOK 
RELATINCx TO WESTBURY-ON-SEVERN. 



By the Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A. 

The entry relating to Westbury-on-Severn in Domesday 
Book runs thus : — 

" f. 163. Terra Regis. In Wesberie xxx hide. Ibi 
habebat Edwardus Rex v carucas in dominio & xxxii villanos 
& XV bordarios cum xxviii carucis. Ibi i servus. Hoc 
manerium reddebat unam noctem de firma tempore Regis 
Edwardi. SimiUter tempore Regis Willelmi per iiii annos. 
Postea ablate sunt de isto manerio vi hide in Chire & in 
Cliftone x hide In Noent & Chingestune viii hide In 
Ladevent i hida. Has terras tenent modo abbatia de 
Cormeliis & Osbern & Willelmus filii Ricardi & tamen de 
remanente invenit Vicecomes totam firman. Dicunt autem 
homines de Comitatu quod Sapina jacuit in Westberie ad 
firmam Regis Edwardi. 

" In Westbury xxx hides. Here King Edward used to 
have V teams in demesne and xxxii villeins and xv bordars 
with xxviii teams. Here is i serf. This Manor used to pay 
one night's term in the time of King Edward. Likewise for 
four years in the time of King William. Afterwards there 
were removed from this Manor vi hides in Chire, and in 
Cliftone x hides, in Newent and Chingestone viii hides, in 
Ladeuent i hide. The holders of these lands are now the 
Abbey of Cormeilles, and Osbern and William fitz Richard, 
yet the Sheriff finds from the remainder the whole ferm. 
The men of the County say that Sapina lay in Westbury to 
the account of the ferm of King Edward." 

The entry is clear enough except with regard to the 



Entry in Domesday Book. 



183 



locality of the estates removed form the ferm of Westbury. 
Of these Noent is clearly Newent, which appears on f. 166 as 
an estate of vi hides in the possession of the Abbey of 
Cormeilles, by gift of Earl Roger son of Earl William Fitz 
Osbern. Of the rest we are told that they belonged to the 
Abbey of Cormeilles, and Osbern and William fitz Richard. 
This Richard was Richard son of Scrob or Scrupe, who came 
over to England with the Confessor ; he was the builder of 
what was apparently the earhest of those castles which were 
so hateful to the Enghsh, — Richard's Castle in Herefordshire, 
— about 1048. and he survived the Conquest. His son 
Osbern was Sheriff of Herefordshire in 1060, and appears as 
a large landowner there in Domesday Book. 

The entry relating to the vi hides in Chire and the x hides 
in Cliftune, the i hide in Ladeuent, and the remaining 
ii hides in Chingestune, has been a source of difficulty and 
confusion from the time of Atkyns downwards, because these 
places have been identified from time to time with Shire- 
hampton, Clifton and Kingsweston near Bristol, on the 
supposition that records which should really have been 
placed under Westbury-on-Trym have been misplaced under 
Westbury-on-Severn. It seemed, therefore, well that an 
attempt should be made to clear up the difficulty. 

The first person who seems to have had an inkling of the 
true state of the case was Mr. A. S. Ellis, who in a note to 
his article on the " Manorial History of Clifton," ^ referred to 
the identification of the Cliftune and Chire of the Westbury 
entry with Clifton by Bristol and Shirehampton, remarking 
that in his opinion these two places should rather be identified 
with Clifton-on-Teme in Worcestershire, and Kyre, which 
are mentioned in a Worcester Cathedral document ^ as having 
been stolen from the cathedral in the time of King Ethelred 
the Unready. If Mr. Ellis had gone on to refer to the Domes- 
day entries concerning these two places he would no doubt 
have put the matter right thirty-five years ago. 

^ Transactions, iii. 212, n. i. 2 Dugdale, Monasticon, i. 593. 



184 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

We are told that the separated lands belonged to the 
Abbey of Cormeilles and the two sons of Richard ; but the 
two brethren held no lands in Gloucestershire according to 
Domesday Book, and the abbey held no estate there called 
Chingestune. It is needful, therefore, to go farther afield. 
Chingestune indeed is not far to seek. On f. 182b in 
Bremesese Hundred in Herefordshire it is recorded that 
St. Mary of Cormeilles held ii hides in Chingestune, and paid 
geld and rendered services in Gloucestershire ; but that those 
who lived in that hundred attented its courts to give and 
receive justice. The vi hides in Newent and the ii hides in 
the Herefordshire Chingestune then satisfy the viii hides in 
Noent and Chingestune of the entry. 

We turn next to the lands of the two sons of Richard. 
William does not detain us long, for he held only two estates 
in England, Coleshill and Childrey in Berkshire. Osbern, 
however, held estates in six shires, and in Dodintret Hundred 
in Worcestershire on f. 176b among his lands we seem to find 
the manors for which we are seeking : — Cliftune iii hides 
held T.R.E. by the King ; Chure iii hides, also held by King 
Edward ; Cuer i hide, held formerty by Osbern' s father 
Richard ; and Edevent i hide, held by Vlsac. Edevent is 
here identified with Ladeuent, because the place-name 
Ladeuent nowhere appears in the text of Domesday except in 
connection with Westbury-on-Severn. The two names are 
very similar, and Edevent appears among Osbern' s 
possessions close to Clifton-on-Teme and Kyre. But of 
course the identification of this estate does not stand on 
quite the same footing with that of the other two. Edevent 
is now Edwin Loach, an island of Worcestershire in Here- 
fordshire, a fact which so far as it goes tends to mark a 
former close connection with some estate in Worcestershire. 
A ready objection to these identifications lies in the distance 
of the places named from Westbury. Clifton-on-Teme is 
about six miles north-east of Bromyard in Herefordshire, 
Edwin Loach about two miles north of it, and Kyre about six 



Entry in"8omesday Book. 



185. 



miles north-west, while Bromyard itself is about twenty-six 
miles north by west from Westbury. 

But subject estates were often situated at long distances 
from their court house. Widford, in Oxfordshire, was fully 
thirty miles from St. Oswald's, Gloucester; Shenington, in 
the same shire, was at an equal distance from Tewkesbury ; 
and Sutton-under-Brailes was also about the same distance 
from Deerhurst. The matter of distance in itself is no bar to- 
the identification. It is to be noted, however, that the hidages 
differ. The Gliftone of the Westbury entr}^ is credited with 
ten hides, while Osbern's Cliftune was only rated at three, and 
Chure and Cuer together only account for four out of the 
six hides in the Westbury Chire. Still, sixteen years had 
elapsed between the scattering of the Westbury estates in 
1070 and the compilation of Domesday Book in 1086. Most 
of the land in England had changed owners in the interval,, 
and it is no matter for wonder that the hidages of the estates 
at the later date should be smaller than they were at the 
earlier one, for this would only mean that the estates had 
been split up, as Chire had evidently been divided, and that 
part was at the later date known by another name. 

There is then good reason for thinking that Cliftune and 
Chire are represented in Domesday Book by lands which 
are now known as Clifton-on-Teme and Kyre, and also reason 
for thinking that Ladevent of the entry is Edewent in the 
book, and Edwin Loach at the present day. It remains to 
find out whether we can discover anything about the history 
of these places in the eleventh century which would bear on 
the subject, and we turn to the document mentioned by 
Mr. Elhs. 1 

This is a schedule of the lands of the Church of Worcester 
which were seized by the Northmen in the reigns of Kings 
Ethelred the Unready, Cnut, and Harthacnut who ravaged 
W^orcestershire in 1041 in consequence of a revolt against the 
exaction of danegeld. 

^ Dugdale, Monasticon, i. 593. 



i86 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

The plundered lands are arranged geographically, 
beginning with those to the west of the Teme, and it is 
related that in the time of King Ethelred Cliftun, and 
Homme, and Eastham, and Bufawiida, and Cyr, with all that 
pertained to them, belonged to the Church of Worcester ; 
but that Earl Hacun seized these lands and held them as his 
own. His wife Gunnild, however, perceiving the injustice, 
caused a figure of St. Mary to be gilded as service for these 
lands, which were thus lost to the Church. 

Hacon and Gunnild were well-known people in their day, 
being both of them grandchildren of King Swegen. Hacon 
was the son of Eric, jarl of Norway, who was appointed to 
the Earldom of the Northumbrians by Cnut in 1013, and 
was banished by the same king in 1017. Eric had married 
Cnut's sister Gytha. Gunnild was the daughter of an 
unnamed daughter of Swegen, who had married Wyrtgeorn, 
King of the Wends. Hacon and Gunnild then were cousins, 
grandchildren of King Swegen, and nephew and niece of 
Cnut. 

Mr. E. A. Freeman thought that Hacon held the Earldom 
of the Hwiccians ; ^ if so, this must have been in the time of 
Cnut, for he was banished to Norway by that king in 1029. 
When his father Eric went to England with Cnut in 1015, 
Hakon had remained in Norway as Earl, but was soon driven 
out by St. Olaf ; his stay in Norway this second time was 
not for long, as he died at sea in 1030. 

Gunnild remained in England after the banishment of 
her husband, and married Earl Harold, son of jarl Thorkell, 
who died in 1042. Edward the Confessor was crowned on 
April 3rd, 1043, and in 1044 Gunnild and her two sons, 
Hemming and Thorkell, were banished ; no doubt personages 
so closely connected with Kings Swegen and Cnut were 
-counted dangerous. 

The Abingdon Chronicle records under 1053 that in that 

1 Nonnan Conquest, ii. 578. 



Entry in Domesday Book. 



187 



year the Welsh slew many English at Westbury of the 
wardmen — weardmanna. These may have been keepers of 
the forest, for the king was a great hunter, or they may have 
been warders of the Welsh border. The incident may very 
well have led to the strengthening of the force at the king's 
Manor of Westbury, and Gunnild's forfeited estates would 
have been a convenient source from which the strength 
might be drawn. But the Welsh border was ever unquiet, 
and nine years later a great effort was made to secure peace 
in that quarter once and for all. Soon after Christmas, 
1062, Earl Harold invaded North Wales, and burned King 
Gruffydd's castle at Rhuddlan, the king barely .ucscaping. 
At the end of May, in the following year, Harold invaded 
Wales from Bristol, and Tostig entered it from the north. 
The two brothers joined their forces, and systematically 
harried the country till in August the W^elsh submitted, slew 
King Gruffydd, and sent his head to Earl Harold. As a 
consequence, Gwent, the low-lying land between the Wye 
and the Usk, was annexed by the English, whose tenure, 
however, was not very secure, for in August, 1065, Prince 
Caradoc destroyed a hunting lodge which Earl Harold was 
building at Portskewett. 

Matters rested for a while, for there were greater things 
to think of than the punishment of marauding Welshmen. 
But in 1070 Caradoc allied himself with Earl William 
Fitzosbern, and they defeated and slew Meredydd, King of 
the South W^elsh. Earl William founded Chepstow Castle, ^ 
before long the southern coast was a land of Norman knights 
and Norman castles, and there was no longer any danger of 
W^elsh raids near Westbury. 

So it is that Domesday Book tells us that the ro^^al estate 
of Westbury remained as the Conqueror found it for the first 
four years of his reign, and that then, after the Welsh power 
was fmally crushed, it was dismembered. For clearly there 

^ D. B., f. 162 : " Castellum de Estrighoiel fecit Willelmus Comes." 



i88 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

would be no longer need for wardmen of the border at 
Westbury. We cannot tell exactly into whose possession all 
the scfattered lands passed. There can be little doubt that 
Newent was taken by Earl William, for it was given by his 
son Earl Roger, with the consent of King William, to St. 
Mary of Cormeilles for the good of his father's soul ; and most 
likely Chingestune passed in the same way. The case is not 
so clear with regard to the Worcestershire estates ; they may 
have been taken also by Earl William, and held by him and 
his son Roger till the rebellion of Earl Roger in 1075, or they 
may have passed at once into the possession of Osbern fitz 
Richard who, as we have seen, was Sheriff of Herefordshire 
as far back as 1060. 

So far as we can trace them then, we might think that the 
history of the lands separated from Westbury might have 
been something of this kind. Newent was probably an 
appendage of the royal estate of Westbury, for we are 
distinctly told that it did not pay geld ; and most likely 
Chingestune pertained to Newent. The Worcestershire 
estates had been stolen from the Church of Worcester by the 
Northmen, and were held by !Earl Hacon till he was banished 
in 1029, and by Gunnild his wife till she followed him into 
exile in 1044. They would have been held by the Confessor 
till the wardmen were slain at Westbury in 1053, when they 
were annexed to Westbury to strengthen the force there ;. 
and they remained attached to Westbury till after Earl 
William had crushed the South Welsh and founded the castle 
at Chepstow, when they passed into the possession of the 
Earl, or of Osbern fitz Richard, Sheriff of Herefordshire. This 
attempt to reconstruct history may, or may not, be truth ; 
but at ^ny rate it agrees with the facts of the case, and there 
is nothing to tell against it. 

With regard to the statement that Wesberie formerly paid 
one night's ferm, and that after the estates had been separated 
from it the sheriff still found from the remainder the whole 
ferm, we note that a night's ferm was the unit of tribute in 



Entry in Domesday Book. 



kind which was rendered annually by the ancient estates of 
the Crown, which were grouped for the purpose. In Somerset 
this tribute had been commuted fqr a money payment, 
varying from £100 los. gjd. in the case of Somerton and 
Chedder to £106 os. lod. in the case of Bruton and Frome^"; 
and the payment of £101 6s. 8d. from the Gloucestershire 
estate of Barton by Bristol looks very much like a similar 
commutation. But fortunately in our shire the estate of 
Bitton with Winterbourne and part of Wapley still rendered 
its night's ferm in kind. ^ It w^as rated at 36 hides, there 
were 6000 acres under, cultivation and 88 males. If now to 
the 30 hides, the 3960 cultivated acres and 48 males of 
Westbury we add the 6 hides, the 3600 acres and 34 males 
of Newent, we have a total of 36 hides, 7560 cultivated acres 
and 82 males, a sum closeh^ agreeing with the similar sum 
at Bitton. It is likely, therefore, that the original royal 
estate at Westbury had consisted of Westbury and Newent, 
and that it was to this estate that the other estates had been 
added. No injustice was done by the removal of the other 
estates ; but a very distinct injustice was done to Westbury 
when Newent, which must have nearly equalled it in value, 
was taken away, and yet the whole night's ferm was still 
exacted from Westbury. As it is distinctly stated that 
Newent did not pay geld in the time of King Edward it was 
no doubt a royal estate. 

The last sentence presents some little difficulty. It can 
only be translated : " The men of the county say that 
Sapina " (whatever he, she, or it may have been) " la3^ in West- 
bury to the account of the ferm of King Edward." It has 
been translated: "Sapina laid (the separated estates) in 
Westbury to the account of the ferm of King Edward ; " 
but this is to blunder in confusion between jaceo, jacui, to 
lie, and jacio jeci to cast, or lay. The meaning of Sapina is 
uncertain. Sapinus, however, means fir-timber, or a fir-tree ; 
and I have sometimes thought that the sentence meant that 
^ Eyton, Somerset Domesday, ii. 2. 2 -£>^ 162&. 



IQO Transactions for the Year 1913. 

the fir- wood, i.e. the Forest of Dean which may then have 
been a fir- wood hke the country round Bournemouth, lay in 
the estate of Westbury-on-Severn in the time of King Edward, 
who was very fond of hunting. But I have been told by 
those who know the forest well that it does not appear that 
there is any reason for thinking that it ever was a fir-wood. 



i 



PLACES OF MEETING, AND PRESIDENTS, OF 
THE BRISTOL AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE ARCH.EOLOGICAL- 

SOCIETY. 



1070 


iDristoi . . 


i., 1-30 . 


Earl of Ducie. 


1876 


Gloucester . ■ . ■ . •. 


i., 31-40 . 


Sir W. V. Guise, 




Bart. 


1877 


Cirencester . . . 


ii., 1-27 . 


Earl Bathurst, 




D.C.L. 


1878 


Gloucester 


ii., 189-193 


Sir'VV. V. Guise,, 
Bart. 


1878 


Bristol 


iii., 1-48 . 


Christopher J. 
Thomas, Esq. 


1879 


Gloucester 


iii., 299-304 


JJO. 


1879 


Cheltenham . . . 


iv., 1-52 . 


I . Gambler Parry,. 
Esq. 


1 8 So 


Bristol . : 


iv., 283-290 


Do. 


1880 


Stroud 


v., 1-66 . 


J. E. Dorington,. 
Esq. 


1881 


Cheltenham . 


v., 187-198 


Do. 


1881 


Chepstow 


vi., 1-49 . 


Sir John Maclean,. 
F.S.A. 


1881 


Micheldean . 


vi., 261-268 


Do. 


1881 


Berkeley 


vi., 306-309 


Do. 


1882 


Gloucester 


vi., 333-344 


Do. 


1882 . 


Staunton and Newland . 


vi., 357-366 


Do. 


1S82 


Stow-on-the-Wold 


vii., 1-44 


E. R. Wingfield,, 






Esq. 


1883 


Bristol 


vii., 214-225 


Do. 


1883 


Bath .... 


viii., 1-49 

■ 


E. Stanord Howard 






M. P. 


i»83 


Ruardean 


viii., 1 14— 1 23 


JJO. 


1884 


Cirencester . . . 


viii., 181-192 . 


Do. 


I 004 


Evesham 


IX., I— 50 


Rev. Canon Bourne, 






T? C A 


1885 


Gloucester 


X., 1-15 . 


Do. 


1885 


Tewkesbury 


X., 133-168 


Sir Brook Kay, 
K C B 


1885 


Newent 


X., 238-249 : . 


Do. 


1886 


Deerhurst 


xi., 1-5 . . 


" Sir Flenry Barkly,, 
K.C.B. 


1886 


Dursley 


xi., 185-220 


Do. 


1887 


Cirencester . 


xii., 1-5 . 


Do. 


1887 


Stratford-on-Avon 


xii., 1 5^-21 9, 


Baron Sherborne. 


1887 


Tockington Park . 


xii., 33.3-329, . 


Do. 


1888 


Chipping Sodbury 


xiii., 1-5 . 


Do. 


1888 


Gloucester 


xiii., 41-85 


R. V. Vassar Smith, 






Esq. 


1889 


Stroud . " . 


xiii., 393-396 . 


Do. 


1889 


Berkeley . . 


xiv., 1-4 . 


Do. 


1889 


Cheltenham . 


xiv., 189-215 . 

■ 


A. T. Agg-Gardiner, 






Esq., M.P. 



1:92 


Transactions 


FOR THE Year 


1913- 


1 890 


jDristoi 


XV., 1-45 


jonn rseQcioc, ivi.u., 








F.R.S. 


1 89 1 


Malmesbury 


xvi., 1—5 . 


Do. 


1 89 1 


Moreton-in-the-Marsh 


xvi., 21-45 


A. B. i^reeman- 






Mitiord, Lsq., 








C.rS. 


3891 


Gloucester 


xvi., 163—106 


JJO. 


1892 


Cirencester . 


xvii., 1-33 


General Pitt- 






-Kivers, r.iv.o. 


1893 


Gloucester 


xviii., 1—2 


wiiiria Cripps, 








JiSq., C.±5. 


T Qr\ 1 
1^593 


JN ewnnam-on-bevern 


xviii., 3~i8 


Russell J. Kerr, 






Esq. 


1894 


Gloucester 


xviii., 332-338 


Do. 


1894 


Bristol 


xviii., 338-339 . 


Do. 


1894 


Stroud 


xviii., 339-342 . 


JJO. 


1894 


Ledbury 


xix., I— 18 


ivi. iDiaauipn, rLsq., 








iVi.x^. 


1895 


Bredon 


xix., 19—23 


Do. 


1895 


Berkeley 


xix., 421-433 . 


Baron Fitzhardinge. 


1090 


Monmouth. 


XX., I— 30 


Sir Henry Mather- 








Jackson, Bart. 


1 090 


Cirencester 


XX., 32-37 


- < ■ ■ uo. 


1897 


Cheltenham . 


XX., 317-325 • 


■'Do. 


1897 


btow-on-the-Wold 


XX., 326-372 


G. B. Witts, Lsq. 


1 090 


Yate . . . . 


XXI., I— 21 


uo. 




London 


xxi., 208—300 


Sir John Dorington, 








xiart., ivi. Jr. 


1899 


Nailsworth .5; 


XXll., I— 21 


JJO. 


1899 


Fairford 


xxii., 22—72 


Gardner Bazley, 








Jisq., ivi.iA.. 


1900 


loddmgton . . 


... 

XXlll., I — 26 


IJU. 


1900 


Bath .... 


xxiii., 27—78 


F. F. Fox, Esq. 


1 90 1 


WinterbOurne . 


XXIV., I— 32 


JJO. 


I9OI 


Chippmg Campden 


xxiv., 33-73 


jiarl 01 Gams- 








borough. 


1902 


X atton 


XXV., I— 25 


JJO. 


1902 


Tewkesbury 


XXV., 26-76 


Rev. E. R. 








Dowdeswell, M.A. 


1903 


Malmesbury 


XXVI., I— 26 


JJO. 


1903 


Gloucester . . 


xxvi., 27-82 


1^. A. Hyett, Esq., 








"R A 
Jt>. A. 


1904 


Pershore . , . 


xxvii., 1-14 


Do. 


1904 


Hereford « • . 


xxvii., 15—44 


The Very Rev. the 








J-lon. J. W. 








Leigh, D.D., 








F.S.A. 




Berkeley . • . 


xxviii., I— 13 


JJO. 


1905 


Worcester , . 


xxviii., 14—37 


ixignt ivev. J. 




Mitchinson, 








D.C.L. 


1906 


Chepstow 


xxix., 1-16 


Do. 


1906 


Bristol 


xxix., 17-80 


Rev. C. S. Taylor, 






F.S.A. 


1907 


Northleach . • 


XXX,, 1-22 


Do. 



Places of Meeting and Presidents. 



193 



1907 


Cirencester 


XXX., 23-48 


w . oL. L/iair 




Baddeley, Esq. 


I9OO 


X^JCWCllU • « • 


"VVVl T TO 


Do. 


1908 


v^arQin . . 


xxxi., 13-39 . 


Rev. Canon 
Bazeley, M.A. 


1909 


Standish . . . 


xxxii., 1-2*1 


Do. 


1909 


Evesham 


xxxii., 22-56 . 


Professor Oman, 






1910 


_ . 

ioaaingtoii . 


xxxiii., I— 13 


UO. 


19 10 


wxiuru. ... 


xxxiii., 14-43 • 


T. H. ^Varren, Es(][., 






i-iLj.LJi, vice- 

- University of 
Oxford. 


191 I 


Bristol 


xxxiv., i-io 


Do.' 


191 I 


Fairford and Oxford 


xxxiv., 1 1— 39 


ven. w. ri. riutron. 






D.D. 


I9I2 


Dursley 


XXXV., 143-152 


Do. 


I9I2 


Ross .... 


XXXV., 153-170 


T, Dyer-Edwards, 




Esq. 


I9I3 


Wells and Glastonbury . 


xxxvi., 1-30 


The Lord Bishop of 
Gloucester, D.D. 


1913 


Gloucester & Tredington . 


xxxvi., 31-41 . 


Do. 



Vol. xxxvi. 



14 



BRISTOL AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE ARCH^OLOGICAL 
SOCIETY. 



PLACES VISITED. 

■ Chronological List. 

By F. S. HocKADAY, F.R.Hist.S. 



1876. Aug. 23 

„ 24 
25 

1877. Aug. 28 

„ 29 
„ 30 
187S. July 30 

31 

Aug. I 

2 

1879. July 8 

9 
10 

1880. July 21 

22 

„ 23 

1881. July 19 

20 
21 

Aug. 26 
Sept. 14 

1882. Apr. 12 
May 23 
July 25 

26 
27 

1883. April 17 
July 25 

26 
27 

Sept. 24 



July 23 
24 

„ 25 
1885. May 20 
July 24 



Quenington. Bibury. 
Compton Greenfield. 



Gloucester. 

Deerhurst. Tewkesbury. 
Berkeley. 
Cirencester. 
Chedworth. Stowell. 
Ampney Crucis. Fairford. 
Bristol. 

Westbury-on-Trym. Henbury. 

Almondsbury. 
Bristol. 

Hanham Abbotts. Bitton. Siston. 
Cheltenham. Leckhampton. 

Southam. Bishop's Cleeve. Sudeley. Winchcombe. 
Witcombe. Birdlip. Elkstone. Cowley. Coberley. 
Stroud. Minchinhampton. Rodborough. 
Woodchester. Nympsfield. Uley. Owlpen. Stanleys 

St. Leonard. ^' 
Painswick. Bisley. 
Chepstow (Mon.). Tidenham. 
St. Briavels. Tintern (Mon.). 
Lydney. Speech House. 

Micheldean. Abenhall. Littledean. Flaxley. 
Berkeley. Slymbridge. 
Gloucester. Prinknash. Brockworth. 
Staunton. Newland. Clearwell. 

Stow-on-the-Wold. Nether Swell. Upper Slaughter. 
Icomb. Bledington. Chastleton (Oxon.). Oddington.. 
Bourton-on-the-Water. Farmington. Northleach.- 

Hampnett. Notgrove. 
Bristol. Westbury-on-Trym. 
Bath (Somt.). Claverton (Somt.). 

Marshfield. Cold Ashton. Little Sodbury. Dyrham. 
Iron Acton. Thornbury. 

Ruardean. Walford (Hfd.). Goodrich (Hfd.). 
Cirencester, Siddington. South Cerney. i\shton 

Keynes (Wilts.). Cricklade (Wilts.). 
Evesham (Wore). 

Broadway (Wore). Willersey. Saintbury. Chipping 

Campden. Badsey (Wore). 
Buckland. Stanway. Hayles. 
Ashleworth. 
Tewkesbury. 



Places Visited. 



195 



1885. July 25 
„ 26 

Sept. 30 

1886. June 17 
Aug. 3 

4 

5 

1887. May 26 

Aug. 8 

9 

10 

1 1 

•Oct. 14 

1888. May 29 

July 16 

,,17 
18 

19 

1889. May 29 
July 16 

17 
18 

Sept. 19 

1890. June 12 

July 22 
23 

„ 24 
25 

1 89 1. May 26 
July 14 



„ 16 
17 
18 

Oct. 8 

1892. May 31 

Aug. 23 
„ 24 

25 

1893. April 27 
July 25 



Badge worth. Prinknash. 



Ripple (Wore). Hanley Castle (Wore). Birts 

Morton (Wore). Pendock (Wore). 
Strenshani (Wore). Pershore (Wore). Bredon. 

(Wore). 

Rudford. Upleadon. Ne^ent- Dymock. Kempley. 

Deerhurst. 

Dursley. 

Newington Bagpath. Beverston. Tetbury. Weston 
Birt. 

Ozleworth. Kingswood. Wotton-under-Edge. 
Daglingworth. Duntsbourne Rous. Edgeworth. 

Sapperton. 
Stratford -on-A von (Warvv.). 
Warwick. 

Edgehill (Warw.). Compton Wyniates (Warw.). 

Oxhill (Warw.). 
Clifford Chambers. Quinton. Mickleton. 
Tytherington. Alveston. Olveston. Thornbury. 
Yate. Chipping Sodbury. Little Sodbury. Hawkes- 

bury. 
Gloucester. 

Gloucester. Hempsted. 

Brookthorpe. Haresfield. Standish. Hardwicke. 

Elmore. 
Churchdown. 
Berkeley. 

Cheltenham. Swindon. Stoke Orchard. Tredington. 
Boddington. 

Southam. Bishop's Cleeve. Winchcombe. Sudeley. 

Whittington. 
Dowdeswell. Withington. Ched worth. 
Chepstow (Mon.). Caerwent (Mon.). Mathern (Mon.). 

St. Pierre (Mon.). 
Ledbury (Hfd.). Herefordshire Beacon (Hfd.). 

Eastnor (Hfd.). 
Bristol. 
Bristol. 

Wells (Somt.). Glastonbury (Somt.). 
Bristol. 

Malmesbury (Wilts.). 

Moreton-in-Marsh. Bourton-on-the-Hill. Blockley 
(Wore). 

Little Compton (Warw.). Chastleton (Oxon.). 

Adlestrop. Rollright (Oxon.). Chipping Norton 

(Oxon.). 
Oxford. 
Oxford. 
Oxford. 
Gloucester. 

Bourton-on-the-Water. Burford (Oxon.). Great 

Barrington. 
Cirencester. 

Fairford. Kempsford. Cricklade (Wilts.). Sid- 
dington 



Abury (Wilts 
Gloucester. 
Newnham. Lydney. 



Silbury (Wilts.). Marlboro' (Wilts.). 



196 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



1893. July 26 

M 27 

1894. J^iy 24 

25 

„ 26 

1895. J^iis 13 

Aug. 13 
14 
15 

1896. July 14 

„ 15 



Sept. 24 

1897. May 26 
July 27 

„ 28 

29 

1898. June 7 
July II 

12 

„ 13 
14 
IS 

„ 16 

1899. May 24 

Aug. 9 

10 



Sept. 7 
1900. June 7 
July 17 



19 

1901. April 16 
June 6 
Aug. 20 



22 

1902. May 26 



English. 



Whitchurch (Hfd.). 
Westbury-on-Severn. Newn- 



Coberley. 
Slaughter. 

Broughton 

Swinbrook 



Goodrich (Hfd). 

Bicknor. 
Littledean. Flaxley. 

ham. 

Ledbury (Hfd.). Bosbury (Hfd.). 
Eastnor (Hfd.). Birtsmor ton (Wore). Little Malvern 
(Wore). 

Ledbury (Hfd.). Preston, Kempley. Much Marcle 
(Hfd.). 

Bredon (Wore). Kemerton. Overbury (Wore). 

Beckford. 
Berkeley. 

Berkeley. North Nibley. Wotton-under-Edge. 

Stone. Tortworth. Thornbury. 

Monmouth. Micheltroy (Mon.). Raglan (Mon.). 

Rockfield (Mon.). Llangattock-Vibon-Avel (Mon.). 
Grosmont (Mon.). Skenfrith (Mon.). Welsh New- 
ton (Hfd.). 

Staunton. St. Briavels. Newland. 

Cirencester. Daglingworth. Pinbury. Sapperton. 
Coates. 

Birdlip. Brimpsfield. Elkstone. Cowley 
Stow-on-the-Wold. Icomb. Upper 

Nether Swell. 
Stow-on-the-Wold. Bloxham (Oxon.). 

(Oxon.). Adderbury (Oxon.). 
Shipton - under - Wychwood (Oxon.). 

(Oxon.). Asthall (Oxon.). Burford (Oxon.). 
Iron Acton. Yate. Horton. Little Sodbury. 
London. 

London. Hampton Court (M'sex.), 
London. 
London. 
London. 

Silchester (Hants.). 
Newington Bagpath. 
Nailsworth. 

Ampney Crucis. Meysey Hampton. Fairford. 

Lechlade. Inglesham (Wilts.). Little Faringdon 
(Oxon.). Langford (Oxon.). Southrop. Hatherop. 

Quenington. Coin St. Aldwyn. Bibury. Ciren- 
cester. 

Hayles. 

Toddington. Hayles. Stanton. Stanway. 
Bath (Somt.). 

Hinton Charterhouse (Somt.). Farleigh Hungerford 
(Somt.). Bradford-on-Avon (Wilts.). Great Chal- 
field (Wilts.). 

Bitton. Siston. Pucklechurch. Dyrham. 

Gloucester. 

Winterbourne. Almondsbury. Westbury-on-Trym. 
Evesham (Wore). Wickhamford (Wore). Chipping 
Campden. 

Ebrington. Quinton. Mickleton. Marston Sicca 

(or Long). 
Buckland. Broadway (Wore). 

Yatton (Somt.). Wrington (Somt.). Banwell (Somt.). 



Beverston. Horsley. Avening. 



* 



Places Visited. 



197 



1902. July 8 

9 

10 

1903. May 25 
July 14 

16 

1904. June 7 
July 12 

14 

1905. June 6 
July 1 1 

12 
13 

1906. May 29 
July 17 



19 

1907. May 28 
July 16 



18 

1908. June 2 
Aug. 4 

.5- 
6 

1909. June 8 

July 20 
21 



19 10. May 18 
Aug. 2 

3 



191 1. May 30 
July II 



Tewkesbury. 

Great Malvern (Wore). Little Malvern (Wore). 

Bushley (Wore). 
Tewkesbury. Deerhurst. 

Malmesbury (Wilts.). Great Sherston (Wilts.). 
Gloucester. 



Gloucester. 
Mathern (Mon.). 
Bredon (Wore). 

(Wore). 
Hereford. 
Kilpeck (Hfd.). 



Caerwent (Mon.). Caldicot (Mon.). 
Strensham (Wore). Pershore 



Abbeydore 



Brockworth. Witcombe. 



Stoke Orchard. Bishop's 



Tintern (Mon.). 



Withing- 



Cricklade 
Cerney. 



Ewias Harold (Hfd.) 
(Hfd.). Madley (Hfd.). 
Ludlow (Shrop.). Leominster (Hfd.). 
Berkeley. North Nibley. 
Cheltenham. Badgeworth 
Worcester. 

Cheltenham. Tredington. 

Cleeve. Southam. 
St. Briavels. Clearwell. 
Bristol. 

Clapton-in-Gordano (Somt.). Weston-in-Gordano 
(Somt.). Clevedon~ (Somt.). Chelvey (Somt.). 
Long Ashton (Somt.). 

Pucklechurch. Dyrham. Cold Ashton. Marshfield. 
Wick. 

Shipton Sollars. Northleach. Chedworth. 

ton. 
Cirencester. 

Ashton Keynes (Wilts.). Purton (Wilts.). 

(Wilts.). Down Ampney. South 

Siddington. 
Cirencester. Avebury (Wilts.). 
Dymock. Kempley. Newent. Pauntley. 
Llandaff (Glam.). St. Pagans (Glam.). 
Caerphilly (Glam.). Cardiff (Glam.). 
Llantwit Major (Glam.). St. Donats (Glam.). 

Ewenny (Glam.). 
Standish. Moreton Valence. Frampton-on-Severn. 

Stanley St. Leonard. 
Evesham (Wore). 

Cropthorne (Wore). Fladbury (Wore). Pershore 
(Wore). Wyre Piddle (Wore). Elmley Castle 
(Wore). Nether ton (Wore). 

Hinton-on-the-Green. Great Washbourne. Beckford. 
Overbury (Wore). 

Toddington. Winchcombe. Sudeley. 

Oxford. 

Abingdon (Berks.). Dorchester (Oxon.). Ewelme 
(Oxon.). 

Yarnton (Oxon.). ■ Woodstock (Oxon.). Northleigh 
(Oxon.). Southleigh (Oxon.). Stanton Harcourt 
(Oxon.). 

Oxford. 

Bristol. Henbury. 

Iffley (Oxon.). Nuneham Courtenay (Oxon.). 
Minster Lovell (Oxon.). Swinbrook (Oxon.). Wid- 
ford (Oxon.). Burford (Oxon.). Fairford. 



198 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



191 1. July 13 

1912. June 5 
July 9 

., 10 
II 

19 1 3. June 3 

4 

5 

July 16 
Sept. 2 



Oxford. 

Dursley. Ozleworth. Owlpen. Uley. 
Monmouth. Raglan (Mon.). 
Ross (Hfd.). Goodrich (Hfd.). 

Lea (Hfd.). Weston-under-Penyard (Hfd.). Much 

Marcle (Hfd.). 
Wells (Somt.). 

Meare (Somt.). Glastonbury (Somt.). Wells (Somt.). 
Wookey (Somt.). Croscombe (Somt.). Shepton 

Mall<3t (Somt.). Stanton Drew (Somt.). 
Pershore (Wore). Bredon (Wore). 
Gloucester. Tredington. Stoke Orchard. Swindon. 

Cheltenham. 



COUNTY AND ALPHABETICAL LIST. 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 



Abenhall 
Adlestrop 
Almondsbury . 
Alveston 
Ampney Crucis 
Ampney, Down 
Ashleworth 
Ashton, Cold . 
Avening . 
Badgeworth 
Barrington, Great 
Beckford 
Berkeley 
Beverston 
Bibury . 
Bicknor, English 
Birdlip . 
Bisley 
Bitton . 
Bledington 
Boddington 
Bourton-on-the-Hill 
Bourton-on-the-Water 
Brimpsfield 
Bristol . 
Brockworth 
Brookthorpe 
Buckland 

Campden, Chipping 

Cerney, South . 

Chedworth 

Cheltenham 

Churchdown 

Cirencester. 

Clearwell 

Cleeve, Bishop's 

Clifford Chambers 

Coates 

Coberley 

Coin St. Aldwyn 

Compton Greenfield 

Cowley . 

Daglingworth . 

Deerhurst 

Dowdeswell 

Duntsbourne Rous 

Dursley . 

Dymock . 

Dyrham . 



1891. 
1878. 
1887. 
1877. 
1907. 
188!;. 
1883. 
1899. 

1888. 1905 
1892. 
1909. 
1876. 
1886. 
1877. 
1893. 

1879. 1897. 
1880. 

1878. 1900. 
1882. 
1889. 
1891. 
1882. 
1897. 

1878. 1883. 
1882. 1905. 



1901. 
1899. 



1906. 



1881. 
1899. 
1899. 



1892. 



;889. 1895. 1905* 



1890. 1906. 191 1. 



i«»4. 1901. 

1884. 1901. 

1884. 1907. 
1877. 1889. 
1879. 1889. 
1888. 

1877. 1884. 1892. 
1907. 

1882. 1906. 

1879. 1889. 1905- 

1887. 

1896. 

1879. 1897. 

1899. 

1878. 

1879. 1897. 

1887. 1896. 

1876. 1886. 1902. 

1889. 

1887. 

1886. 1912. 

1885. 1908. 

1883. 1900. 



1907. 

1905. 1913. 



1896. 1899. 



1906. 



200 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE {continued). 



Ebrington 
Edgeworth 
Elkstone 
Elmore . 

Fairford . . ,c. 
Farmington 
Flaxley . 

Frampton-on-Severn 
Gloucester 

Hailes 
Hampnett 
Hanham Abbots 
Hardwicke 
Haresfield 
Hatherop 
Hawkesbury 
Hempsted 
Henbury 

Hititon -on -the- Green 
Horsley . 
Horton . 
Icomb 
Iron Acton 
Kemerton 
Kempley 
Kempsford 
Kingswood 
Lechlade 
Leckhampton . 
Littledean 
Sydney . 
Marshfield 
Marston Sicca . 
Meyseyhampton 
Micheldean 
Mickleton 
Minchinhampton 
Moreton -in ^Marsh 
Moreton Valence 
Nailsworth 
Newent . 

Newington Bagpath 
Newland 
Newnham 
Nibley, North . 
Northleach 
Notgrove 
Nympsfield 
Oddington 
Olveston 
Owlpen . 
Ozleworth 
Painswick 
Pauntley 
Pinbury . 
Preston (Forest) 





I90I. 




1887. 




1879. 
1888. 




1877. 




1882. 




I88I. 




1909. 




1876. 




19 

T 88 /f 




1 oo4- 
Ioo2. 




10 /o. 
1888. 
T 888 

i»99. 




1888. 

1888. 
1878. 

1909. 




T Rnn 
1099. 




1898. 




T 880 

IOo2. 




1883. 




1895. 




1885. 




1 592. 
T 88^ 




I ooO. 
1899. 




T 8 nr\ 

i»79. 




T 88 T 

I 00 I . 
T 8ri-2 




1883. 
I9OI . 
1899. 




T 88 T 

lool . 




T 88 ^ 
loo / . 




looO. 




I 89 I. 




1909. 




1899. 




1 00 5. 




1886. 




1882. 




1893. 




1895. 




1882. 




t88-7 
1 ooz. 




1880. 




1882. 




1887. 




1880. 




1886. 




1880. 




1908. 




1896. 
1894. 



901. 1903. 191, 
1899. • 1900,- 



1897- 

1892. 1899. 191 1. 



1 89 1. i8()3 



191 1. 



1897. 
1898. 

1894. 



1893. 
1906. 



1901. 



1908. 
1899. 
1896. 

1905. 
1907. 



191 2. 
1912. 



1908. 



County and Alphabetical List. 



2or 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE 

Prinknash 
Pucklechurch . 
Quenington 
Quinton . 
Rodborough 
Ruardean 
Rudford . 
St. Briavels 
Saintbury 
Sapperton 
Shipton Sollars 
Siddington 
Siston 

Slaughter, Upper 
Slymbridge 
Sodbiiry, Chipping 
Sodbury, Little 
Southam 
Southrop . 
Speech House . 
Standish 

Stanley St. Leonard 
Stanton . 
Stanway . 
vStaunton 
Stoke Orchard 
Stone 

Stow-on-the-Wold 
Stowell . 
Stroud 
Sudeley . 
Swell, Lower . 
Swindon . 
Tetbury . 
Tewkesbury 
Thornbury 
Tidenham 
Toddington 
Tortworth 
Tredington 
Tytherington . 
Uley 

Upleadon 

Washbourne, Great 
W estbury-on-S e vern 
Westbury-on -Trym 
Weston Birt . 
Whittington 
Wick 
Willersey 
Winchcombe . 
Winterbourne . 
Witcombe, Great 
Withington 
Woodchester . 
Wotton -under-Edge 
Yate 





1882. 




1900. 




t877 
1077. 




1887. 




1880. 
T885 




iOO J. 

1885. 




I88I. 




1884. 




1887! 




1907. 




1884. 




1878. 




1882. 




I88I. 

i88'8. 




1883. 




1879. 

T8r>r» 




^ M 00 
3 00 00 




1880. 
1900. 
1884. 




1882. 




1889. 
1895- 




Ioo2. 




1877. 




1880. 




1879. 




1882. 
1889. 




1886. 
1876. 
1883. 




1881. 




1900. 




1895. 
1889. 




1887. 




1880. 




1885. 




1909, 




1893. 




1883. 




1886. 




1889. 
1906. 




1884. 
1879- 




I9OI. 




1879. 




1889. 
1880. 




1886. 
1888. 



(continued). 
1888. 
1906. • 
1899. 
1901. 



1896. 1906. 



1 895. 

i'892. 
1900. 
1897. 



'1907. 



1888. 1898. 

1889. 1905. 



1909. 
1909. 

1900. ; 
1896. 

1905. 1913. 
1897. 

1889. 1910. 

1897. 

1913- 

1885. 1902. 
1887. .1895. 

1910. 

1^05. .1913- 
1912, 



1901. 



1889. 1910. 

1905. 
1907. 



1895. 



^202 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Abingdon 



Cardiff . 
Caerphilly 
Ewenny . 
LlandafE . 
Llantwit Major 
St. Donats 
St. Pagans , 



Silchester 



Abbeydore 
Bosbury . 
Eastnor . 
Ewias Harold . 
Goodrich 
Hereford 
Herefordshire Beacon 
Kilpeck . 
Lea 

Ledbury . 
Leominster 
Madley , 
Marcle, Much . 
Newton, Welsh 
Ross 

Walford . 
Weston -under-Penyard 
Whitchurch , , 



BERKSHIRE. 
. I 1910. 

GLAMORGANSHIRE. 







1908. 






1908. 






1908. 






1908. 


• 




1908. 






1908. 


• 




1908. 



HAMPSHIRE. 
. I 1898. 

HEREFORDSHIRE. 





1904. 




1894. 




1890. 




1904. 




1883. 




1904. 


. 1 1890. 




1904. 




I9I2. 




1890. 




1904. 




1904. 




1894. 




1896. 




I9I2. 




1883. 




I9I2. 




1893. 



1894. 

1893. I9I2. 
1894. 

I9I2. 



MIDDLESEX AND SURREY. 



Hampton Court 


• • 


1898. 




London , « 


• • • 


1898. 






MONMOUTHSHIRE. 


Caerwent 




1889. 


1903 


Caldicot . 




1903. 




Chepstow 




1881. 


1889 


Grosmont 




1896. 




Llangattock-Vibon-Avel . 


1896. 




Mathern 




1889. 


1903 


Micheltroy 




1896. 


Monmouth 




1896. 


1912 


Raglan . 




1896. 


1912 


Rockfield 




1896. 




St. Pierre 




1889. 




S ken frith . 




1896. 




Tintern . 




1881. 


1906. 



County and Alphabetical List. 



203 



Adderbury 
Asthall . 
31oxham 
Broughton 
Burford . 
Chastleton 
Dorchester 
Ewelme . 
Faringdon, Little 
Iffley 
S-angford . 
Minster Lovell 
Northleigh 
Norton, Chipping 
Nuneham Courtenay 
Oxford . 
Rollright 
Shipton-under-Wychwood 
Southleigh 
Stanton Harcourt 
Swinbrook 
Widford . 
Woodstock 
Yarnton . 



OXFORDSHIRE. 

1897. 
1897. 
1897. 
1897. 
1892. 
1882. 
1910. 
1910. 
1899. 
191 1. 
1899. 
1911. 
1910. 
1891. 
191 1. 
1891. 
1891. 

1897. 
1910. 
1910. 

1897. 
1911. 
1910. 
1910. 



1897. 
1891. 



1911. 



1910. 1911. 



1911. 



Ludlow 



SHROPSHIRE. 
• I 1904. 



Ashton, Long . 

Banwell . 

Bath 

Chelvey . 

Clapton-in-Gordano 

Claverton 

Clevedon 

Crosscombe 

Farleigh Hungerford 

Glastonbury 

Hinton Charterhouse 

Meare 

Shepton Mallet 
Stanton Drew . 
Wells 

Weston-in-Gordano 
Wookey . 
Wrington 
Yatton 



SOMERSET. 
1906. 



1900. 



1902. 
1883. 
1906. 
1906. 
1883. 
1906. 

1913- 
1900. 

1890. 1913. 
1900. 
1913- 
1913. 
1913. 
1890. 
1906. 

1913. 
1902. 
1902. 



1913. 



Compton, Little 
Compton Wyniates 
Edgehill . 
Oxhill . 
Stratford-on-Avon 
Warwick 



WARWICKSHIRE. 
1891. 
1887. 
1887. 
1887. 
1887. 
1887. 



204 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Abury 

Ashton Keynes 
Avebury 

Bradf ord-on - Avon 

Chalfield, Great 

Cricklade 

Inglesham 

Malmesbury 

Marlborough 

Purton 

Sherston, Great 
Silbury . 



WILTSHIRE, 





1892. 






1884. 


I007 




1907. 






1900. 






1900. 






1884. 


1892, 




1899. 






I89I. 


1903. 




1892. 






1907. 






1903. 






1892. 





WORCESTERSHIRE. 



Badsey . 

Birtsmorton 

Blockley 

Bredon . 

Broadway 

Bushley . 

Cropthorne 

Elmley Castle 

Evesham . 

Fladbury 

Hanley Castle 

Malvern, Great 

Malvern, Little 

Netherton 

Overbury 

Pendock . 

Pershore 

Ripple 

Strensham 

Wickhamford 

Worcester 

Wvre Piddle 



1884 
1885 
1891 
1885 
1884 
1902 
1909 
1909 
1884 
1909 
1885 
1902 
1894 
1909 

1895 
i88s 
1885 
1885 
1885 
1901 

1905 
1909 



1894. 

1895. 1904- 1913- 
1901. 



1901. 1909. 

1902. 
1909. 

1904. 1909. 1913. 
1904. 



PLACE-NAMES OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE. A Hand-book. By 
W. St. Clair Baddeley. Gloucester: John Bellows. 191 3. 
5s. 

At last we have a really good book on the place-names of 
Gloucestershire, and it is a matter for congratulation that it is the 
work of one who lives among us, and knows the district thoroughly, 
rather than that of a philologist from outside. With the exception 
of Worcestershire, there is hardly any shire in England which has a more 
abundant supply of really early forms of place-names than our own. 
Of the Worcester books, Nero E i dates from about a.d. iooo, and 
Tiberius A xiii from about eighty years later, and these two books form 
an invaluable collection of documents which give us many names from 
all parts of the shire east of Severn in the forms in which they existed 
before they were corrupted by foreign tongues and pens. The later 
monastic books, such as those of Gloucester, Evesham and Winch- 
combe, are, of course, much less valuable, because the form of the name 
in the document cannot claim any real right to be older than the 
document itself — it may or it may not be so. One almost wishes that 
the writer had seen his way to print "references to the Worcester and 
Bath documents in different type. The plan of the book is that of an 
alphabetical list of place-names with explanations. Under each heading 
there come first references to ancient forms of the name with the dates 
of the documents in which they occur, and then remarks on the history 
and the meaning of the name ; and it may be said at once that these 
are very carefully drawn up, and that sound and well-thought-out 
reasons are given for the conclusions set forth. 

In recent books on place-names there has been a strong tendency 
to rely on invention of personal names in cases of difficulty, and this 
tendency is clearly marked in this book on Gloucestershire. The 
tendency may have arisen from the publication of Searle's Onomasticon, 
but it is very much alive, and should be suspiciously watched. For 
example, it is suggested that " Jack-Barrow " is derived from some 
pre-Saxon name. But is it not the case that odd corners of land such 
as those at the end of balks were known as Jack's, being a kind of 
no-man's land ? When it is said that the meaning of the name of the 
Domesday Hundred of Tolangebrige is " To the long bridge," should 



2o6 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



it not be really " At the long bridge," in accordance with the old use of 
" to " for " at " ? A ninth-century copy of the Apostles' Creed runs : 
" He sit to swythran hand God Faeder," and it is said that Bishop 
Atterbury refused the See of Exeter because he did not wish to be 
called Tooterbury. Oddly enough, though the name Gloucester is treated 
at length, no explanation is given of Bristol. Yet Bristol was a Glouces- 
tershire borough, the borough south of Avon was Redcliff ; and though 
Bristol has been a shire exactly as Gloucestershire is a shire, for more than 
five centuries, all its centres of government, civil and ecclesiastical,, 
are on soil which was once Gloucestershire. There is no doubt that 
Bristol is Brycgstow, the bridge-place ; Bristol Bridge is older than 
Bristol. The persistent hard tniddle c occurring in every form of the 
name which is found before 1066 is sufficient proof of this. With 
regard to Silver Street, it is curious that no notice is taken of the sugges- 
tion of the Rev. G. T. Llewellyn that the name is really Sulhford, a 
narrow ford, dug out as it were with a plough. The Rev. J. S. Hill 
is more inclined to connect it with O.E. sol or syl mud. At any rate, 
until a few years ago Silver Street crossed the Frome at Bristol a short 
distance above the Broad-ford, where St. John's Bridge afterwards 
stood. Concerning Woeful Dane-bottom reference might have been 
made to Woeful Lake Farm, between Sherborne and Aldsworth, in 
support of the suggested derivation from Wulfflaed. It might well have 
been noticed under Abone that the word is simply the ablative of the 
river-name Abon ; all the place-names in the fourteenth Iter except 
Trajectus are ablatives, governed by ab at the beginning. It is a relief 
to find a book on the old names of Gloucestershire which does not 
mention Abona or Via Julia. Concerning Aust, it must be remembered 
that the oldest form of the name is A ustin, which occurs in the charter 
by which King ^thelred in 692 granted thirty cassates to Bishop Oftfor 
at Heanburg and Austin. The charter is a Worcester one of good repute, 
and is passed by Kemble. Mr. Duignan, in referring the gift to the 
Worcestershire Hanbury, was no doubt misled by Kemble and Birch, 
who both give this identification, but both those authorities need 
careful watching with regard to their identifications. There is no doubt 
that the places referred to arc Henbury and Aust, and the history of 
the grant is traced in Transactions xviii. 297-302. We thus find Aust 
known as Austin within ninety years of the visit of St. Austin to the 
borderland of the Huiccians and West Saxons. The dative form Austan 
found in 793 and 929 is at least a century later. Does not this point 
to the fact that the name from which the place derived its appellation 
was A ugustinus ? There is no reason at all for supposing that the name 
Augusta was ever applied to Aust before a.d. iooo. The name Bradley 



i 



Notices of Publications. 



207- 



applied to a Domesday Hundred still survives in Yanworth ( Trans^ 
xviii. 309). 

Mr. Baddeley supplies an interesting Introduction in which he deals, 
with many things. It is likely that- he underrates the influences 
of the Northmen on our place-names. They certainly settled at 
Cirencester during the winter after the Battle of Ethandun. According 
to Ethelwerd, they had attacked Gloucester before that battle, and had 
possibly kept possession of it till they went to Cirencester (M.H.B., 
515c, 5 1 6a), and in 894 they crossed the shire " up by Thames till they 
arrived at Severn, then up by Severn," most likely passing to Thames- 
Head and down the Stroud Valley, then up the river past Gloucester, as 
Queen Margaret went afterwards, to meet their doom at Buttington 
Tump, by the mouth of the Wye. Gloucestershire would have been a 
district they would have been very glad to capture and hold, for 
Gloucester is only distant some sixty miles from Rugby, at the south- 
western point of the region of the five boroughs, and if the Northmen 
could have held both those points it is likely that the history of middle 
England in the tenth century would have been very different. It is, 
therefore, no wonder that there is a good sprinkling of Northern names 
in the regions of our shire mentioned. The river names of the shire 
receive a good deal of attention both in the text and in the Introduction. 
There are strange names among them, and some of the rivers have 
changed their names in a very strange way. A paper on these names 
for the Transactions would be very welcome. It is not easy to see why 
Durdham Down should be placed on p. 57 " near Bath," especially as- 
it is referred to on page 128 in connection with Redland, with a much 
more probable meaning. The note on page 151 may be referred to with 
profit in connection with this name. It is curious that no attempt 
seems to be made to account for both the soft and hard sounds of 
the initial c in ceaster in places so close together as Cirencester and 
Chesterton. This has always seemed to the writer to be one of the 
puzzles of Gloucestershire place-names. Ryne is interpreted as "an 
artificial runnel or ditch." Why artificial ? The stream on which 
Wrington, in north-west Somerset, stands was in old days known as 
Wrinn, and no doubt it gave its name to the village. Lower down it is- 
the Yeo, and gives its second name to Yatton. The author calls his 
work " A Handbook," but it is excellently well adapted both by shape 
and weight for the pocket, it would be no felt burden at the end of the 
longest day on the hills ; and there could be no more pleasant way of 
enjoying a leisure day on Cotswold than by taking this book as a com- 
panion, and reading off the place-names that are to be found in that 
beautiful laud. Few things would be more helpful to the study of early 



208 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



history in our district than that copies of this book should be multiplied 
in every part of it, that folk should interest themselves in the subject, 
and should show their interest by sending suggestions to the author. 
No doubt some of the present interpretations, especially those relating 
to mythical personal names, might pass away, but widespread and lasting 
good would be done. The following errata should be noted : — p. xxviii. 
line 10, Maple belongs to line 9 ; p. 58, line 13, for " tun " read " tune " ; 
p. 83, delete " De," line 5 ; p. 93, line 12, for " Eserig " read " Esesig " ; 
p. 95, for Cnapa read Cynepa (unrecorded) ; p. 144, under 5. Briavels : 
line 2, for " probably " read " possibly," and line 9, for " became " read 
may have become " ; p. 17;, 2nd column, bottom, for " walls " read 
^' wells." 

THE PLACE-NAMES OF SOMERSET. By James S. Hill, B.D, 
Bristol : St. Stephen's Printing Works. 1914. los. 6d. 

This is a pleasant, chatty, and interesting book about the place-names 
of Somerset. Its plan is entirely different from that of Mr. Baddeley's 
work. In the Gloucestershire book, as we have seen, the names are 
taken and considered one by one, and meanings are assigned to them. 
It is true, of course, that no single reader is likely to agree with all 
these interpretations, but the work is thoroughly well done, even 
though the light be somewhat dry. In the Somerset book the names 
are taken in groups, and are so considered, and this plan of course 
enables the writer to put the subject before his readers in a much 
more interesting form. The two plans are so different that the two 
books cannot really be compared. The Gloucestershire plan is the 
more scientific and thorough ; the Somerset book is one which could 
be read through with pleasure. 

It is likely that Mr. Hill has been wise in the method of his treatment 
of the subject, for the Somerset documents are so late, and many of 
their contents are of such poor quality, that thoroughly careful 
treatment would be wasted upon them. The Glastonbury Book, 
Bodl. Wood, i., was written about 1350; the Liber Albus of Wells 
contains matter as late as 1493 ; and though the Winchester Book 
was written in the twelfth century, the fact that a facsimile thirteenth- 
century charter (Cotton Ch. viii. 18) exists which purports to be a 
grant by King Edgar in 975 of Bleadon to Winchester Cathedral, 
and which incorporates a partially-digested hunch of Domesday 
Book, throws doubt on the credit of that church. It is likely that the 
document was forged in order to account for the possession of Bleadon, 
because the Codex Wintoniensis only contains a grant of Bleadon by 

i 



Notices of Publications. 



209 



King Eadwig to his tliegn Ethelwold in 956. ^ Mr. Hill quite rightly 
deals with this late and unsatisfactory ecclesiastical material as though 
it stood on the same level with such mediaeval matter as Hundred Rolls, 
or documents of that date. It is unfortunate «that he derives Loxton 
from the Scandinavian Loki, for the form Loxanwuda, which occurs 
in the genuine charter of 956 — " the wood of the Loxa " — clearly 
shows that the name of the wood is taken from the river Lox, which 
runs by Loxton. It is also unfortunate that Mr. Hill has trespassed 
over the boundary into Bristol, ^ for Bristol is a Gloucestershire borough, 
though it is true that the Gloucestershire borough has for the last 
eight centuries or more been annexing bits of Somerset. There is 
not the slightest reason for supposing that Brihtric, or any of his 
ancestors, ever had anything to do with Bristol. If the borough had 
belonged to them we should have expected that it would have passed 
to Queen Matilda as Tewkesbury did, and there is no evidence at all 
that this was so. The reputed connection of Brihtric with Bristol 
is a mere fiction of the Tewkesbury monks, who held the tithes of the 
borough, and to whom the Priory of St. James belonged ; but 
Tewkesbury Abbey was a twelfth-century foundation. To the student 
of place-names it will be of use to study this book carefully, for it will 
make him think, and examine, and sift. He will probably disagree 
more often with Mr. Hill tkan he would with Mr. Baddeley, but the 
very disagreement should lead to reasoning as to the grounds why 
he should disagree. Moreover, the book is a treasury of wide and 
varied knowledge of many kinds concerning the subject of which it 
treats. There is, however, the same tendency to invention of unknown 
personal names which seems to be common to most of the writers 
on this subject at the present time. To the readers of the books about 
Somerset — and there seem to be a good many of them — to whom 
the district is as a fairyland, where all things are beautiful and anything 
may be true, the book will be an attractive one, for the writer has 
fully entered into the spirit of their dream ; but it is certainly well 
that a somewhat dry subject should be treated in a pleasant way. 
Finally, it may be truly said that the printers and binders have turned 
out a piece of excellent work. 

CHURCH BELLS OF ENGLAND. By H. B. Walters. F.S.A. 
Oxford : University Press. 19 14. 

Mr. Walters is an old friend of our Society in the matter of church 
bells, for he has very kindly contributed valuable papers on the subject 



i Vol. XXXVI. 




2 p. 114. 



210 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



to Volumes xviii., xx., and xxxiv. of our Transactions relating to 
Gloucestershire bells, and to the bell-foundries of the shire, so we 
know that his book will be comprehensive and trustworthy. It covers 
the whole ground of the subject of bell-ringing, from the casting of 
bells, their weights, uses, dedications, decorations and inscriptions, 
to the foundries, ancient and modern, in different parts of England, 
and ringing and ringers. It is not a mere gossipy book on a very 
interesting subject, but a scholarly work on which folk may thoroughly 
rely. From the list of bell-founders we learn that Johannes le Belyetere, 
Propositus of Bristol in 1236, is the first Englishman of whom it may 
be said with certainty that he cast bells, for though a Simon le Belyetere, 
1226-66, is mentioned at Worcester, it is noted that he was probably 
not a founder. We see also from the position of John the bell-founder 
in the borough that his craft was a profitable one, which was held 
in good repute. In those early days the Severn Valley seems to have 
been the chief and earliest home of bell-founding in England. Before 
1300 the only founders noted are Simon, Agnes, a second Simon, and 
Henry at Worcester between 1226 and 1306 ; John and Walter at 
Bristol in 1236 and 1296 ; Michael and Richard Wymbysh in London, 
between 1290 and 1315 ; and William de Hooton at York, 1 297-1 300 ; 
while on p. 23 an account is given of the cost of casting a bell at 
Bridgwater in 1283. The West-country craftsmen did not lose their 
skill as time passed on, and it is strange that Mr. Walters does not 
mention the noble bells which William Wyrcestre tells us hung in the 
tower of St. Mary Redcliff about 1480, He gives their weights : ^ — 
I, 1 1 cwt. 2 qr. 12 lb. ; II, 14 cwt. o qr. 2 lb. ; III, 19 cwt. 2 qr. 16 lb. ; 
IV, 30 cwt. less 3 lb. ; V, 44 cwt. 2 qr. 16 lb. ; VI, 62 cwt. 2 qr. 24 lb. 
The great bell of St. Peter's Abbey, Gloucester, cast probably about 
1460, weighs 58 cwt., considerably less than the great bell of Redcliff. 
The ring of twelve bells at St. Paul's Cathedral is the heaviest in the 
world, and the bells which correspond in weight with the Redcliff 
bells are these :— XII, 62 cwt., B flat ; XI, 44 cwt. 2 qr., C ; X;, 
30 cwt. 2 qr. 22 lb., D flat ; VI, 14 cwt. o qr. 4 lb., A flat ; IV, 1 1 cwt. 
3 qr. 31 lb., C. The third Redclifl bell comes between VII and VIII 
at St. Paul's, striking F and G. The coincidence in weight between 
Ave out of the six Redcliff bells and those of the ring at St. Paul's 
is very remarkable, and can hardly be due throughout to chance. 
The three heaviest bells at St. Paul's were given by the Corporation 
of London and by the Grocers' and Clothworkers' Companies. Who 
gave the Redcliff bells 430 years ago we know not. It is likely enough 
that William Wyrcestre knew, but he did not think it needful to 

1 Dallaway, 133. 



Notices of Publications. 



2TI 



advertise the gift. The ring of six bells at St. Mary Redclifi in 1480 
weighed 181 cwt. 2 qr. 26 1b., a greater weight than the heaviest six 
bells now in the rings of twelve bells at York Minster, Worcester, 
and Southwark Cathedrals, and St. Mary-le-B(5w ; and they weighed 
about a ton more than the whole ring of ten bells now at Beverley 
Minster. Perhaps we may have reason to complain that the Bristol 
bell-men of 1480 have been passed over ; but no doubt it was needful 
to omit many things. It is worth noting that the saints named on bells 
are not usually those in whose name the church is dedicated ; it is 
curious, however, that there is considerable difference in this matter 
in different districts. In Cumberland in five out of six instances 
the dedication of the tenor coincided with that of the church ; in 
Somerset there was only one. case of agreement out of six. Founders 
also had their preferences : the London founders favoured St. Catherine, 
the Bristol men St. Anne and St. George. The book is furnished with 
full bibliographies, both general and topographical ; there is also 
a list of bell-founders, with two full indices, one of names and places, 
and the other of general matters. Altogether it is a work which may well 
find a place in any library as one which is likely to be of lasting value. 

THE CHURCH PLATE OF BRECONSHIRE. By the Rev. J. I. 
Evans. Stow-on-the-Wold : J. H. Alden. 1912. 21s. 

After giving an account of the church plate of the Welsh shires of 
Pembroke, Carmarthen and Radnor, Mr. Evans has taken in hand the 
church plate of Breconshire. The book really includes a good deal more 
than a descriptive list of the plate now belonging to the various churches ; 
for there are besides : — Copies of the Chantry Reports of 1548, and a 
few inventories of church goods of 1552-3 ; also a list of the dates of 
the transcripts of the parish registers of the shire, and an essay on the 
Primitive Saints of Breconshire. As in Radnorshire, there is not now 
a single piece of mediaeval church plate left ; it is evident that those in 
authority were out for plunder in this poor Welsh shire three hundred 
and sixty years ago, and the besom of the spoiler swept clean, for the 
earliest dated vessels are of the year 1576. In addition to the detailed 
account of the plate in each parish, mention is made of the bells, and 
also of the earliest dated entries in the church registers. Sad to say, 
instances of spoliation in quite recent times are recorded, one of the 
most remarkable being the disappearance between 1890 and 1895 of a 
handsome brass chandelier from Christ's College, Brecon, which had 
been given to the church in 1723. The then head master of the school 
had undertaken the reseating of the chapel, and the then Bishop of 



212 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



St. David's was a member of the governing body, but the chandeHer 
was sold to a Brecon builder for £2> los. It is clear that high and 
responsible position on the part of its guardians may be no protection 
to church furniture, for Quis custodiet ipsos custodes ? Yet presumably 
there was a Chancellor of the Diocese of St. David's at the time. We may 
well ask whether they were all in it, or whether they were passing by on 
the other side ? For Christ's College, Brecon, is not a church in a corner. 

The Chantry Reoorts throw a good deal of light on the religious life 
of the country on the eve of the Reformation. The wealth of the 
district lay in flocks and herds, and so it came to pass that the endow- 
ment of some of the lights and chantries consisted rather of cattle and 
sheep than of land. Thus the Chapel of Stradwallen possessed fifteen 
cows and thirty sheep and lambs, and the Church of Lampeter possessed 
no fewer than nineteen cows and one hundred sheep ; the animals were 
let out to hire in Llandettuy at the rate of 3d. a sheep and 2d. a lamb, 
and both there and at Stradwallen the lessees refused to deliver them up *" 
to the commissioners. Besides the notices of registers in the detailed 
account of the various parishes, there is a most useful list of the 
Transcripts of Parish Registers in the Diocesan Registry ; unhappily, 
the series in each case is very incomplete, and there are none before 1685. 

Before the formation of the shire of Brecon in 1536, the area now 
contained in it lay in two districts, one towards the north-west connected 
with what is now Radnorshire and the Welsh country beyond, the 
remainder forming the rest of the shire. It appears that of the dedica- 
tions in the north-western portions some may be primitive, while others 
seem to represent the intrusion of powerful churches, such as St. David's 
and Llanbadarn Vawr. The saints of the larger district belonged to a 
great extent to the family of Brychan, a prince who lived in the fourth 
century, who begat eleven sons and twenty-five daughters. His eldest 
son Cynog, four daughters, and four grandsons have given dedications 
which still survive to Breconshire churches. But it seems likely 
that in several cases ancient dedications of comparatively unknown 
saints have been obscured by the names of saints who are more popular. 
The book is well illustrated, and there is an excellent index. 

CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS OF BADSEY, WITH ALDING- 
TON, WORCESTERSHIRE, from 1525 to 1571. Transcribed 
by the Rev. W. H. Price, M.A., and Edited by E. A. B. Barnard, 
F.S.A. Hampstead : The Priory Press. 19 14. 2s. 6d. 
The Rev. W. H. Price, Vicar of Badsey, near Evesham, transcribed 

the whole of the Wardens' Accounts in 1898, and the portion mentione(| 



Notices of Publications. 



213 



above has been published at the request of his sister, Mrs. Drysdale 
Bowden. Badsey was a chapel under the Abbey of Evesham, and 
after the Dissolution it passed into the possession of the Dean and 
Chapter of Christ Church, who are mentioned as providing needful 
books for the church, though the wardens had to send to Oxford to 
fetch them. The book, which is likely to be useful to those who are 
interested in the Reformation period in Gloucestershire, is furnished with 
a very helpful series of notes compiled by Mr, Oswald J. Knapp, M.A. 
Under 1525 is a short note on the composition for tithing of 
sheep, which may be helpful to those who are interested in the wool 
trade. The gatherings or collections for church expenses, which were 
made at Banwell by the Hoglevs, were made at Badsey by the young 
men, the maids, and the young or little maids ; also cock-money was 
a frequent source of income arising from the squalling of cocks on 
Shrove Tuesday ; nothing is found about this at Banwell. Also the 
wardens seem to have kept stock, most likely for breeding purposes. 
In 1537-8 they paid 3d. for wintering a church sheep; in 1554-5 
yd. for wintering the bull ; and in 1542-4 they received for the bulle 
hyde 3s. 4d. A bull cost from 15s. to i6s. 8d. The first signs of 
destructiveness appear in 1549-50, when 8d. was received for two 
tabernacles, probably pyxes, and 7s. paid for glazing, no doubt the 
windows had been smashed by iconoclasts. On May 22nd, 1552, 
John Hooper became Bishop of Worcester, so in the accounts for 
1552-3 we find 2s. received for gilding, no doubt gilded woodwork, 
and 6s. 8d. for the rood loft. However, Queen Mary ascended the 
thrown on July 6th, 1553, so in 1553-4 we find a gathering for the 
paschal candle, is. 3|d., and a payment of is. 4d. for painting the 
rood. Probably the old rood had been reverently preserved, and 
only needed to be decorated. The old gatherings or collections 
continued regularly until 1537-8, when a sum of 3s. 3d. was received 
from " the great maids." Evesham Abbey was surrendered on 
November 17th, 1539, and there were no more gatherings till the 
one for the paschal candle in 1553-4. So at Banwell the Hoglevs' 
collections ceased in the reign of Edward VI. The spirit of plunder 
was in the air, and folk would not give money for church purposes 
which might be confiscated, and used for purposes anything but 
sacred. After 1558 the accounts become confused, and even the 
bull was purchased on the cheap : the wardens of 1564-5 bought 
one for 2s. 5d., about one-sixth of the cost of a good animal, and it 
is in no way surprising to find an item soon after : " Paid for crying 
of the bull, id." The question has been raised whether the second 
Prayer Book of Edward VI was ever effectively circulated ; but 



214 Transactions for the Year 191 3. 



it would seem clear that the " King's Book," for which 6s. was paid 
at Badsey in 1552-3, as well as the " New book of the Communion," 
which was purchased for 5s. in the same year for the neighbouring 
parish of Littleton, would have been copies of this second Prayer 
Book. It seems also clear that a copy of the book was purchased 
in that year for Banwell. Of course, such bishops as Hooper and 
Barlow would take care that the book was provided in the different 
parishes. This well-annotated little book throws a number of very 
interesting side-lights on the history of the period which it covers. 



|iT IPicmoriam. 



C. H. DANCEY. 

Mr. Dancey was for thirty years a member of our Society, 
and there were few men who had a more practical knowledge 
of the antiquities of the City of Gloucester than he ; for more 
than ten years also he served on our Council. In June, 191 1, 
he made a valuable gift to the public library of a large collection 
of books, pamphlets, and manuscripts, many of them unique 
in their way, bearing on .the history and antiquities of Gloucester, 
and for two years before the opening of the Public Library 
he acted as Honorary Librarian of the Reference Library 
established at the Guildhall. In his younger days also he was 
a keen volunteer, and he took great interest in Rugby f'ootball, 
holding for some years the office of Treasurer of the City Football 
Club. Mr. Dancey died on November 22nd, 19 13, at the age 
of 74 years. 



JAMES McMURTRIE, F.G.S. 

The greater part of Mr. McMurtrie's life was spent in Somerset, 
where he acted for forty years as Manager of the Waldegrave 
Collieries at Radstock, holding also many other offices of public 
service, including that of Alderman of the County Council. 
No one knew the Somerset coal-field so well as he did. He 
made a valuable collection of fossil plants, which he gave 
to the Natural History Museum at South Kensington, and 
the failure of the attempt to find coal irj the deep boring at 
Cannington was a keen disappointment to him. When he 
came to Bristol about twelve years before his death he entered 
at once on a fresh career of active usefulness. He served 
most regularly for eight years on the Council of our Society, 
and read several valuable papers. It is true that these papers 
dealt mainly with subjects connected with the Somerset which 
he knew so well ; but Roman Somerset and Gloucestershire 
were one thing, and the papers are very valuable contributions 
to local archaeology. Mr. McMurtrie, who had become a; Fellow 
of the Geological Society in 1873, died on February 2nd, 1914. 



i 



ll 



DRUID STOKE STONES : THE GREAT STONE. 




DRUID STOKE STONES : GENERAL VIEW. 



REPORT ON THE EXCAVATION AT 
DRUID STOKE. 



Read by Mr. F. WERE to the Bristol Members of the Society, 
on October 20th, 191 3. 

Permission having been granted to the Society by Mr. 
Featherstone Witty, owner of the so-called cromlech at 
Druid Stoke, to make what examination it pleased of the^ 
partially-bmied stones forming component parts of the 
cromlech, work under the direction of the Hon. Secretary 
for Bristol and Mr. Francis Were was commenced on 
September 8th, 1913. Four stones were visible, the great 
table stone, which we will call No. i, leaning against No. 2, 
which it was considered advisable to leave entirely alone for 
fear of bringing No. i completely to the ground. No. 3, of 
which but little could be seen, lies in front of No. 2, the north 
end of it touching the gravel drive in front of the house. 
No. 3 was first dealt with by clearing the earth away from it 
on every side ; when cleared it was revealed as a large stone, 
with a curious ledge upon its upper part, the whole lying 
upon its side. The following measurements were taken : 
length, 6 ft. 10 in. ; height, taken in three places, 3 ft. 9 in., 
4 ft. 5 in., and 2 ft. 3 in. ; depth, i ft. 3 in. ; circumference, 
17 ft. 8 in. The shortest distance from the corner of the stone 
touching the drive to the wall of the house is 26 ft. 6 in. 
Adjoining No. 3 on the south is No. 4 (shown in the photo- 
graph propped up on end) . This appeared to be a large stone, 
as a good deal was visible above ground. However, on clearing 
away the soil it was found to be much smaller than No. 3, and 
of no thickness. The measurements are: length, 3 ft. 8 in. ; 
breadth, 2 ft. 4 in. ; depth, 7 in. ; circumference, 11 ft. 6 in. 
Its north end was found to be resting on a fifth stone 
hitherto buried. The weight of No. 4 was not so great 
as to prevent its being raised and set on end by the 

16 

Vol. XXXVI. 



2i8 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

united strength of those present, giving them room to 
excavate the new discovery, No. 5, which was deeply 
buried exactly in the middle of the other stones. As it lies, 
the probable base points eastward and the top westward. 
It measures 3 ft. 8 in. in length and i ft. 2 in. in breadth. 
It was not found possible to take the circumference. A slight 
trench only was dug on the south side of No. i, the measure- 
ments of which are : length, 10 ft. 4 in.; breadth in three 
places, 4 ft. 10 in., 5 ft. 6 in., and 3 ft. 9 in.; while in depth 
it varies from 2 ft. to 2 ft. 7 in. 

The position of the overturned stones, we think, shows 
that when No. i, or the table stone, was overthrown it came 
from an easterly to a south-easterly alignment, while No. 3 
was slued round to the north and lay almost fiat on its side. 
No. 5, the deeply-buried stone, when standing on its base 
probably supported the south-east corner of the table stone. 
Seyer conjectures that No. i stood upright with No. 3 in 
front ; but it is too near the stone it rests upon. No. 2, to have 
fallen from that position, and if so, this number must have 
included the fragile, propped-up one No. 4, which is too weak 
in size and q-uality to help bear the weight of No. i, but was 
more probably the base or side of a cist ; in fact, all that has 
been left of one which might have been rifled at the over- 
turning centuries ago. About a foot and a half below the 
surface of the ground rough cobble-like stones tightly packed 
together were found. A resident in the locality told us that 
this characteristic obtains over all parts of the field (now 
gardens) which have been dug into. 

Seyer seems rightly to have diagnosed the stones as 
breccia, and not millstone grit, as it is poor in quahty 
compared to the dolomitic conglomerate of the Mendips, and 
therefore is probably local. Professor Lloyd Morgan says it 
is dolomitic conglomerate from Henbury ; but Seyer 
thinks they came from King's Weston Down, where he 
says many of them were to be seen, but of smaller size, 
which Mr. Farr collected for the foundation of his house. 



Report on the Excavation at Druid Stoke. 219 

The members of Council who viewed the positions of the 
stones were divided in opinion as to whether the table stone 
rested upon three or four upright stones. It certainly was 
not a monolith as illustrated by Seyer. 

Photographs were taken of the uncovered stones, prints 
of which are appended to this report. 

The work took three days altogether. By desire of the 
owner of the stones they are all left visible to the eye, but 
otherwise remain in situ. 

The best thanks of the Society are due to Mr. and Mrs. 
Featherstone Witty, not only for leave to excavate, but also 
for much kind hospitality shown to members. 

F. W. 
L. J. U. W. 



THE 1625 SURVEY OF THE SMALLER MANOR OF 

CLIFTON. 1 

By lewis J. UPTON WAY, F.S.A. 

Owing to the fact that two parishes of CHfton appear in the 
Domesday Survey for Gloucestershire, some doubt as to 
which refers to Clifton by Bristol has perplexed the minds 
of local historians. This need no longer be the case since the 
appearance of a paper in the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Society's Transactions, vol. xxxvi. pp. 182-190, called " Note 
on the Entry in Domesday Book Relating to Westbury-on- 
Severn," wherein the writer, the Rev. C. S. Taylor, following 
Mr. A. E. Ellis, in Transactions, vol. iii. p. 212, note i, proves 
that the entries supposed by many, including Sir Robert 
Atkyns, to relate to CHfton and Shirehampton near Westbury- 
on-Trym relate in reality to Clifton-on-Teme and Kyre near 
Bromyard, in Herefordshire. ^ 

The entry relating to Clifton by Bristol is as follows : — 

" In Sineshoved Hundred Roger fitz Ralph holds one 
manor by name Chstone [thus wrongly spelt in the original] 
which Sewin, the Provost of Bristou held of King Edward, 
and had been able to go with this land where he wished 

1 Read to the Bristol Members of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society on Monday, November 17th, 191 3. 

2 Copies of the paper mentioned above were sent to Mrs. Baldwyn 
Childe, of Kyre Park, Tenbury, and also to the clergy of the various 
parishes concerned in the estates which were severed from Westbury- 
on-Severn about 1070. Most kind and helpful replies were received 
from Mrs. Baldwyn Childe, and from the Rector of Kyre Wyard, and 
the Vicar of Clifton-on-Teme. As a result it has now become possible 
to identify 21 out of the 25 hides which were severed from Westbury- 
on-Severn. The severed hides were these : Chire 6, Cliftone 10, Noent 
aid Chingestune 8, Ladevent i ; in all 25. Answering to these are 
Chure 3 hides and Cuer i hide, 4 out of the 6 hides of Chire 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 221 



nor did he owe thence any feorm. There are 3 hides. In 
demesne are 3 plough-teams and 6 villanes, also 6 bordars, 
with 2 plough-teams. There are 3 serfs and 8 acres of 
meadow. It was worth 100 S. now S." 

This entry no doubt refers to the whole and undivided 
Manor of Clifton before it became separated into two parts, 
which division probably took place about the middle of the 
fifteenth century, when John Carpenter obtained the 
advowson of the parish church of Clifton from the Abbey pf 
St. Augustine, Bristol, upon which house it had been bestowed 
by Wilham de Chfton ; and presented it, together with some 
land in the parish, to the College of Westbury-on-Trym. 
Beyond this fact we have nothing to guide us in fixing the 
date of the coming into being of the smaller Manor of Clifton, 
which remained the property of the college until the dis- 
solution of religious foundations, when it was granted with 
all the rest of the college estates to Sir Ralph Sadleir, 
a favourite minister of King Henry the Eighth. 

Sir Robert Atkyns says that " Sir Ralph Sadleir's grand- 
son, Ralph Sadleir, Esq., was lord of this manor in 1608, and 
the impropriation did formerly belong to the College of 
Westbury, given to it by John Carpenter, a great benefactor 
to that college. It is now (1712) vested in Mr. Hodges, and 
is worth £100 per annum. The church is small with a tower 
at the west end, the chancel belongs to the impropriator, 
under which is a vault where several of Mr. Hodges' family 

Edwin Loach, answering to the i hide of Ladevent ; Newent and 
■Chingestune answering to the 8 hides of Noent and Chingestune. 
The number answering to the lo hides of Chftune is composite. First 
of all there are the 3 hides in Cliftone, now Clifton-on-Teme ; then there 
are 3 hides in Safie, now Lower Safey, which was a chapel of Clifton- 
on-Teme ; I hide in Caldeslie, now Shelsley Walsh, also a chapel of 
Clifton-on-Teme ; and finally i hide mentioned in Domesday Book as 
Hame, which lay in the Parish of Clifton-on-Teme. All these 8 hides 
appear in the Survey as held b}^ Osbern fitz Richard. It will be seen, 
then, that all the 25 severed hides are accounted for except 2 in Chire 
and 2 in Cliftone, and this fact supplies additional reason for thinking 
that the theory advanced by Mr. Taylor is correct. 



222 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

lie buried." Hoping to find a description of the tombs of 
these ancient CHfton worthies, I turned to Bigland's history 
of the county, but they are not recorded therein. Its pages 
are chiefly filled with the pompous epitaphs of strangers 
who died while undergoing the cure at the Hotwells. Possibly 
the tombs of " the rude forefathers of the hamlet " were 
swept away when the original church with the exception of 
the tower was demolished in 1654. The present building, 
erected in 1822, stands slightly to the north of the foundations 
of the old one. 

The Survey we are about to consider is a vellum-bound 
book dated 1625, tied with green silk strings, containing 
nineteen pages, and bearing the single word Clyfton on the 
cover. It is slightly stained with damp, otherwise in perfect 
condition. Henry Lilly, the compiler, may be identical with 
that Henry Lilly who was Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, and 
who died in 1638, but we are not told that this is so. His 
writing and clearness of diction leave nothing to be desired. ^ 
In addition to the book there is a loose sheet of paper written 
upon by a different hand. 

The two manors of Clifton after being possessed by 
various families became united when they fell into the hands 
of the Society of Merchant Venturers, who bought out the 
private owners. The late John Latimer, in his history of 
the Society, gives us the following account of the purchase : — 

" The growing reputation of the Hotwell amongst upper- 
class invalids attracted the attention of the Merchant's Hall 
soon after the Restoration, and contributed to bring about 
one of the most important events in the history of the 
Society, the purchase of the Manor of Clifton. In April, 
1661, some prehminary negotiations were entered into, but 
fell through ; the Society's interest, however, continued, 

1 Since writing the above I have seen a pedigree sent out from the 
Heralds' College by Henry Lilly and signed by him. The writing is 
identical with that of this Survey, which proves that Lilly the Pursuivant 
compiled it.— L. J. U. \V. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 223 



and in July, 1676, it succeeded in acquiring three-fourths 
of the Manor of Chfton from the executor of a defunct 
owner, and the remaining fourth was afterwards picked up 
in fragments. Another and a much smaller manor in the 
parish, once the property of the Dean' and College of 
Westbury-on-Trym, subsequently captured by Sir Ralph 
Sadleir, was obtained by a trifling outlay in 1686. At that 
period the population of the parish can hardly have exceeded 
three hundred, most of whom were labourers inhabiting 
cottages along the river side. Near the church was 
a manor house (to which a wine licence had been granted 
in 1632). The following minute is believed to refer to this 
mansion, ' Ordered Sept. 17th, 1700, that on payment of a 
fine of £49, a lease for five fives be granted to Whitchurch 
Phippen of the site or ruins of the Great House at Chfton 
heretofore burnt down, and since cafied the Old Castle late 
in the holding of Mary Hodges.' There were also near the 
church one, or perhaps two, upper-class dwelhngs and a few 
labourers' hovels. All the rest of the area was partly common 
land and partly cultivated ground divided into about a dozen 
httle farms. Even the manufacture of hme, for which the 
locahty afterwards became famous, had scarcely TDegun, and 
the enormous cfiffs, of which some acres disappeared in the 
eighteenth century, then frowned directly over the Avon. 
Scarcely anything, in fact, differentiated the parish from 
secluded villages in purely agricultural districts." 

THE SURVEY. 

A Table of the Tennants Names of Clifton. 
WILLIAM NEWCE ^ the Lord's Tennant. 

ANDREW WHITTINGTON 



JOHN SACHFEILD 
RICHARD HILLING 
HENRY HOBSON 
JOHN WATKIN 
JOANE BATTEN 



Sub-Tennants of the De- 
measnes, whose estates are 
determined wth. the 
naturall life of Will, 
Newce. 



224 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



RICHARD HILLING 
ANTHONY HODGES 
JOHN HODGES 
JOHN BATTEN 
EDMUND WATTS 
JOHN BAYLY 
WIDDOW BAYLY 



> Customary Tennants. 



Clyfton 



A Survey, Veiwe & Value of the Manor of Clifton (nigh 
the Cittie of Bristoll) in the Countie of Glocester, being a 
Part of the Possessions of ye Right Worshippfull Rafe 
Sadleir, Lord of Stondon in the Countie of Hertford Esq. at 
whose command this Survey was made in Aprill Ao. Dmi. 
1625. 



WILLIAM NEWCE Gentleman aged about 50 holdeth 
by Indenture bearing date the first day of June Ao. R. 
Regina Eliz. Angliae 21°. (1579) niade and granted by and 
from the Right Honorable Sr. Rafe Sadleir knight Baneret, 
of the Privy Counsell to the said Queene. All that Manor 
of Clifton jn the County of Glocester, with all the lands 
thereunto belonging, and the rents of all Maner of Tenants, 
and all Maner of fines, heriotts, forfeitures and all profitts 
of Courts, togeather wth. the Personage of Clifton (except 
the scite of the Chappell called St. Vincent's Chappell with 
all commodities thereunto belonging, and all maner of woods, 
underwoods, mynes and quarries and all maner of haukes) for 
one hundred j^eares if Thomas Newce, Clement Newce and 
Wilham Newce sonnes of ye said William Newce so long 
shall live, for and by the yearly Rent of xvii li. besides 
provision for the Steward and other Officers of the said Sr. 
Rafe Sadleir and his heirs for the space of two days in every 
year. 

NOTE, Thomas and Clement Newce both dead William 
onely liveing. 

RENT, xvii H. 



By Henry Lilly. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 225 

Clifton. Demeasnes. 

ANDREW WHITTINGTON Gent, holdeth as tenant to 
MR. WM. NEWCE, the Personage and Personage house 
togeather with the tithes, and divers p'arcells of land thereunto 
belonging and paieth to the said Mr. Wm. Newce per Annum 
xl h. 

The house with Court yard, barne, stable, waynehouse 
and garden abutting south against Clifton Common and north 
on a close called Home-leyes, the east part whereof adjoyneth 
to a certaine lane leading into Lauridge lane, the west parte 
to Clifton Church, and the aforesaid Home-leyes and 
conteyneth ir. 34p. 

One Close of Up-land meadow called Home-leyes, Clifton 
Church, and Clifton Grene aforesaid together with the 
Customary land in the tenure of John Batten against the 
south, the Personage house, the lands of the saied A. 
Whittington togeather with the way leading into Lauridge 
lane uppon ye east and north, the Customary land in 
ye tenure of Anthony Hodges west and conteyneth, 
6a. 3r. lop. 

Colly-acre Close being of Up-land meadow, the way 
leading from Clifton Grene towards Durdon Downe south 
and west, the lands of A. Whittington and A. Hodges north 
and east parts and conteyneth, 2a. 3r. 3dp. 

One Close of arrable called Cawsey Close lyeing in length 
by the highway leading from Westbury towards Bristoll 
north, the lands of A. Whittington and A. Hodges 
south, the east and west ends whereof abbutteth on 
the lands of the saied A. Whittington, and the Ambery 
Close belonging to the Colledge of Bristoll and conteyneth, 
2a. ir. I9p. 

Another Close of arrable called Shortgrove leyes adjoyning 
to Durdon Down on the north, the lands of A. Hodges south, 
and abbutteth east on a peece of Customary land in the 
tenure of Richard Hilling and west on Durdom Downe 
aforesaid and conteyneth, 2a. 3r. 



226 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



One peece of arrable land next the hedge in further 
CHfton feild, abbutting north and south on the lands of A, 
Whittington, the lands of the said A. Whittington and 
A. Hodges on the east and west sids and conteyneth, 
2r. 20p. 

One peeked peece of arrable in the same feild abbutting 
on the Waineway north west and conteyneth, ir. lOp. 

Another peece of arrable in the same feild, abbutting^ 
south east on a way next Batten's Ten acres and north west 
on the lands of Mr. Whittington and A. Hodges and con- 
teyneth, la. 

One peice of Stoney Rockey ground lyeing on Durdom 
Downe called Shortgrove reputed as Common, and may be 
enclosed at the Lord's pleasure, 12a. 

NOTE, in a different hand, " All thease solid to 
Jo. Hodges in fee for, £800." 

The Lord's wood called Clifton Wood adjoyning to 
Rowenham ferry way on the south part, the Customary land 
in the tenure of widow Batten uppon ye east parte, the Lord's 
wast and Customary lands in the tenure of Ric. Hilling" 
and John Hodges, wth. the lands of A. Whittington on the 
north parte, the Customary land in the tenure of John 
Batten on the west parte and conteyneth, 30a. 



Arrable 
pasture 

up-land meadow or 
pasture 

coppice wood 



- 7a. or. 9p. 
-12a. or. lop. 



V59a. or. igp. 



-loa. 
-30a. 

Valet per Annum togeather wth. the Tithes besides the 
Lord's wood xl li. 

Out of wch. yssueth for paiement of the Cure per Annum,, 
vi h. 

The earliest map of Clifton is that presented to the 
Museum some few years ago by our member Mr. J. E. 
Pritchard, dated 1746, a hundred and twenty years later 
than the Survey we are here dealing with. We can therefore 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 227 

hardly expect to be able to identify upon it with any degree 
of certainty many of the farms and fields named in 1625,. 
as in the intervening period Chfton had begun to emerge 
from its rural state, and some of the fi^e stone houses which 
we now regard as ancient were springing into existence. 
Of the foregoing holdings it is only possible to trace those 
which are mentioned as being bounded by some building or 
pre-eminent natural feature, the site of which we are able to 
locate at the present time. Of these Clifton Church and 
Clifton Green are good examples. The site of the Parsonage 
house held by Mr. Newce, I think, may be recognised by their 
help. Clifton Common or Green is the stretch of sloping 
turf lying between Clifton Church and Goldney House, now 
much curtailed and cut up by roads. The house, we are told, 
vv^as bounded by this green on the south side, so we must look 
for something on the north side of it. The west part adjoined 
the church, so we must turn to the east side of the church. 
The east part of the house, we are told, adjoined a lane, so we 
must look for a lane on the east of the church, and find 
Clifton Road. This gives us three sides of a square, within 
which we find that fine old stone house bearing the date 
171 1 above the front door, and known as the Church House. 
The northern boundary, a field called Home-leyes, must have 
been part of the present churchyard, and the land on which 
the houses on the south side of the road leading into Lansdown 
Place stand. 

Home-leyes itself was a good-sized field of 6 acres. Colly 
acre lay on the right-hand side of the road leading to the 
Down. Cawsey Close and Shortgrove V\^ere both bounded 
on the north by the Down, so we must conclude that they 
were not far from the Zoological Gardens or Upper Belgrave 
Road. We must note that Shortgrove was regarded as 
common land, but could be enclosed at the will of the lord 
of the manor. We also get the acreage of Clifton Wood, 
then in reality a wood, namely thirty acres, and find that .it 
extended to the road leading to Rownham Ferry, a road it is 



228 



Transactions for the Year 1913, 



impossible to locate now owing to the docks at Hotwells 
having so completely changed the face of the country. 

JOHN SACHFEILD holdeth as Tenant to Mr. Newce, 
these parcells of land following and paieth per Annum. 

One Close of meadow called Smock acre with a little way 
at the south west corner hedged on both sids, the west end 
whereof abbutteth on the lands of A. Whittington, and the 
east on the Customary land in the tenure of John Batten and 
conteineth, 2a. 3r. 2of. 

Two acres of arrable in the west end feild otherwhiles 
called the further feild, lyeing between the lands of A. 
Hodges north and south, and abbutting east on a footway, 
and west on the lands of A. Whittington and conteyneth, 
la. 3r. 20p. 

I — meadow & pasture 2a, 3r. 2op. j 
Sum of acres in 1 ; 4a. 3r. 

' — arrable la. 3r. ) 

Valet per Annum 3li. xs. 

RICHARD HILLING holdeth by Indenture from Mr. 
Newce one Tenement and divers parcells of land thereunto 
belonging and paieth per Annum x, li. xvis. 

The house and backside wth. a Httle close, adjoyning the 
way leading from Clifton towards Bristoll on the north parte, 
CHfton Greene on the west parte, the lands of A. Whittington 
on the east parte, the Customary lands in the tenure of John 
Hodges on the south parte and conteineth, la. or. i8p. 

One peice of pasture or Up-land meadow nigh Shortgrove, 
the Customary land in the tenure of the said Ri. Hilhng, and 
the Ambery close belonging to the Colledge of Bristoll on the 
north parte, the lands of A. Hodges and a peice of Customary 
land in Chfton feild on the south parte, the lands of Mr. 
Whittington on the east part, the lands of the said Hodges 
wth. the aforesaid peice of Customary land in ye tenure of ye 
said Hilling on the west parte, la. ir. 24p. 

One peece of arrable called Shortgrove paddock in 
Trynmore abbutting north west on Durdom Downe, and 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 229 



south east uppon the customary land of A. Hodges, and lyeth 
betweene the lands of A. Whittington, and the said A, Hodges 
called Trinmore against the south west and north east and 
conteyneth, la. 35p. 

One close of Up-land meadow called Holly land, the 
Customary land called Lauridge meadow on the north east 
parte, the lands of A. Whittington on the south, and south 
east parts, the lands of A. Hodges called Holly land in the 
tenure of A. Hodges aforesaid on the north west parte and 
conteyneth, 4a, 2r. lop. 

A close of arrable called Downe end paddock lyeing 
betweene the lands of A. Whittington on the south west and 
north east partes, and abbutting northwest on the Customary 
land of A. Hodges, and south east on a wayne way leading 
from Durdom Downe into Nether feild and conteyneth, 2a. 

lOp. 

One close of Up-land meadow or pasture called Hoells 
Deane, the Customary land of Edmund Watts, and the lands 
of A. Whittington on the north parte, the lands of the said 
A. Whittington on the south parte, the Customary land in 
the tenure of A. Hodges called Whithey paddock, and the 
lands of the said A. Hodges and A. Whittington on the east 
parte, other Customary lands in the tenure of the said 
Edmund Watts togeather with the lands of A. Whittington 
aforesaid on the west parte and conteyneth, la. 2r. 26p. 

One peice of Marsh meadow in Rowenham meade called 
the five acres, lyeing betweene the lands of A. Whittington 
on ye south and north partes and abbutting south east on 
the lands of A. Hodges, 5a. 



— arrable 



3a. ir. 5p. 



Sum of acres in 



— marsh meadow 



5a. 



upland meadow or 8a. 2r. 38p. 
— pasture ground 

Valet per Annum xiiii li. 

NOTE, sold to John Godman in fee for £360. 



230 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

HENRY HOBSON holdeth by Indenture from Mr. 
Newce three closes of pasture lyeing all together, called 
Welch leyes and paieth per Annum x li. 

One close of Up-land meadow or pasture sometyme in 
three severalls called Welch Leyes, Millmote Lane lyeing on 
the south parte, the lands of A. Hodges and certaine 
Customary land in the tenure of John Hodges on the north 
parte, the lands of A. Whittington on the west parte, the 
lands of the said A. Whittington and A. Hodges on the east 
part and conteyneth, 14a. 2r. 28p. 

Valet per Annum xviii li. 

JOHN WATKIN holdeth one parcell of ground called 
Honey-pen Hill and payeth for the same per Annum to *^ 
Mr. Newce, xl s. 

One parcell of pasture or Up-land meadow called Honey- 
penhill abbutting south on Honey-penhill common and 
adjoyneth north to the lands of A. Whittington Gent, the 
way from Clifton towards Bristoll and a close belonging to 
A. Hodges on the east part, Mill-mote Lane and Welches 
leyes on the west part and conteyneth, 3a. 2r. 

Valet per Annum, 3 li. 

JOANNE BATTEN widdow holdeth two tenements wth. 
a limekill and divers parcells of land thereunto belonging and 
paieth to Mr. Newce per Annum v li. 

One Tenement and limekill wth. yard, garden and backsid 
abbutting on Rowenham Ferry way towards the south, the 
lands of A. Whittington on the east part, Chfton Wood and a 
Customary cottage in the tenure of John Bayly on the west 
part, the Demeasnes in the occupation of the said Joane 
Batten on ye north, 2r. 

Three parcells of Up-land meadow with a Tenement, 
backsid and garden abbutting north west on a lane nigh 
Jacob's well and south east on the aforesaid Tenement and 
Clifton Wood and adjoyning south west to the said Clifton 
Wood and north east to the lands of A. Whittington 6a. 2r. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 231 



One parcell of meadow in Rowenham meade lyeing 
betweene the lands of A. Hodges towards the west and the 
Customary land of John Batten towards the east and 
abbutteth south on the River of Avon otherwhiles called 
Bristoll Chanell and north on a peice of Customary land in 
the tenure of Edmund Watts and conteyneth, ir. 

Another peice of meadow in the same Rowenham meade, 
abbutting west on the Customary land of John Hodges and 
east on the lands of A. Whittington and conteyneth, 2r. 



Sum of acres in 



-pasture or upland 
meadow 



-marsh meadow 
Valet per Annum xii li. 

-arrable 



Sum totall of 
acres of the i 
Demeasnes in 



-pasture lyeing 
as common 

-pasture or 
upland meadow 



7a. 

2a. sr. 

12a. or. 34p. ^ 
12a. 

46a. 3r. 6p. 



9a. 3r. 



-coppice wood 30a. 



. — wett meadow 



7a. 3r. 



io8a. 3r. 



Sum totall of the present Rents of the Demeasnes, 
Ixxv li. vi s. 

Sum totall of the yearely value of the Demeasnes, 90 li. x s. 

JOHN SACHFEILD, a small holder with rather more 
than four acres, probably hailed from the neighbouring village 
•of Long Ashton, where the name appears in the early Court 
Rolls, and continues to occur up to the Georgian period, he 
held Smock or Smoke acre, one cannot tell which pronuncia- 
tion is intended, one of the fields named in the parish book as 
forming part of the boundary of the parish. 

RICHARD HILLING held Shortgrove and Shortgrove 
Paddock in Trinmore, bounded on the north by the Down. 



232 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



These must have been situated to the east of the Promenade. 
The second house from the end of those nearest Proctor's 
fountain is called Trinmore, this surely cannot be a mere 
coincidence. 

Holly Land, Lauridge Meadow, Down End Paddock, 
Hoell's Deane and Withey Paddock we are not able to place. 

Henry Hobson held Welch Leyes, bounded on the south 
by Millmote Lane, a name implying the existence of a water 
mill at some time or other. 

A field of upland pasture called Honeypen Hill was in the 
occupation of John Watkin, this lay on the ridge between 
Richmond Hill and the Pro-Cathedral, bounded by a common 
of the same name, and also by Welch Leyes and Millmote 
Lane, which must, therefore, have been in that vicinity. 

Joan Batten, the only woman holding part of the Demesne 
land, comes next. Her farm of nine acres lay in the lower part 
of the parish, namely in Rownham Mead and in Clifton Wood. 
Her tenement with lime-kiln was probably near the bottom 
of Granby Hill, the other one close to Jacob's Wells Road. 
Rownham Mead was the marshy land between the river and 
the Hotwells now occupied by the Docks. We must note the 
dignified title given the Avon, here called the Bristoll Channel. 

So far we have been dealing with the Demesne land, 
which means as a rule the ground surrounding the manor 
house, such as park and home farm, and also any fields 
originally cultivated by the lord of the manor himself, which, 
as in this case, may lie scattered in various parts of the manor. 
The Clifton Demesne land extended over 108 acres, three- 
quarters of it upland meadow and wood, the rent it paid 
£75 6s. This is not a great deal either of land or of rent, but 
we must always remember that this is the small and not the 
main manor of the parish. 

Coppieholders. 

We now come to a different class of tenant, viz. the 
Copyholder, who, as the name implies, held his land by copy 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 233 

of manor court roll and not by indenture. We have had the 
names of most of these before as holding some part of the 
Demesne lands as well. 

RICHARD HILLING aged about 5a holdeth by coppie of 
court roll according to custome of the said manor, All that 
messuage or tenement and divers parcells of land thereunto 
belonging and payeth per Annum, ix s. 

The dwelhng house with Barne, Orchard, Garden and 
Backsid, abbutting north uppon Clifton Greene and south 
on CHfton Wood and the lands of A. Whittington gent, 
towards the west, the Customary land in the tenure of John 
Hodges gent, towards -the east, la. 33p. 

One peice of Up-land meadow or pasture by Shortgrove, 
abbutting north west on Durdom Downe and south east on 
the lord's land in the occupation of the same Richard Hilling, 
and adjoyning on the north east part to the Colledge land of 
Bristoll called Ambery Close, and west to the lands of A. 
Hodges and a close called Shortgrove, 2r. i6p. 

Two closes of Up-land meadow or pasture called the 
Lower Deane, abbutting east on the Demeasnes called 
Smock acre in the occupation of John Sachfield and west 
and partly south uppon, the lands of A. Whittington and 
A. Hodges called the Twelve acres and conteyneth, 
4a. 3op. 

One parcell of Up-land meadow or pasture called Mill- 
moat abbutting south on a way leading towards the East 
acre aforesaid and north on ye lands of A. Hodge % Millmoat 
Lane leading to Durdom Downe on the west part, the Twelve 
acres being the lands of A. Whittington and A. Hodges on the 
east part, 3a. 2r. 20p. 

One parcell of Up-land meadow or pasture called the East 
acre, abbutting south east on the Customary lande called 
Smock acre and north west uppon the land of A. Whittington 
and A. Hodges and conteyneth, la. 

Sum of acres loa. 2r. iQp. Valet per Annum, xi li. 

NOTE, sold to Robert Hooke in fee for £280. 

17 

Vol. XXXVI. 



234 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

Richard Hilling's house may have been the original 
building on the site at present occupied by Goldney House. 
Another reference is made to Ambery Close belonging to the 
College of Bristol, or as we should say to the Cathedral. We 
gather that it lay adjacent to the Down. Customary land 
which is so often mentioned is simply land held by copy of 
court roll. All the above-mentioned holding was sold to 
Robert Hooke. 

ANTHONY HODGES Gent, aged about 60 holdeth by 
Coppie of Court Rolle according to the custom etc. for two 
lives (viz.) his owne and William Hodges his son aged about 
23. All that Messuage or Tenement wth. divers parcells of 
land thereunto belonging and paieth per Annum xviiis. iiiid. 

The House wth. Court yard, Barne, Stable, Garden, 
Orchard and Backsid adjoyning on the north to the lands of 
A. Whittington and south on Chfton Streete the Customary 
land of John Batten and the Demeasnes in the occupation of 
the said Whittington on the east part, the lands of the said 
A. Hodges and A. Whittington on the west part, la. 2r. 24p. 

A parcell of meadow called Holly land abbutting north 
east on Lauridge meadow and south west on the lands of ye 
said A. Hodges, the Demeasnes called Holly land on the 
south east part, the lands of A. Whittington on the north 
west part and conteyneth, la. 2r. lop. 

One peice of arrable in Neather field ahas Wood-downe 
feild, abbutting southeast on Lauridge meadow aforesaid and 
north west on a peice of Customary land in the tenure of the 
said A. Hodges, the lands of the said A. Hodges on the 
north east sid, the lands of A. Wliittington on the south west 
sid, 2r. 23p. 

One other peice of arrable in the saied Wood Downe, 
abbutting south east on the saied Lauridge and north west 
on the Colledge land of Bristoll and adjoyneing towards the 
east on the Customary land in the tenure of Edmund Watts 
and west on the lands of A. Hodges, 3r. I5p. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 235 

One Close of pasture called the West with a Barne 
thereon. The Wast or Common nigh St. Vincent's Hill called 
Durdom Downe on the north and west parts, the lands 
of A. Whittington gent, on the south and east parts, 
8a. 2r. 2op. 

A Close of arrable called the Square Paddock adjoyning 
towards the south on the lands of A. Whittington and the 
Demeasnes called Down End and north on ye Customary 
land of John Batten and west on the lands of the saied A. 
Hodges and conteyneth, la. 38p. 

One parcell of Up-land meadow nigh Trynmore abbutting 
on the lands of A. Hodges towards the south west, and 
north east the lands of A. Whittington and of the said A. 
Hodges called Trynmore wth. a peice of Customary land in 
the tenure of the saied A. Hodges on the north and south 
parts and conteyneth, 2r. 3ip. 

One paddock of arrable in Shortgrove and adjoyning to- 
Trynmore, abbutting south east on the peice of Customary 
land aforesaid in the tenure of the saied A. Hodges and north, 
west on the Customary lands in the tenure of Richard Plilling 
and the same A. Hodges and conteyneth, 2r. lOp. 

Another peice of arrable in Shortgrove abbutting west on 
Durdom Downe and east on the Paddock aforesaid, the lord's 
demeasnes in the occupation of Richard HilHng on the south 
sid, the lands of the saied A. Hodges on the north sid and 
conteyneth, 3r. 24p. 

Two acres of arrable called the Foxholes abbutting north 
west on Durdom Downe and south east on a peice of land 
belonging to the Colledge of Bristoll, the lands of A. Hodges 
the lands of A. Whittington on the north east sid, the 
Demeasnes in the occupation of the said Whittington and 
other lands of the said A. Whittington and A. Hodges south 
west, 2a. 

One parcell of arrable in further Clifton feild called the 
Pitt acre abbutting west on a wayne way there and east on 
the lands of A. Whittington and adjoyneth on the south part 



236 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

to Millmoat way and on the north part to the lands of 
inheritance belonging to the saied A. Whittington and 
conteyneth, la. 

One peice of arrable called Roberts land, lyeing betweene 
the lands of the Colledge of Bristoll on the north east part 
and the lands of Mr. A. Whittington on the south west part 
and abbutteth north west on the Customary land in the tenure 
of John Batten called the Ten acres and south east on the 
Customary land and freehold land of the said A. Hodges, 
2 acres. 

One parcell of Up-land meadow called Withey Paddock 
lyeing betweene the lands of A. Hodges towards the south 
and the lands of A. Whittington towards the north and 
abbutteth east on Lower Deane being Customary land in 
the tenure of R. Hilling and west on the Demeasnes called 
Hoell's Deane in the occupation of the said R. Hilling and 
conteyneth, 3 roods. 

One parcell of Up-land meadow in further Deane, abbutting 
'east on Lower Deane being Customary land in the tenure of 
R. Hilling, and a peece of Customary land in the tenure of the 
said A. Hodges and a peece of Customary land in the tenure 
of Edmund Watts and extendeth in length betweene the lands 
of A. Whittington on the south part and a peice of Customary 
land in the tenure of John Hodges son of the saied A. Hodges 
on ye north part and conteyneth, i acre. 

One peice of meadow in Rowenham mead abbutting north 
on Rowenham Ferry way and lyeth in length betweene ye 
lands of A. Whittington on ye east part and the Customary 
land in the tenure of John Batten on the west part, 
ir. 2p. 

One other peice of meadow in Rowenham abbutting west 
on the lands of A. Whittington and east on a peice of ye 
Demeasnes in the tenure of widdow Batten and adjoyneth 
on the north sid to the Customary land in the tenure of John 
Hodges and on the south sid to a peice of Customary land in 
the tenure of Edmund Watts and conteyneth, ir. i6p. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton.. 237 



Valet per Annum xxii li. 

Anthony Hodges seems to have held more land than 
anybody else in Chfton. Some of it he no doubt held of the 
larger manor. His descendants we learn from other sources 
became lords of the manor and impropriators of the church. 
His house touched Chfton Street on the north side, it may 
have stood near Saville Place. The fields were for the most 
part very small, the 'most interesting being the largest 
called the West, bounded on the north by St. Vincent's Hill, 
here called Durdom Downe ; it must have been between 
Zion Hill and Gloucester Row. Another interesting name is 
the Foxholes, ^ reminding us of the days when various kinds 
of wild and interesting beasts inhabited the crannies of our 
chffs. Andrew Whittington was the next largest tenant. 
He seems to have been possessed of land here in his own right 
also, as his land of inheritance is mentioned. 

John Hodges gent, aged about 19 holdeth by coppie of 
Courte Rolle according to custom of the saied manor for 
terme of his naturall hfe, Ah that messuage or tenement 
scituate at Clifton Greene wth. divers parcells of land there- 
unto belonging and payeth per Annum, xvis. 

The house wth. barne, stable, orchard and close adjoyneing 
abbutting north uppon Chfton Greene and south on Chfton 
Wood and adjoyneth towards the west on the Customary 
land in the tenure of R. Hilling and conteyneth la. 2r. 22p. 

A Close of meadow called Home-close, abbutting west 
on Chfton Greene and east on the lands of A. Whittington 
and adjoyneth north unto the Demeasnes in the occupation 
of R. Hilling and south on the back lane leading from Chfton 
Church by Jacob's Well and conteyneth, 2a. 28p. 

One peice of arrable called Upper Deane, lyeing betweene 
1 Mentioned by William Wyrcestre. Dallaway, p. 54. 



■arrable 




Sum of acres in 
Upland meadow 
or pasture. 



— wett meadow 



238 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



the Customary land in the tenure of John Batten towards the 
north east and the lands of A. Whittington towards the 
south west and abbutteth north west on a lane leading 
towards the East acre in the tenure of R. Hilhng and south 
east on Welches Leyes and conteyneth, 3a. ir. 26p. 

One peice of Upland meadow or pasture called further 
Deane, extending in length between the lands of A. 
Whittington towards the north, a peice of Customary land 
in the tenure of A. Hodges towards the south, the east end 
whereof abbutteth against a peice of Customary land in ye 
tenure of R. Hilling called Lower Deane and conteyneth, 2a. 

One peice of arrable in further Clifton f eild lyeing betweene 
the lands of A. Whittington north and the Customary 
land in the tenure of Edmund Watts on the south part and 
abbutteth towards the west on a peice of Customary land 
in the tenure of John Batten and east on the Customary 
land in the tenure of the saied John Hodges and A Hodges 
his father in further Deane and conteyneth, 2a. 

One peice of meadow in Rowenham mead abbutting west 
on the lands of A. Whittington and east on the Demeasnes 
and Conteyneth. i acre 

-arrable 5a. ir. 26p. 



Sum. of acres in 



— pasture or 

upland meadow 5a. 3r. lop. 



12a. 36p. 



-wett meadow i acre 
Valet per Annum x li. 

John Hodges holding these 12 acres was the younger son 
of Anthony ; he was at this time 19 years of age, and his 
brother William 23. His house was one of the many near the 
church ; it lay on the south side of the Green and stretched 
down to CHfton Wood ; the Home Close belonging to it was 
north of the back lane leading to Jacob's Wells. Upper and 
Further Deane are mentioned, and the usual smaU piece in 
Rownham. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 239 

John Batten aged about 40 and George Batten his sonne 
aged about 12, holdeth by coppie of Court Rolle according 
to the custom of the saied Manor for terme of their two 
naturall Hves, one messuage and divers parcells of land 
thereunto belonging and paieth per Annum, xi li. 

The house with yard, barne, stable and backsid lyeing 
west from the Church and adjoyning south on Chfton 
Streete, north on the Demeasnes called Home-leyes and 
abbutting west on the Customary land in the tenure of A. 
Hodges and east on the saied Home-leyes and conteyneth, 
2r. 4p. 

The orchard and garden plott scituate on Clifton Common 
(before the tenement aforesaied) abutting on all parts against 
the saied Common, 28p. 

One parcell of arrable called the Fower Acres in further 
Clifton Feild adjoyning on the north and south to the lands 
' of A. Whittington and the Demeasnes in the occupation of 
R. Hilling and on the west part to the land of A. Hodges, 
.3a. 2r. 8p. 

One peice of arrable in the same feild lyeing next Mill- 
mote way on the south west sid, the lands of A. Hodges on 
the north east sid, the north west end whereof abbutteth 
on ye lands of the saied A. Hodges, the south east end on 
a wayne way and conteyneth, 31. 6p. 

One close of Up-land meadow or pasture called Upper 
Deane, abbutting north on the lands of A. Hodges and south 
on the lands of A. Whittington and lyeth betweene the 
lands of the saied Whittington to the west part and 
the lands of the saied A. Hodges togeather wth. the 
Customary land in the tenure of R. Hilling on the east 
part, 3a. 32p. 

One peice of Up-land meadow called Smock acre abbutting 
east on ye lands of George Harrington and west on Upper 
Deane aforesaied, the lands of A. Whittington on ye south 
sid, the lands of A. Hodges togeather with the Customary 
land called East acre and part of the Twelve acres belonging 



240 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

to the saied A. Whittington and A. Hodges towards the 
north and conteyneth, 2a. I3p. 

Two closes of Up-land meadow called the Ten acres 
abbutting east on Mill-mote Lane and west on the lands of 
A. Hodges and a peice of Customary land in the tenure of 
the said John Batten and extendeth in length betweene 
a common feild way and A. Hodges land on the north part, 
the lands of Whittington togeather with the Colledge of 
Bristoll's land and a peice of Customary land in the tenure 
of A. Hodges towards the south and conteyneth iia. 2r. 5p. 

An acre of arrable in West End feild lyeing betweene the 
lands of A Hodges on the north part and the lands of the 
saied Hodges togeather with a peice of Customary land 
called the Square Paddock in the tenure of the said Hodges 
on ye south part and abbutteth east on the Customary Ten 
acres aforesaid and west on the lands of A. Whittington and 
conteyneth 3r. I5p. 

One close of arrable at the Downe End called Lide feild 
wth. a parcell of underwood within the same, the lands of 
A. Whittington on the east and west parts and abbutting 
north on the lands of A. Whittington and A. Hodges and 
south on Durdom Downe and conteyneth, 3a. 3r. I5p. 

A coppice called Buttery Wood abbutting south on 
Rowenham Ferry way and north uppon ye lands of A. V/hit- 
tington and adjoyneth on the east sid to Clifton Wood and 
west to a lane leading from Clifton to the Ferry, 3a. ir. 3ip. 

Two acres and a half of meadow in Rowenham meade 
lyeing togeather in a peice in the middest, whereof A. Hodges 
hath half an acre, all which abbutteth north west on the 
ferry way and south east on the lands of A. Whittington, the 
east sid whereof adjoyneth to a piece of Customary land in 
the tenure of A. Hodges and conteyneth, 2a. 2r. 

One peice of meadow in Rowneham called the Parson's 
Breech, the lands of Mr. Whittington on the east and west 
sids and abbutteth north on the ferry way and south on ye 
lands of A. Hodges and conteyneth, 2op. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 241 



Halfe an acre of meadow in the same Rowneham the lands 
of A. Whittington on the west sid, a peice of Demeasnes in 
the occupation of Widdow Batten on ye east sid and abbutteth 
north on the Customary land of Edmu^id Watts and south on 
Bristoll Channell, 2r. 

Another halfe acre in the same meadow, adjoyning to 
a peice of Demeasnes on the west sid, the lands of 
A. Whittington on the east sid, the south end whereof 
abbutteth on Bristoll Channell, the north end on the 
Demeasnes, 2r. 

A peice of arrable called Upper Deane abbutting south on 
ye lands of A. Hodges, north on a feild way and adjoyneth 
west to a peice of Customary land in the tenure of John 
Hodges and east to Smock acre and the lands of A. Whit-- 
tington, 3a. ir, I4p, 

-arrable 10a.3r.18p/ 



Sum of acres 
in 



-pasture or 

Up-land meadow 17a. 2r. 2p. 
-wett meadow 3a. 2r, 20p. 



36a.3r.31p. 



-wood 4a. 3r. 3ip. 

Valet per Annum xxviii li. 

The farm held by the Battens, father and son, lay west of 
the church, north of Clifton Street and south of Home-leyes 
field, which must have stretched for some distance north and 
west of the church. The home of the Battens may have 
stood upon the site of the house called the Cottage 
dernolished some years ago. Tide Field containing a piece 
of underwood is the only field that we can locate with, 
certainty upon the map of 1746 ; it abutted south upon what 
we now call Clifton Down, but at the date of this Survey 
known in common with the rest of the waste as Durdom 
Down. If we reflect for a moment we reahse that the only 
land bounded on the south by any portion of the Down is 
the strip now covered by Litfield Place and Harley Place, 



•242 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

Turning to the map, sure enough we find marked not only a 
field which fulfills the necessary conditions, but within it a 
piece of wood distinctly shown. The field runs northwards 
down the slope away from the edge of the Down, and is now 
covered by Litfield Place and gardens. 

The Battens held also a three-acre coppice called Buttery 
Wood ; this lay on the slope above Hotwell Road or Dowry 
Square. And lastly a small piece of meadow in Rownham 
rejoicing in the remarkable name of the Person's Breech. 

Edmund Watts aged about 40 and George Clark aged 
about 18 holdeth by Copie of Co art Rolle according to custom 
for terme of their naturall lives, one messuage and divers 
parcells of land thereunto belonging and paieth per Annum, 
viii s. 

The house wth. yard, barne, stable, garden and backsid 
adjoyning on the west part to Clifton Streete and east to the 
lands of A. Hodges and A. Whittington, la. ir. 

One close of Up-land meadow or pasture called Whit- 
ieild, adjoyneing north and west to the lands of A. Hodges 
and south on the lands of A. Whittington and conteyneth, 
la. 6p. 

One close of Up-land meadow or pasture called Laridge, 
Mill-mote Lane lyeing on the north east part, the lands of 
A. Whittington on the south east part. Nether feild on the 
north west part. Holly land being Demeasnes and ye 
Customary land in the tenure of A. Hodges on the south west 
part and conteyneth, 4 acres. 

One close of Up-land meadow or pasture lyeing betweene 
the Customary land in the tenure of John Hodges towards 
the north and the lands of A. Hodges gentleman towards the 
south and conteyneth, la. 3r. 6p. 

One close of Up-land meadow abbutting west on further 
Chfton feild and east on a close of Demeasnes called Howells 
Deane and adjoyneth north and south to ye lands of A. 
Whittington and conteyneth, la. 3r. lOp. 



— i 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 243 



One peice of arrable in Nether Clifton feild adjoyneing on 
the north east part to Mill-mote way and on the south west 
parte to a peice of Customary land in the tenure of A. Hodges 
and abbutteth north west on ye Colledge land of Bristoll, 
south east on Laridge meadow, 3r. i5p. 

One peice of meadow in Rowneham meade, adjoyneing on 
the north part to a peice of Customary land in the tenure of 
-A. Hodges, 3r. yp. 

. — arrable 3r. I5p. 



— meadow or ^ 

1 , \ 11a.2r.4p. 

upland pasture 9a. 3r. 22p. { 



Sum of acres in 



-wett meadow 3r. yp. 
Valet per Annum, xii li. 

This house, held by Edmund Watts, was on the west side 
of Clifton Streete, possibly near Rodney Place. Of field 
names we get Whit-lield and Laridge which we have not had 
before, unless Laridge is a variation of Lauridge, which occurs 
in the first part of the Survey. 

JOHN BAYLY aged about 40 holdeth by Coppie of Court 
Rolle according to custom of this manor for terme of his 
uaturall hfe one Tenement and backsid wth. a shpe of land 
and paieth per Annum, viiis. iiiid. 

The house wth. yard and garden scituate at the south 
east corner of Clifton Wood and adjoyneing towards the south 
U-ppon Rowneham Ferry way, 24p. 

One small close lyeing betweene Bristoll Channell on the 
south part and the ferry way on the north part, the west end 
whereof abbutteth on Rowneham meadow and conteyneth, 2r. 

Sum 2r. 24p. 

Valet per Annum xxiiis. iiiid. 

John Bayly was in all hkehhood the same individual who 
by style of John Bayhe lymeburner of Chfton rented from 
Sir Hugh Smyth Knt: of Long Ashton " a cottage, lymekill 
and quarre " in Stokeleigh Slade in the year 1626. See deed 



244 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



under that date in " The Account of Leigh Woods," Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Transactions, vol. xxxvi. His house in. 
Qifton would have been a cottage on the Hotwell Road. 

WIDDOW BAYLY aged about 46, WILLIAM BAYLY 
her son aged about 14, holdeth by Coppie for terme of their 
naturall lives, a cottage and land thereunto belonging and 
paieth per Annum., xs. 

The house wth. yard, garden and orchard, scituate nigh 
the Ferry and adjoyneing towards the south on the lands of the 
Colledge of Bristoll, on all other parts to the lands of A. 
Whittington except a corner wch. abbutteth towards ye west 
on ye lord's wast and conteyneth, 2r. 3p. 

One parcell of meadow in Rowneham meade abbutting 
south west on Bristoll Channell and north east on the lands 
of A. Whittington on the southeast and north west side and 
conteyneth, la. ir. 

Sum of acres, la. 3r. 3p. 
Valet per Annum, xxiiis. iiiid. 

— arrable 



Sum of acres of 
the Customary 
tenements in 
this Manor of 
Chfton. 1 



-pasture or up- 
land meadow 

-wett meadow 



25a. ip. 

6ia. 3r. 3p. 
6a. 5p. 



} 97a. 3I-. 



— wood 4a. 3r. 3ip. - 

Sum of the Customary igli. iiiis. viii 
rents per Annum. 

Total value per Annum Ixxxvi li. 
of the Customary Tenements 

Sum totall oi^'-'"''^^^ 37a. 35P ■ 

Acres in De 

^ — pasture or up- 
land meadow i2oa. 2r. gp 

wett meadow 



measnes and Cus 
tomary land be- 
longing to this 
Manor of Clifton 
in 



-wood 



13a. 3r. 5P- 
34a. 3r. 3ip. 



2o6a. 2r. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 245 

Sum totall of the present rents Ixxxiiii li. viii d. 
per Annum of the Manor of Chfton. 

Sum totall of the yearely value 

of the Manor of Clifton in clxxvi li. x s. 

present and future. 

NOTE, in a different hand. 

Ra. Sadleir Esq. made a lease to Jo. Berwick of his part 
•of the Lymestones by the watersyde within his mannor of 
Clyfton for 21 yeares, rent per Annum £2 yf behinde 21 dayes 
to re-enter. 

Chfton. 

At a Court there holden the xxiiiith. dale of September in 
-the yeare of our Lord God 1627 the third yeare of 

Kinge Charles. Those tennants wch. are Coppy holders of 
the saide Mannor whose names are hereunder subscribed 
and in whose presence this booke of Survey hath bene read 
and examined doe upon their oathes present that it is a true 
survay in every particular save only they doe not well 
knowe the true place where the Parsonage Howse is, neither 
doe they think it any thinge materiall. 

Anth. Hodges John Batten The marke of John Bayly. 
John Hodges Per me Emd. Watts 

Ex. per me Wilham Blane 

Senescaldum ibidem. Richard Chamberlaine 

Receptorem. 

Mete et bunde parochie de Chfton vizt. A passagio de 
Rowneham per aquam Avonie usque ad capellam Scti. 
Vincentie et de inde per aquam predictam usque ad Wallcam 
Slade et deinde ad locum vocatum " Le Hawthorne " et 
■deinde ad quemdam lapidem vocatam A merestone jacentem 
inter capellam Scti. Lamberti et regiam viam et inde per viam 
predictam ad Smock acre et deinde usque ad Le Whitestile 
et deinde usque ad Dedistone stile et deinde ad Le Lymekyles 
et deinde per aquam Avonie predicte usque ad passagium 
predictum. 



246 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Md. that this is registered in the Church book of 
Chfton. 

The Metes and Bounds of the parish of Chfton viz. from 
the passage of Rownham by the water of Avon to the Chapel 
of St. Vincent and thence by the aforesaid water to Wahcam 
Slade and thence to a place called the Hawthorne and thence 
to a certain stone called a merestone lying between the 
Chapel of St. Lambert and the Royal Road and thence by 
the aforesaid road to Smock Acre and thence to the Whitstile 
and thence to Dedistone stile and thence to the Lymekyles 
and thence by the water of the aforesaid Avon to the afore- 
said passage. 

We must remember that these are the bounds of the parish 
and not of the manor. 



The separate sheet. 

Clyfton. 

A note of some things there, now in the Lorde's handes 
to be solid. 

The parsonage late in the tenure of Andrew Whittington. 
gent. wth. the Tythes and gleabelands viz. a howse and 

of errable 7a. or. gp. 

The olid r. of pasture 12a. or. lop.. 

£40. of upland meadow 10 acres, 

or pasture. 

Total 29a. or. igp. 

By Mr. Lily his survey valet per Annum £40. 
owt of wch. yssueth for serving the Cure per Annum £vi. 
So de claro £34. 
Yt maie be lett for £48. 
viz. to the Curate £vi. 
and for qre. sermons £2. 
So de claro £40. 

£700 is bydden for yt, at 20 yeares purchase worth £800.. 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 247 



Widow Ann Hillinge late the wyfe of Rich. HiUinge helld 
by lease now expyred viz. a howse and 
of errable 3a. ir. 5p. 

of Marsh meadow 5 acres'! 

of upland meadow or pasture 
ground 8a. 2r. 38p. 

Total 17a. or. 38p. 

By Mr. Lily his survey valet per Annum 
Yt is worth per Annum 
At 20 yeares purchase worth 
£340 is bydden for yt. • 
The olid r. £10 i6s. 

The said Ann Hillinge helld by Copy she now dead viz. a 



howse and of upland meadow or pasture 11 a. or. of. 

By Mr. Lily his survey valet per Annum £11. 

It is worth per Annum /15. 

At 20 yeares purchase worth £300- 
The olid r. 9s. 

The Coppice wood called Clyfton Wood whn. a qre. of a myle 

of Bristoll of severall yeares growth 30 acres. 

Worth per Annum at los. the acre £15. 

At 20 yeares purchase worth £300- 
Totall £1760. 



The two following letters of much later date are of 
interest as they illustrate the base uses to which our 
noble Downs were put by Bristolians of the eighteenth 
century. 

St. Michael's Hill, September 17th. 1760. 

Sir 

We are making a Horse pool near Durdham Down. 
If you will permit Mr. Parker to suffer me to hall some Clay 



£14. 
£18. 

£360. 



248 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

from thence for that purpose I will be still adding to those 
obligations you have already laid on 
Sir 

Your sincere Friend and 

most obedt. humb Serv. 
John Foy 

■ Our Compliments wait on your good For Jarrit Smith Esq. 
Lady and the whole Family. 

CHfton, April i8th. 1763. 

•Sir 

Having occasion of some Clay to clay a Bason for Water 
:in my Court I shall be much obliged to you for your per- 
mission to dig about 6 or 7 Loads on Durdham Down. 
I am 

Your most obedt. Servt. 
To • Sam. Worrall. 

Sir Jarrit Smith Bart. 
Ashton. 

The Survey with which we have just dealt was no doubt 
drawn up to determine the exact value of the estate, which, 
perhaps, was likely to fall in to Ralph Sadleir the owner, as 

-only one life survived of those named in the original lease 
from his grandfather, Sir Ralph Sadleir, and forty-six years 

-of the one hundred for which it was granted had expired. 
William Newce, the tenant, certainly was only fifty years of 
age, but for aught we know his life may have been what is 
technically known as a bad one, or he may have been 
desirous of surrendering his father's lease. We find from the 
statement at the foot of some of the holdings that Clifton was 
improving in rentable value, and so in the event of Sadleir 
wishing to sell the property he would do so on the basis of 
the improved and not of the old rent. From internal evidence 
we gather that he did wish to sell, and that parts of the estate 
were sold soon after we learn from the notes appended to 



Survey of the Smaller Manor of Clifton. 249 

the description of some of the farms, from which it is also 
apparent that the purchaser's idea of their value was not 
altogether identical with that of the vendor. We are told, 
too, the exact number of acres (hitherto unknown) contained 
in the manor, and also that the farms were very small, the 
largest only fifty-nine acres in extent, out of which thirty 
acres were coppice wood, and ten acres rough grazing ground. 
The sub-tenant, Andrew Whittington, who held the tithes 
and the parsonage house and land belonging to it, had to 
pay the magnificent stipend of £6 per annum to the parson, 
who could scarcely have declared himself passing rich upon 
it. The extract from the Court Roll of 1627 says that the 
tenants affirm that they do not well know the true place 
where the parsonage house is, and add a rider to the effect 
" That neither do they think it anything material." This 
need not astonish us, since the parsonage house was the 
rectory house, and the rectory had been secularised at the 
Dissolution, so that the parsonage house had, in 1627, 
Church connection at all, and it is not likely that the tenants 
would remember the site of the house used as the parsonage 
seventy years before. It is interesting to note that most 
of the tenants' dwellings were clustered about Chfton Green, 
each possessing all the attributes of a farm. What a charming 
picture of rural Clifton the rnind can conjure up — the Green 
(of much greater size than now), surrounded by farmhouses 
•of varying styles and degrees of picturesqueness, sloping down 
to the trees of Clifton Wood, the whole dominated by the 
venerable Chuch of St. Andrew, and bounded in the distance 
by the crags and pinnacles of Clifton Rocks. 

The late Mr. Latimer, in his paper on Clifton, states that 
in a tracing of a plan, dated 1775, in the possession of Mr. 
Fox, a broad green space in front of Manilla Hall is marked 
as Clifton Green. If this space was ever so called by the 
people of the village, the name must have been adopted 
between 1625 and I775> since the first two items of Andrew 
Whittington's holding mentioned in our Survey conclusively 

18 

Vol. .XXXVl. 



250 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

prove that the Qifton Green here referred to is the waste 
ground lying between the church and Qifton Wood. 

The signatures of the tenants show that they were men of 
some education, inasmuch as they could sign their names^ 
nevertheless they all appear curiously undecided as to the 
exact date of their birth, an indecision more usually 
appertaining at the present day to members of (if I dare so 
call it) the weaker sex. 

If this paper has done nothing to tell us more of the 
mediaeval lords of the two manors, I trust it has not failed 
to throw a little light upon the seventeenth-century husband- 
men of our parish, and to make us better acquainted with 
their field names than we were before. 



I 

1 





Photo by Mr. A . N. CoUerell. 

TRINITY CHAPEL, 1 796-1881. 

{From the drawing by G. Delamotte, 1825, in the Bristol Museum 
and Art Gallery.) 




Photo by Mr. A . N. Cotterell. 

TRINITY HOSPITAL NORTH, 1672-1913. 

{From the drawing by G. Delamotte, 1824, in the Bristol Museum 
and Art Gallery.) 



! 



TRINITY HOSPITAL 



By WILFRID LEIGHTON. 

The almshouses in Old Market Street, known as Trinity 
Hospital, were founded by John Barstaple, a merchant and 
burgess of Bristol. He was a man of wealth and distinction 
in the city, being bailiff in 1379, sheriff in 1389, and mayor 
in 1395, 1401 and 1405. By his marriage with Isabel, 
daughter of Walter Derby, ^ he became alHed to another of 
the wealthy merchant families whose name is also recorded 
on the roll of Bristol benefactors. Of their family of three 
sons and two daughters, Nicholas Barstaple, " clerk," was 
the first master of his father's hospital. ^ 

An interesting series of charters throw considerable light 
on the objects of the founder. The first of these charters 
is the letters patent of Richard II, which enables us to fix the 
date of the foundation of the hospital as December ioth„ 
1395- Unfortunately this early charter has perished, but 
it is mentioned in the confirmatory letters patent of Henry IV, 
given at Westminster, February i6th, 1408, ^ of which the 
following is an abbreviated transcript : — 

Calendar of Patent Rolls. 9 Hen. IV. 
1408. Feb. 16. Westminster. 

Licence, in consideration of another Licence, by letters 
patent dated 10 Dec. 19 Richard II, which have had no effect, 
and for 2 marks, paid by him in the hanaper, for John 
Barstable, burgess of Bristol, to found on the plot there 
specified a house of hospitality or alms, in honour of the 

1 Dallaway's Antiquities, p. 91, 
2 Ibid., p. 75. 
3 State Papers Series. 



252 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

Holy Trinity, of two chaplains to celebrate divine service 
there daily for the good estate of the said John and Isabel 
his wife, and for their souls after death, and 24 poor persons 
to dwell there and pray for the same, and also a fraternity or 
guild perpetual of themselves and others who may wish to be 
of it. The two houses shall be incorporated separately, and 
one of the chaplains shall be warden of the Almshouse and 
called warden of the Almshouse of Holy Trinity by la 
Fordesyate in the suburb of Bristol, and the other master or 
warden of the fraternity and called master or warden of the 
fraternity or guild of Holy Trinity by la Fordesyate in the 
suburb of Bristol, and each shall have power to acquire lands 
and other possessions and to implead and be impleaded, and 
have a common seal, and each of the wardens and the brethren 
and sisters of the fraternity shall have power to make ordi- 
nances for themselves and their successors. The warden 
and four of the more honest men of the fraternity may make 
assessments on the goods of the brethren and sisters when 
necessary for the maintenance of the fraternity. Licence 
also for the said John to grant the advowson of the Alms- 
house to the Mayor and Commonalty of Bristol. 

The statement in this charter that the earlier licence of 
1395 had been abortive is perplexing, and must refer rather 
to the guild or fraternity than to the almshouse, for the 
latter was certainly erected in that year or early in 1396. 
This is witnessed by the will of Peter Atte Barugh, dated 
September 15th, 1396, ^ leaving a legacy to the " poor of the 
renovated hospital at * Laffardisyate,' " and also that of 
Thomas Carpynter, March 12th, 1397, ^ mentioning the 
" hospital newly made " there. 

In the charter the intentions of the founder are very 
clearly stated ; there was to be an almshouse and a 
fraternity or guild, separately incorporated and in separate 
houses. The fraternity contemplated by Barstaple was 

1 Wadley's Wills, p. 47. 
2 Ibid., p. 58. 



Trinity Hospital. 



253 



clearly a religious guild as distinct from the merchant and 
trade guilds common at that time in all towns. Such 
fraternities in the Middle Ages were spread in great numbers 
over all countries under the Roman 'authority. They were 
always under the patronage of the Holy Trinity or certain 
saints, or the Holy Cross or Sacrament, or some dedication. 
Their objects were many. Archbishop Hinkman, of Rheims, 
in his capitulary instructions relating to such guilds says, 
" They shall unite for every exercise of r.eligion, that is to 
say, they shall unite for offerings (especially of candles) for 
mutual assistance, for funeral services for the dead, for alms 
and other deeds of piety." ^ 

Many of these guilds also undertook some useful social 
service, such as repairing roads and bridges, and one very large 
English fraternity — that of Corpus Christi at York — found 
beds for " eight poor people being strangers " in the 
city. 2 

During the period intervening between the first and second 
charters the founder was not idle in carrying out his good 
intentions. On the 30th January, 1402, he obtained licence 
from Henry IV to grant in mortmain to the " brothers and 
sisters of the hospital " a toft in the suburbs of Bristol, held 
of the king in burgage for the support of certain charges 
according to his ordinance." ^ 
It would appear that this licence has reference to the 
fraternity rather than to the almshouse, but in many cases 
the wording of the documents in this respect is somewhat 
ambiguous. 

Previous to the above licence John Barstaple had 
obtained in 1399 a letter from Pope Boniface IX inhibiting 
under pain of the greater excommunication, not to be removed 
by other than the Pope except in hour of death, anyone 
from interfering with the execution of his will, by which, 

1 L. T. Smith, English Guilds, p. Ixxxii. 
2 Ibid., p. 143. 
^' Calendar of Patent Rolls. State Papers Series, 1402. 



254 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



according to the text of the letter, he proposed to endow 
the hospital he had founded and built for the " sick 
poor." 1 

The intention expressed in this letter of endowing the 
foundation by will was not carried out. The almshouse was 
evidently transferred to the Corporation at an early but 
unrecorded date under the clause contained in the charter of 
1408. 

Barstaple seems to have divested himself of the greater 
part of his estate before death, but in his will ^ directs that 
his body be buried in the chapel of the Holy Trinity of 
"la Fordysate" on the left side of the high altar, and after 
the decease of Isabel, his wife, bequeaths to the fraternity 
of the Blessed Trinity of "la Fordysate" two cups of silver 
with their covers, which shall remain there for ever. 

John Barstaple died September 15th, 141 1, ^ and was 
buried as he directed on the left side of the high altar in the 
chapel of his hospital. His wife died the following year, and 
was buried on the right side of the altar. Their burial- 
places were marked by memorial brasses, in which they 
are shown standing with their hands clasped in the 
attitude of prayer. He is clothed in a long gown with a 
hood fastened at the throat, and clasped round the waist by 
an ornamental girdle from which a basilarde is suspended on 
the left side. Beneath is his merchant's mark and the 
following inscription : — 

1bic lacet ^ob'es JBarftable mn^ct viUe JBurtto ir 
tuDator xtti loci qui obiit ! jvo Ikal'n ©ctob' Tra D'o'cal't) 
2lo t)'iu /Iftmo (iG(IC'"o I^'"*^ cut a'i'e p'piciet' C)'s Bineii 

His wife is shown clothed in a long dress with tight 
sleeves and a girdle at the waist. Her head is covered by 
a kerchief and wimple with a cape over the shoulders. Under 

^ State Papers. Papal Letters, 1399, p. 245. 
2 Prerogative Court of Canterbury. Will dated loth April, 141 1. 
3 M. B. Trinity Hospital and Dallaway's Antiquities, p. 75. 



Trinity Hospital, 



255 



the figure is a shield with the arms : " On a fess between 
three roses as many bugles," and the inscription : — 

Ibic iacet ^rsabella qiioiiDa' 5ob'i6 JSarftaplc 
Que obiit I anno &'ni niUro C(IC(I»«o . . . I'ra D'o'calis 
. . . cur a ic p'piciet O'i? Bme. 

The blank left in the date of this brass has misled several 
Bristol historians, who have assigned Isabel Barstaple's 
death to the year 1400. Her will, however, dated March 2nd, 
141 1, 1 was proved before the mayor and sheriff on the 
" Monday next before the feast of St. Margaret the Virgin, 
•1412," 2 having previously been proved before the ecclesi- 
astical authorities, and gives very detailed directions as to 
her burial. 

She describes herself as formerly wife of John Barstaple, 
late a burgess of the town of Bristol, and desires to be buried 
in the Chapel of the Holy Trinity " iux' portam Laffard " 
before the image of the Holy Trinity. To the poor there she 
bequeaths £10, and to Sir William Rijs, chaplain, ten marks 
sterhng, he to celebrate in the chapel the next year after 
her decease, for her soul, her late husband's and all Christian 
people, and to have a further sum of forty shillings for the 
celebration of a Trental of St. Gregory. Her son. Sir Nicholas, 
chaplain, Sir William Rijs and others to have clothing of 
one sort " contra dirige meu." To Sir Thomas Thorpp 
celebrating in the chapel twenty shiUings was left, and to 
Sir WilHam Hawvyle, Rector of St. Werburgh's £3 sterhng, 
on condition that neither he nor any in his name hindered 
the direct conveyance of her body to Trinity Hospital 
Chapel. Forty pence also was left to the said rector, and 
the same sum to the clerk of St. Werburgh's for bell tolling, 

1 Wadley's Wills, p. 86. 

2 The Brass of Isabel Barstaple is supposed to be a copy of the 
original. Both the canopies are modern. See also W. A. Sampson's 
"The Almshouses of Bristol," Proceedings, vol. xxxii and xxxiv, p. 50, 
Bristol Meeting. Also Monumental Brasses of Gloucester , C. T. Davies, 
p. 28. 



256 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

and twelve pence to every priest celebrating therein. Four 
tapers, each of the weight of six pounds, to be about the 
body " ad axequias meas " and five tapers, weighing eight 
pound apiece, to stand upon the hearse. Poor people to 
have white cloth to the value of £8, and follow the body to 
burial. Legacies were also left to her daughter Ahce, her 
daughter Joan, wife of Robert Shepward and her heirs, to 
her sons Nicholas and Thomas and others, and the residue 
of her estate was to be distributed for the good of the above- 
mentioned souls. 

After three centuries the old chapel became ruinous, and 
when rebuilt it was necessary to re-inter the remains of the 
founder and his wife. At the second burial there was none 
of the solemn magnificence of their first interment. But the 
clerk of works kept a diary, ^ and under date Saturday, 
August 23rd, 1794 he made an entry : — 

" . . . interring the Bones of the Founder, his wife. 
Priest, etc., in the middle Isle of new Chapell . . . staid 
to see it done 'til 8 o'clock at Night. Ale for the men 1/3." 

The year following the death of John Barstaple the fourth 
charter deahng with the hospital was granted by Henry IV, 
February 15th, 1412, as follows : — 

Calendar of Patent Rolls. 13 Hen. IV. 
1412. Feb. 15. Westminster. 

Licence for 10 marks paid in the hanaper, for Nicholas 
Barstaple and William Rice, Clerks, to grant in mortmain 
the reversion of a messuage, a caracate of land, 12 acres of 
meadow, 20 acres of pasture, and 16 acres of wood, in Ruge- 
way, not held of the King, which Mark William of Bristol 
and Agnes his wife, hold for life of their demise, to the warden, 
brethren and sisters of the hospital of Holy Trinity '{by 
Laffordesyate in the suburb of Bristol, to find a chaplain 
to celebrate divine service daily in the Hospital for the good 

1 MSS., Public Library, Trinity Almshouse, B. 4905. 



Trinity Hospital. 



257 



estate of Isabel Barstaple, Simon Canynges, and Margaret^ 
his wife, and Thomas Barstaple, and their children, while 
. they live and souls after death, John Barstaple, William 
Botener, and Alice his wife, and Willi ana Canynges. 

This charter also appears to deal with the guild only. 
The original, which is in excellent preservation, lies with the 
Ashton Court papers, and adds the name of John Barstaple 
to the Patent Roll copy in the Public Record Office, as one for 
whom service is to be celebrated. It would be interesting to 
know what became of the land in Rugeway, or presumably 
Ridgway. The early Rent Rolls of the almshouse do not 
mention it, and it does not appear to have passed to the 
Corporation. 

The fifth and last charter deahng with the hospital was 
granted by Henry V, February i6th, 1417. ^ It also deals 
with the guild only : — 

Calendar of Patent Rolls. 4 Hen. V. 
1417. Feb. 15. Westminster. 

Whereas by virtue of letters patent of Hen. IV, John 
Barstaple, founded a house of hospitality or alms in Bristol,, 
and began a fraternity or guild and Thomas Blount, John 
Droys, Robert Russell, David Dudbroke, Robert Shipward,. 
and Nicholas Barstaple, were admitted brethren of it, but. 
no warden was made or ordained, and it was not fully 
established, and afterwards the said John Barstaple proposed 
to change it into a fraternity or guild of the Holy Trinity 
and St. George, but commended his soul to the Most High 
before he could fulfil his pious and laudable purpose : the 
King grants licence for the said Thomas and others or four 
of them to transfer the said fraternity and found a fraternity 
or guild in honour of the Holy Trinity and St. George the 
Martyr of themselves and others wishing to be of it at Bristol, 
and for it to be incorporated and for one of the brethren: 
yearly to be elected Master, and to have power with the guild 

^ State Papers Series. 



258 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

of acquiring lands and other possessions and of impleading 
-and being impleaded, and for the master and brethren to 
make ordinances and constitutions, and to assess and levy 
sums from the goods of the brethren and sisters. 

This is the last reference we find to John Barstaple's guild 
or fraternity. Blount, Droys, Russell and Dudbrook were 
all men of substance who had held high civic office. Thomas 
Blount was mayor in 1416, and Robert Russell in 1417. 
It would be interesting to know the subsequent history of 
the guild. Perhaps further research may throw some light 
"upon its end. 

With reference to the last charter it may be note i that Messrs. 
Merewether and Stephens in their well-known work quote it as 
the first instance of one of the most characteristic capacities 
of a Corporation — that of holding lands and tenements by 
succession — being granted expressly and distinctly to an 
-eleemosynary fraternity, at a time when such powers had 
not as yet been expressly granted to municipal bodies. ^ 

Clearly, however, this was not the first instance of such 
powers being granted, as we have already seen that similar 
clauses were introduced in the charter of Henry IV nine 
years earlier. 

The original charter of Henry V is in the possession of 
the Trustees of Bristol Municipal Charities. The paper is 
very fragile, and the writing quite obhterated. We learn 
irom the minutes entered in the Charitable Donations Book 
that the document has been in this state for a number of years. 

On February 23rd, 1738, a Committee appointed by 
the Corporation to inquire into the charities under its care, 
met and examined some of the old deeds relating to Trinity 
Hospital, and ordered the " charter founding the said alms- 
house to be copied and Englished, as far as it was possible, it 
being very much decayed." ^ The very imperfect translation, 

1 Merewether and Stephens, History of Boroughs and Municipal 
Corporations, p. 834. 

2 Manchee, Bristol Charities, p. 62. 



Trinity Hospital. 



259 



with many blanks, which was the result of this order is 
printed in the appendix to Manchee's Bristol Charities, and 
what purports to be a copy in the original Latin was also 
printed by Barrett. 

The charter has thus been readily accessible to students 
of the early history of the hospital, ani is no doubt responsible 
iov the statement, which appears in Tanner's Notitia Monas- 
tica, 1 that Barstaple's foundation dates from 1416. Although 
corrected by Barrett, this date is unfortunately repeated in 
one of our most recent county histories. Another inaccuracy 
for which Barrett appears to be responsible is the frequently- 
repeated statement that Isabel Barstaple founded that part 
of the hospital which hes on the north side of Old Market 
Street ; an assumption which Mr. Latimer also considered 
probable because in the above charter of Henry V two 
hospitals were stated to be then in existence. ^ 

The modern buildings of the hospital — an almshouse on 
the north side and a chapel and almshouse on the south side 
of Old Market Street — stand on sites which apparently have 
been occupied by similar buildings since the date of its 
foundation. We have an early reference to the south side 
buildings in the writings of William Worcester, who records 
that from the first gate of the castle, across his garden and by 
the Market Cross and St. Philip's Churchyard to the western 
wall of Trinity Chapel he paced 660 steps. ^ He does not, 
however, mention the buildings on the north side, and the 
first distinct reference to that almshouse appears in the 
accounts of the hospital for 1512 : — 

" Item to III tilers a hole weke on the Almys house over 
the way, on the Chapell and the Almyshouse with the 
Chapell and on the belmakers house and on III houses 
where the wett was." ^ 

It seems certain, however, that the buildings were coeval, 

1 Page 483. 

2 Latimer's annotated copy of Barratt, Bristol Pub. Ref. Library. 
3 Dallaway's Antiquities, p. 90. * MSS., Bristol Municipal Charities. 



26o Transactions for the Year 1913. 



and although Isabel no doubt joined with her husband in 
the foundation, the true explanation of the two houses is 
that the erection on the south side was the almshouse, and 
that on the north side the home of the fraternity, which, 
according to the charter of Henry IV, was to be separately 
incorporated and separately housed. 

In an old undated MS. book on vellum in the possession 
of the Municipal Trustees there is also the following very 
clear statement as to Barstaple's buildings : — 

" John Barstable marchant and Burgess of the Town of 
Bristoll founded the Almshouse on the South side within 
Lawford's Gate together with the Hospital on the North side 
within the said gate, he builded the chappell therein, the 
honour of God and the holie Trinitie . . . He allowed 
competent maintenance for a Priest to serve and attend on 
the said Chapell. And endowed the said Chapell and premises 
with certain rents to wars their maintenance for ever." 

In this and other documents of the same period the build- 
ings on the south side are generally referred to as the 
"Almshouse," and those on the north side as the " Hospital," 
and at an early date the latter was used more as a place 
of temporary rest -for poor travellers than as a permanent 
home for the aged poor. In particular this is set out in the 
Indenture, dated April 14th, 1572, between Wm. Carr, 
merchant, of Bristol, and the Mayor and Commonalty of the 
City, reciting that Francis Codrington, of Bristol, merchant, 
gave to Wilham Carr the sum of £50, " of special trust and 
confidence, to be bestowed and employed at his discretion 
to the yearly use, relief and maintenance of bedding in the 
Hospital, or House of Poor People, called the Hospital of 
John Barstaple within Lawford's Gate, in the suburbs of 
Bristol, on the north side." For the purpose of accom- 
plishing the trust, Wm. Carr purchased of Thos. Shipman, 
late of Bristol, merchant, and Giles Codrington (son of 
Francis) certain lands and tenements in Portbury and 
Portishead, and demised the whole to the Mayor and 



-J 



Trinity Hospital. 



261 



Commonalty of Bristol for the term of one thousand years 
from the previous Michaelmas, so that the hospital might be 
assured of the benefits intended by the donor, and for a full 
declaration of the " consideration and meaning " of which 
the document continues : — 

" Whereas in the year 1544, Thos. Pacy, then being Mayor, 
and Francis Codrington and Thos. Lansden, being Sheriffs, 
it was agreed by the Mayor and Common Council that from 
thence forward said Sheriffs should cease to be at the charge 
of any Priests or Singing men at Mass, holden in the said 
Chapel : and that the said Sheriffs should also be discharged 
of a drinking yearly made under the Mayor and his brethren. 
In consideration of which discharges it was agreed by the 
said Mayor and Common Council, that the Sheriffs of the 
said City should pay yearly to the Chamberlain, to be repaid 
unto the Proctor of the Trinity Chapel at Lafford's Gate 
40 /- to be employed upon the making and repairing of 
bedding to be provided in the Hospital for the comfort of 
poor people, strangers coming and going through the said 
City, being sore sick, or otherwise destitute of comfort and 
relief, there to be harboured and succoured, by the space of 
one, two or three nights at the most." ^ 

We have no record of how or when this building was first 
put to these uses, which appear very similar to one of the 
objects of the Guild of Corpus Christi at York already 
referred to. It seems possible that such an object may have 
been incorporated in the internal regulations of Barstaple's 
Guild, and that after its decay the good work was still 
carried on. 

From 1572 to 1616 the rents derived from Codrington's 
gift were collected by the Corporation, and carried to the 
credit of the hospital. Subsequently, however, the 
Corporation acquired a large estate at Portishead, and allowed 
the whole of the rents to be gathered and retained by its own 



1 Hare's Report, 1871, pp. 41-2. 



262 



Traxsactions for the Year 1913. 



bailiff. In 1827 when the general inquiry into charities was 
made by the Commissioners this gift was not revealed, but 
in 1842, the management having passed into the hands of 
the Trustees of the Municipal Charities, a petition was 
presented by them in the Court of Chancery, and by the 
subsequent order the Corporation was directed to hand over 
to the Trustees all the lands comprised in the Indenture of 
1572, and to account for the profits received therefrom since 
1836. ^ 

Francis Codrington was not the hospital's only benefactor 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In the first 
account book, dated 1512, ^ and for many subsequent years 
the payment is recorded in the name of Dame Elizabeth 
or Isabel Seymour of 13d. to each of the poor people quarterly, 
with an additional 4d. every Shere or Shore Thursday, which 
is the Thursday before Easter. ^ These sums are charged 
against the general receipts from rents, and were probably 
derived from the income of some bequest or donation merged 
in the general funds. 

Bristol wills during this period record many small 
legacies to the poor of the almshouse, and occasionally a larger 
reversionary bequest, such as the house in " Knyfesmythe 
strete" bequeathed by John Dunster in 1406, ^ should his 
heirs fail, and an almost similar bequest by Henry Dale of St. 
Leonard's Parish in 1511.^ It is impossible to say whether 
the first of these bequests matured, and there is no record 
in the accounts of anything being received on account 
of the second, 

A more important bequest, however, was made in 1521,. 
by John Mathew, draper, of the Parish of St. Ewen, which 
is thus recorded in the Trustees' MS. book : — 

" John Mathew of the Cittie of Bristoll, marchant, by his. 

1 Ibid., p. 43- 
MSS., Bristol Municipal Charities. 
3 Brand, Pop. Ant., p. 83. 
4 Wadley, p. 75. 
5 P. C, 1511-12. Mr. Hockaday's Transcript. 



Trinity Hospital. 263 

last Will . . . did give to the Almshouse of the Blessed 
at Lawforde Gate in Bristol ... of the poor folk there, 
five tenemts lying in Bristol . . and for as much as the gift 
remained (void ?) the maior and commcftialtie of Bristoll did 
grante unto the heirs of the said John Mathew during certain 
termes x£ per annum and they released their interets as appear- 
eth by the Deed and will remaining in Mr. Maior's Closet." 

Both these documents have disappeared from " Mr. 
Maior's" closet, but from John Mathew's will, dated 
September 23rd, ^ 1521, we find that after certain bequests- 
and a life interest to his wife, Margery, the residue of his 
estate was left to his son John, provided that if the latter 
died before the age of 21, after the decease of his said wife, 
all the property should go to the " Almshouse of the blessed 
Trynyte within the Chapell at Laffardes Yate, to the 
mayntenyng of the poor folke of the same house for ever." 
£40 was also left to his daughter Joan Mathew, at the age 
of 21, or marriage. 

This bequest eventually became of considerable value, 
but nothing was received until 1564. In the accounts for 
that year appears for the first time a statement of "ye 
lande late belonging to Mr. Mathews of Bristow drap" : — 

THE RENT ROWELL. 

George Bathram for a tenement in Brodestrete rent . . u£ 
Rich Edye for a tenement in Balan (i.e. Baldwin) Strete ii£ 
Mathew Nede for a tenet uppon the Keaye . . ii. vi. viii 
Nichus Ware for a tenmt in Corne Strete . . . . i£ 
William Marshall for a tennt in Grope Lane . . . . i£ 
Som Totle viii. vi. viii. 
From this amount is deducted " payments owet of ye 
same lands." 

Item paid Jonne fylde and now Jonne barrye for 

her stepend by the yere . . . . . . ^ Yi£ 

It more for ye bayhff ffee . . .... . . vis viiid 

^ Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Proved Oct. 3rd, 1521. 



264 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

In 1587 the annuities charged on the property were 40s. 
to " Julyan Morgan wyfe of Nicholas Morgan alys synger," 
and the same amount to " Amy Cadle wyfe of Thomas Cadle, 
clarke." Shortly afterwards the payments ceased, and the 
whole of the income was then apphed to the general purposes 
of the charity. 

The name " Lambert'^ Gift," applied to a small annual 
sum received from the Corporation, is an amusing instance of 
a clerical error being handed down in perpetuity. The 
Commissioners in their report of 1827 state that nothing 
could be found as to origin of this gift, except a minute of 
the Committee of Inquiry, August 17th, 1739, that the sum 
of i6s., viz. 8s. on St. David's Day, and 8s. on the 
17th September, had been paid to the baihff as the gift of 
Mr. Lambert. 

Turning to the accounts, we find the following entry 
relating to the first portion of this gift : — 

" It was this prsent yere of our Lorde .God 1564 at the 
hands of Mr. Hicks Chamburleyne the firste of Mrche for the 
Almes pepull for hemyng viiis wch said money is gevon 
contynually wtowht enny accompte gevon." 

This amount was received and paid regularly until 161 2, 
when the first entry relating to the second half of the gift 
appears. 

(Item your accomptant) chargeth hym selff with 
viiis Recaved of the Chamberlyn the 17th day of 
September, 1612, being Lambert's Day . . . payd the 
same day to vi poor women of the same Almshouse according 
to an old custom." 

It may be mentioned that the St. Lambert's Day, 17th 
September, was the day on which the founder's obit was 
celebrated. 

Fifteen years later, with a new bailiff, the first payment 
is noted as issuing out of the Gaunt's Lands, and the second 
instead of being payable on St. Lambert's Day has become 
the gift of Mr. Lambert. Subsequently both amounts are 



Trinity Hospital 



265 



recorded as the gift of Mr. Lambert, and so continue to the 
present time. 

Richard Reynolds, the philanthropist, on the ist 
September, 1809, transferred to the Mayor and Commonalty 
of Bristol £4,000 three per cent, annuities, costing £2,740, 
for the purpose of increasing the weekly pay of the inmates 
of the almshouse. The gift was confirmed by an indenture, 
dated December 5th, 1809, relating the terms of the Trust, 
and providing for the investment of the surplus income. 

Reference must also be made to the will of Alderman 
Henry Bengough, April 9th, 1818, leaving a reversionary 
interest in certain property in the parishes of Nempnett and 
Blagdon for the purpose of founding an almshouse on land 
belonging to and adjoining Trinity Hospital South. The 
bequest was insufficient for the purpose, and the income 
accumulated until 1877, when no suitable site adjoining the 
hospital being available, the almshouse known as Bengough' s 
Almshouse was erected by the trustees in Horfield Road. 

To complete this list of benefactions, Mr. Fenwick 
Richards, the present Chairman of the Trustees of the 
Municipal Charities, in 1912 enlarged the buildings of Trinity 
Hospital South, providing accommodation for four additional 
inmates, and in 1913 rebuilt the whole of the almshouse on 
the north side of Old Market Street. 

The occasional extracts which have been given hardly 
indicate the wealth of interesting information contained in 
the hospital accounts, which form an almost complete 
record of the receipts and payments from the year 1512. 
These accounts are generally contemporary copies of the 
yearly statements of the bailiff. They are written on paper, 
and those between 1512 and 1727 have been bound into 
seventeen foolscap volumes. 

The first opens with " Th accompte of John Clerke Rent 
getherer of the londis and tenements perteynyng and 
belongyng to the Chapell of the holy trynyte at laffordis 
geate made in the yere of oure Lord God mt vd xii, that 

19 

Vol XXXVI. 



266 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



ys to sey from the ffest of Seynt Michall the Archeangell the 
iiid yere of the reign of Kyng Henry the Vlllth unto the 
said ffest then next folowyng for a hoel yere John Rowland 
then being Mair." 

From the tenants of seventeen shops and tenements in 
St. Thomas Street £9 13s. id. is collected, the majority of 
shops being let at 8s. per annum. William Cardmaker 
pays I2S. for a shop, and Symon Wever 30s. for a 
" tenement." 

On the Key six shops and tenements are recorded ; 
St. Mary Street, i.e. Mary-le-Port Street, three ; Broad Mead 
one ; and The Barrs five shops and nine gardens, shops 
producing about 4s. 4d., and gardens 2s. per annum. In 
the Old Market the names of four out of a total of five of 
the shopkeepers are trade names. 



I512 THE OLDE MARKET BY YERE. 

Item of Edmunde Warmonde for a tent . . . . xis 

Of Thomas Belletur for a shop . . . . . . xxiiiis 

Of Richard Baker for a shop . . . . . . xvis 

Of Richard Wevar for a shop . . . . . . xiis 

Of John Carpynter for a shop . . . . . . viiis 

Item for a garden wt a well . . . . . . vis 

Item of a sheppard for a cotage . . . . . . iiiis 

Item of John Branwode for a shop . . . . viiis 

Item of a garden by yere . . . . . . . . vs iiiid 

Item of the Proctors of Seint Phelyppys for the 

hall and the sellar to sell Ale in . . . . iiis iiiid 

Item of the Proctors of Seynt Nicholas . . . . is 

Item receyved for a Mille to grynde crabbis . . iis 

Item receyved of Mr. Chambleyn . . . . xxxiiis 

Sum Receyvyd ;fviii ii viii 
Sum the hole Rent thys yere moto /xxxiiii xv ii 
Vacacons and batements of rents 
The hole vacacons of thys yere mot ;fviii viii vii 



i 



Trinity Hospital. 



267 



COSTI3 OF THE CHAPELL. 



In primis paid to the viii pore men and women 

yearly to evry of them wekely vid mot . . x£ viiis 
Item in the name of Dam Elzabethe Seymor too 

eche of them quarterly xiiid . . . . . . xxxiiiis 

Item in hir name to the pore people evry Shore 

Thursday . . . . . . . . . . iiiid 

Item for wood to there Chambre . . . . -. . iiis 

Item for wood to comyn kechyn by yere . . . . vis 

Item for wotemele and salt by yere . . . . xxiid 

Item for iiii quarts of lampeoile . . . . . . xviiid 

Item for renewyng of ii Tapers . . . . . . xvid 

Item paid to the waxmaker for x lb of new waxe 

for the Sepulcre light at viid a lb mot . . vs xd 
Item for a wachyng Tapir for the Sepulcre i lb and 

quartr of new wax at viid the lb mot . . . . viiid 
Item for renewyng of ii taps agaynst Trynyte 

Sunday . . . . . . . . ' . . vd 

Item for scouryng of the standards and candil- 

stikks on the Awter . . . . . . . . vid 

Item for scouryng of the lamps by fore the hie 

Auter . . . . . . . . . . . . iid 

Item for Rushes agayn Trynyte Sonday for the 

Chapell . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiid 

Item to John Clarke for his wags . . . . . . xis 

Allowans for expensis upon the tenntes . . . . vs 

Item to the Belmand for goyng aboute the toune 

ii tymes to show the pdon . . . . . . viiis 

Item paid to F Willm Wode for iii quarts wags . . iii xviii 
Sum thys syde £xix. vii viid 



REPARATOUS ON THE TENTS. 

Item I bought a tree of Elm for . . . . . . iiis 

Item for squarying of the same tree . . . . vid 

Item payd for fallying of the said tree whiche 

made iiid iiii fete . . . . . . . . iii viid 



268 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

Item to ii sawears for sawyng of studdes and other 
tymbre and iiid of okyn burdds for xii days at 
xiiid a Day mt. . . . . . . . . xiiis 

Item to a Kaypynter ii days for squarying of 
Tymbre in the store house of old tymbre at 
vid Jd a day . . . . . . . . . . xiiid 

Item for bryng of tymbre oute of the close and 
the stret studds and burds and other tymbre 
in to the store house . . . . . . . . iiid 



THE KEY. 

Item for ii lode of tile stonys wt halying . . . . iiis 

Item for i lb lathes . . . . . . . . . . vd 

Item for i lb lathe naile . . . . . . . . ijd 

Item for ii lbs tile pynnys . . . . . . . . xiid 

Item for here . . . . . . . . . . Jd 

Item upon Bouse' s house a duble durre wt walshe 

burdes in finys (? hinges) for the said Dore 

and wyndower . . . . . . . . xxid 

Item to the Carpynter iiii days . . . . . . iis iid 

Item for ii twists ii haspis and ii stapulls . . . . viid 

Item for mendyng of the shop wyndower iiii new 

haspis and iiii new stapulls . . . . . . iid 

Item for new bolts with a grete jemell to his shop iis - 

Item to the shop dore a new lok wt a hollow key . viid 

Item for ii lb lath nails and burde nails . . , . viid 
Item for vi barris of iron in a gutter wyndow 

weying xiii lb at i J i lb . . . . . . xx jd 



Item for a new lok to 'the chamber dore and a 
nother to the plor dore wth a nother to the 
kechyn dore wth thre keys and stapulls mt . . 



xiiijd 

i 



Trinity Hospital. 



269 



SAINT THOMAS STREET. 

Item for iii lode of pavyn stone to pave a kechyn 
in one of the v voide houses at xvid a lode 
and the halyng iid a lode mt . . . . . . iiiis vid 

Item for ix lode of cley to the same . . . . xviiid 

Item for ii Busshells of lyme stone . . . . iiiid 

Item for a pece of led weying xxxii lbs at 
J i a lb to ley under the joynts of the pavyng 
for lokyng . . .... . . . . xxiiid (sic) 

Item to ii masons viii days apece at vijd a day 

mt . . . . . . . . viiis viiid 

Item for cancells to the same works . . . . iid 

Item to a laborer v days at iiiid a day to helpe 

the said masons . . . . . . . . xxd 

Item to a carpynter a day for to ley new swed 
burdes to make the loft under the kechyn 
under the pavyng for it was rottyd . . vi|d 
Item for an ashelar stone of v fett to set a fore 

a chymney at iid a fote . . . . . . xd 



Item paid for ii heryng barell to cary water and 

Robbell oute of the void tenements . . viid 



Item for vi busshells of lime stone to washe the 

w^allis that were full of spotts . . . . . . xiid 

Item paid to the laborer that washed the said 

houses wtm and wtente viii days atvid a day iiiis 



Item payd for a mille to grynde' crabbys and 

appuls . . . . . . . . . . . . vs 

Item for making of this boke . . . . . . iis 

The whole of the rents recorded in the above accounts 
amount to £34 15s. 2d. (about £520 in modern coinage), from 



270 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



which must be deducted the vacations £8 8s. yd. (about £120), 
leaving a net rental of £26 6s. yd. (about £400). The repairs 
amounted to £48 9s. id. (about £720), and there was thus 
a balance due to the rent gatherer at the end of the year of 
£22 2s. 6d. (about £320). This balance is not carried 
forward, so was evidently paid by the Treasurer out of the 
surplus income of previous years. 

The following are extracts at random from the accounts 
during the sixteenth century : — 

1513- 

Item Ressevyd for the pardon of ye Chapell for the 
passion weke in lent and for Treynte Sonday 
viis good and bad to ye valewj/e of vis. vid. 



THE OBBET OF JOHN BARSTABULL, AND ELLYZABETH 
HYS WYFF. 

Item payd to xii prests for Derygs and masse . . iiis viiid 
Item for the Masse peny . . . , . . . . id 

Item for a lb & qrt of new wex and for makyng 

of the old wex . . . . . . . . . . ixd 

Item for bred ale and chese to ye same obytt . . xiiiid 
Item for makyng of thys acount . . . . . . xxd 

1515. 

Item for Russhis for the Chapell agenst trynyte 

Sondaye . . . . . . . . • . . iiiid 

Item for the fowndoresse obyt in bred & Ale 
cakes & cheese for xii prests and the people 
of the Chapell . . . . . . . . . . xiiiid 

Item to xii prests for money . . . . . . iiiis 

1516. 

Item agenste Candillmas I renewed vi tapurs on 
the hye Autr i £ qtr new waxe at viiid the £ 
wt the makyng . . . . . . . . xjd 



Trinity Hospital. 



271 



Item agenste Estr I renewyd vi standartts by fore 




the Autr i £ iii qtr of new waxe at ixd the £ wt 




the makyng Amot 


xvid 


Item pd to the Abott of Kensham for howse 




in Seynt Thoms Strete . . . . . . xiiiis iiiid 


[In 1546 this amount is recorded as paid to the 


" King 


ys majeste."] 




Item to Hew Yowngs for the barburs is house 




uppon the Keye 


iiiis 


Item to the chambers for the Cornett house uppon 




the Keye 


iiiis 


Item for v posts Att Laffordiseeate 


vid 


I52I. THE KEY. 




Item John Savage for ye T'inte Tavern . . 


iiii£ 


1538. THE GOODS OF THOMAS PROWTE. 




Item a flocke bede wt a bolster & a pelow 


vis 


Item a covyrlet 


xd 


Item a shette . . . . . . . . . . 


ixd 


Item a gowne 


vis 


Item a cowntr borde 


xiid 


Item a coffyr . . . . . . , . , . 


iiiid 


Item a shytt 


vid 


Item a bedstyde . . . . . . . . . . 


iiiid 


[Proceeds of the sale of the goods of a deceased inmate.] 


1565. CHARGE UPPON THE AWDYTE DENR. 




Item pd for a draught of woode and the halyng . . 


xviid 


Item pd for a Ribe of byff , . 


xviiid 


Item pd for a joynt of biff . . 


xiiiid 


Item pd for a pestell of porke 


xiiiid 


Item pd for a pestell for the pore . . 


xd 


item pd for a coste of motten 


vd 


Item pd for a knokell of vele 


vid 


Item pd for a cowpell of Rabets .... 


viiid 


Item pd for a pige .. 


xvid 



272 Transactions for the Year 1913 



Item pd for prewnes & Reassige & arranew 


iiiid 


Item pd for di lb sewgr 


vid 


Item pd for ii lb of buttr 


iiid 


Item pd for pepp. cloves and maes 


iiiid 


Item pd for brede and alle . . 


iis iiiid 


Item pd for wynne . . 


xvid 


Item paid to games wiff for dressyng of ye denr. . 


viiid 



1574- 

Payed for thredde to mend ye Hospitall beddes . . vd 
Payed for lyme and heare for the Hospitall and 

Alms howse to make yt fayer aginst ye 

queenes commynge ^ . . . . . . . . iiiis 

Payed unto Symon the purter . . . . . . vis 

Payed unto a payntor for to pante and to write 

uppon the Drailles . . , . . . . . viiis 
Payed for makinge of the skaffolde and takinge 

downe of the same . . . . . . . . iis 



1584. 

Item unto a pore woman that Dothe macke cleane 
the streate betwixt the Chapell and the 
Hospitall , . . . . . . . . . id 

Item payde for candells burned in ye Chappell 

from V of the clocke until it be vii . . . . vid 

Item payde for a nalmes box to hange at the 

Chappell Dore . . . . . . . . . . xiid 

Item payd for a shrowde to bury Edmond Ellwine 

mt of the Hospitall . . . . . . . . iis 

Item paide to Thomas Poole for ye making of the 
said Edmond Elwin's grave and for fetchinge 
and bringing of the biere from anr to St. 
Phillippes to carry the sayde Edmond to ye 
Chappell to be buried . . . . . . viiid 



1 \'isit of Queen Elizabeth. 



i 



Trinity Hospital. 



273 



Item paide for wode unto the poore mens 
chambers wch was the gifte of Mr. Hemens 
Machante . . . . . , . . iis xid 

Item payde to Robarte Antill fof ' lancinge 
Mawris Haull's sore under his arme wch he 
hath had this three weeks and for salffe . . iiiid 

Item given to Mawris Hall's wife for attendinge 

on hym for x dayes kepinge his bedde . . vid 

Item payde to the fyve laberors for the taking 
and polinge owte of the wood of Avon, at 
Sainte Philhps slype Two greate blockes, given 
unto them by Collins the metheylin maker vd 

1587. 

Item paid to William Thomas, pavyer, for pavinge 
the strete beinge xxxv yards being very 
muche broken and decayed before fyve of ye 
tenents in St. Thomas Strete after ijd the 
yarde amounteth to .. . . .. .. iiiis iiiijd 

Item paid for a waye of lime . . . . . . viiid 

Item paid for i lb of lath nayles . . . . . . iid 

Item paid to hughe Warren carpenter for makynge 
the skaffolde for ye paynter to paynte the 
picture of the pore for ii days and new 
makinge of ii stepes of hughe Smythes stayres 
in his chamber . . .... . . . . iis 

Item for the lone of iiii posts to helpe make the 

skaffolde for the paynter . . . . . . iiid 

Item paid to Thomas Coppye and his ii sons to 
helpe to sete up the postes and the laders 
upon the skaffolde . . . . . , . . iiiid 

Item paid to Roger Noble for v penny corde and 
xii halpeny halters to make fast the poste 
laders and polls and ye skaffolde . . . . xid 

Item paid to Morris Hall to buy him a medycine 

for his legge . . . . . . . . . . viiid 



274 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

Item paid to John Phipes paynter for making v 
mens pictures and iii womens pictures and iii 
skouchings of the Arms of the founders and 
the Citie's Arms . . . . . . . . xxvs iiiid 

Item paid to Thomas Coppye for pulhnge downe 
ye skaffolde and bringinge home all ye posts 
and laders yt made the skaffolde . . . . xiiiid 

Item paid to John Coppye and Thomas Williams 
and others for the settinge up of ye poore 
men's syne that was fallen to the grounde for 
halfe a daye . . . . . . . . . . iiiid 

1589. 

Imprimis geven unto Morris Haull beinge very sicke vid 

Item payd to the offycer to strayne for rente at the 
Swan for that ther was a out lawrye a 
gaynste John Woodward . . . . . . iiiid 

Item payd to iiii laborers for to carye the goodes 
a waye whiche was strayned upon for rente 
wch was owinge . . . . . . . . viiid 

Item geven to Morris haulle the x of October in his 

sykness . . . . . . . . . . viiid 

Item payd to good wyffe Jacobbe for drynke that 

Morrys Haull had in his syckness . . . . viiid 

Item given to Morrys haull in his extreme syckness 
the xxxth of November wh shortely dyed 
beinge xi weekes sicke in his bead and to the 
women wch kepte hime . . . . . . xiiiid 

Item payd to Coppie to make his grave in the 

chappell . . . . . . . . . . vid 

Item payd to Copie to f etche the beere for the corsse id 

Item payd to the massone to leye ye stones upon 

ye grave . . . . . . . . . . vid 

Item payd for halfe a waye of Lyme for the same 

grave . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiid 

Item payd for mendinge the minister surples . . iiid 



Trinity Hospital. 



275 



1590 

Item paid for iiii lb of candells for the seyde poore 
people of the seyde almes hou§e for this 
wynter tyme to burne in the seyd chappell 
to geve them Lighte cominge to gether in 
the eveninge to geve god thanks for his great 
mercies shewed to them . . . . . . is 

Item paid to Hughe Smythe sexton for 
ringinge the bell at vii of the clocke in 
the morninge and eveninge that they 
may come to gether to give god thanks 
for his great benefits and mercyes shewed 
unto them . . . . . . . . . . viid 

Item paid for ii pownds of candelles to lighte the 
poore wayfaringe people to beade that 
comethe to loudge in the Hospital . . . . vid 

Item paid for the cuttinge of the water 
boughes of the trees in the poor peoples 
Orcharde . . . . . . . . . . vid 

To appreciate the last entry we must endeavour to picture 
Old Market Street as a wide, unpaved, straggling thorough- 
fare, dominated at one end by the old castle, and at the 
other leading through Lawford's Gate to the London road 
through the Royal Forest of Kingswood. 

Turnmg to a somewhat earlier date indications of the 
storm which was threatening all religious bodies are found 
in the accounts for 1538 when 3d. was paid for a copy of 
the " writings of the chapel " to send up to London. In 
1546 2id. was paid for a copy of the foundations and mort- 
mains belonging to the chapel lands, and i6d. for two 
indentures and the answer to the articles of the King's 
Commissioners. The latter were John Carell, Rich. 



276 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Pake and Edw. Gostwyke, and their valuation was as 
follows : 1 — 

A.D. 1546. 

Chantry Certificate No. 21. 
City of Bristol. 
Parish of St. Philip. 

1. The Chapell or Hospitall of the Trenytie. 

2. Founded to fynd a priest for ever & 8 pore folkes & the 

residue to be distributed in obytes and other deeds 
of charytie by yere ;^30 10 4 

3. To a parishe churche for the pore folkes & is distant 

a quarter of a myle from the said parishe churche. 

4. Yerely value (&c.) £^0 10 4 whereof 
For the priest . . . . 104s. 
For 8 pore folkes yerely . . £12 2s. 8d 
For an obiit & in almes yerely 6s. 
For salt & other charges of 

the hospytall yerly . . 31s. iid. 
For a bayly fee . . . . 40s. 
For Rentse resolutes . . 24s. 6d. 

And so remaineth clere . . £8 I5d. 

5. Valew of ornamenttes Jewells Plate Gooddes 

and Cattalles . . . . . . . . £y ys. lod. 

The proceedings of this commission closed with Henry 
VIIFs death, and the next commission which followed the 
first act of the first Parliament of Edward VI appears to 
have ignored Trinity Hospital. The lands of the hospital 
and also those of Foster's Almshouse and the chapel of the 
Three Kings of Cologne, were not included in the sale of 
Chantry lands, though, as Latimer records, the " com- 
missioners decided that they were the property of the Crown, 
and ordered the confiscation of so much of each of the 
hospital estates as was equivalent in yearly value to the 
1 Mr. Hockaday's MS. 



£ s. d. 
22 9 I 



Trinity Hospital. 



277 



stipend of each of the deposed chaplains (£6). This 
decision appears to have been long overlooked. But it was 
discovered in 1597 by two legal sharpers, who forthwith 
procured a grant of the two chapels and the reserved lands 
from Queen Elizabeth. The grantees then came down upon 
the Corporation, who were compelled to submit to their 
terms, and who paid them £66 13s. 4d. for a transfer of the 
Queen's conveyance." ^ 

Exactly what happened at this time is not, however, 
very clear. In the grant by Queen Elizabeth, nineteenth 
of her reign, to the men mentioned by Mr. Latimer — Peter 
Grey, of Bedford, and Edward Grey, his son and heir — the 
chapel and lands are included with other concealed property 
cattered over the country, and there is no exact descriptions 
of the lands and tenements transferred. A Crown rent of 
20S., which was redeemed with other Crown rents by the 
Corporation, about 1673, was, however, reserved in the grant. 
The Greys parted with two-thirds of the property to George 
Hays and Thomas Lucas, who joined with Richard Grey, 
second son of Peter, to whom the remaining third had 
passed in the sale of the whole together with the chapel 
and lands attached to Foster's almshouse to Thomas Colston, 
mayor, Anthony Standbank and other members of the 
Corporation of Bristol for the consideration of 100 marks. ^ 

This conveyance was dated June 7th, 1577, and from 
that date until the appointment of the Municipal Trustees 
the property was continued in members of the Corporation 
by a regular series of conveyances. 

The doubtful days of the hospital's existence passed 
with the recovery of the chapel, and its later history is an 
uninterrupted record of social service, and the fulfilment, it 
is to be hoped, by many generations of Trustees, of the 
Founder's pious intentions. 

During the next century many payments were made out 

1 Annals of Bristol, Sixteenth Century. 
. ■ 2 MSS., Municipal Charities. 



278 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

of the funds of the hospital, about the time of the Civil War, 
to distressed strangers, fugitives from Ireland and prisoners 
released from the gaols. Entries in the books relating to 
some of these gifts were incorporated by Mr. Sampson in 
his paper on " Bristol Almshouses." ^ 

On May 20th, 1650, it was ordered that once in every 
three years the inmates should have a gown of broad cloth 
of a violet colour not exceeding gs. a yard, and three yards 
in the gown, and if any man or woman die the gown of the 
parties dying shall remain and be given to him or her that 
should succeed in their rooms." 

On May 8th, 1652, the Mayor and Aldermen ordered 
" that there be a book minded and kept by the Treasurer 
and so to or from one to another to enter all things that 
passeth att audit or during his year." To this order we 
are indebted for a record of many of those small happenings 
which go to make the history of the foundation. On the 
first page of the new book there was entered, no doubt as 
useful information for subsequent Treasurers, a list of 
" what wine the Tenants are to pay yearly at the auditt 
dinner ; " five, including Alderman Vickiris, a feoffee, and 
tenant of the Star Tavern on the Quay, each providing a 
pot, and four a quart of sack and one each a bottle, quart, 
and gallon of claret. The dinner was an important part of 
the audit proceedings, and that year cost £4 los. 
After the restoration of Charles II it must have been an 
orgy of feasting, for that consumed October 24th, 1666, 
cost £S 15s. lod., and the average cost at this period was 
over £y. A spread for the Almspeople was included in 
these items, but in 1664 the bills were paid separately, 
that for the Alsmpeople — twenty-four in number — was 14s. gd. 
The Mayor and seven of the Corporation sign the Treasurer's 
accounts, and the audit dinner cost £6 15s. 6d. 

To balance the dinner which closed the proceedings the 

^ Transactions, vol. xxxii. 



Trinity Hospital. 



audit commenced with a sermon, which was ordered to be 
preached in the chapel of the Hospital, and started precisely 
by " nine of ye clock in ye morning." For the sermon 
ten shillings was paid, and the first 'was preached by Mr. 
Farmer on June 30th, 1659. was no doubt that " Godly 
and able minister," Ralph Farmer, who had four years 
earlier been appointed to pray at every assembly of the 
City Council. The practice was continued for several 
years, and payments of los. appear at irregular intervals 
to Mr. Farmer, Mr. Jones, Mr. Brunt, and Mr. Pleadwell. 

The audit was held in one of the Hospital rooms designated 
the Audit Hall, and 'was evidently made an occasion for 
a parade of civic state in which the Sword-bearer figured, 
for IIS., was paid in 1659 making and painting an iron 
to hold the sword. At the sa.me time is. was paid for 
cleaning the chapel and is. 8d. for ringing the bell and 
for tobacco and pipes. 

The Treasurer was chosen annually, and at the same 
time two " clavengers " were appointed. They were, of 
course, all members of the Corporation. The actual man- 
agement of the Hospital was performed by a paid official 
called the Baihff. 

The first almshouse rules were entered in the Treasurer's 
Book in 1653. They were prepared in consequence of an 
order made the previous year " that Alderman Can. Dickins 
and Miles Jackson with ye present Treasurer (Alderman 
Brown) doe fframe articles for ye better government of ye 
poor people and doe bring them in agt. ye next auditt." 
Drafted during a period when Puritanism was much in 
evidence and when, as Latimer records, an unwary citizen 
strolling, carrying a parcel, or drawing water on Sunday 
was liable to a fine or imprisonment, these almshouse rules 
are of great interest. 

Articles agreed upon by the Ffeoffees att the auditt held 
Thursday, the ixth day of June, 1653, to be observed by 
the poore almspeople. 



28o Transactions for the Year 1913. 

1. First that they be carefull to pray privately every 
inorning and eveninge in their chambers that they frequent 
-constantly every morning and eveninge their Parish Church 
or some other P'ish Church where they may heare sermons 
and be instructed in the knowledge of God and exercize of 
religion and to heare Lectors sermons on the weeke dales 
and that for every omission that shall be proved against 
Ihem fivepence of that weekes pay shall be kept back at 
their next pay-day, provided that they be not hindred by 
sickness or some urgent necessity of wch. the Maior and 
Aldermen are only to be judges. 

2. That yf any amongst them be at any time found 
to be drunk he or she shall forfeit a whole week's pay for 
the first offence And for the second offence a month's pay 
and upon the third expultion yf the Maior and Aldermen 
thinke it not meete upon his repentance and amendmt. to 
pardon it. 

3. That yf any be hard to curst or swere for every 
such offence he shall forfeit his weeke's pay for the second 
offence two weeke's pay for the third a monthe's pay and 
for the fowertli expultion. 

4. None shall be suffred to entertaine anyone whatsoever 
in their roome to lodge their more than three nightes in a 
whole yeare except in case of sickness for their necessary 
healpe duringe that time And to part again upon recovery 
-upon payne of having their week's pay restrayed for that 
time (being pentionrs) or be expulsed yi they have only 
chambers gratis. 

5. They shall take their severall turnes weekly and 
begine each Munday morninge to make cleane their common 
place of the almshouse as the entry, kitchen, galery, and 
soe keep it cleane all that week on forfeit of sixpence for 
every weeke's neglect And yf sickness disenable them to 
hire one. 

6. There shall be every first day of the month a porter 
■chosen amongst the men to keep the key of the gate the 



Trinity Hospital. 



281 



must antient amongst them beginninge first and soe succes- 
sively to the youngest untill all have gone through their 
severall turnes who shall constantly make it fast at eight 
of the clocke from 29th September to the 25th of March 
and open it at seaven in the morninge And from the 25th 
of March to the 29th September make it fast at 9 of the 
clocke and open it at sixe And yf any through sickness or 
weakness be not able to attend the duty he shall allow 
sixepence a month to some other who shall be his deputy 
And yf that porter or his deputy fayle in his duty he shall 
forfeit fowerpence for each time to be divided amongst 
the rest of them. 

7. That there be noe contentions amongst them it is 
ordered that yf any offence doe at any time arise they 
shall make it knowne to the Treasurer on the next pay-day 
who shall here and determine it And yf he cannot compose 
it that then the Treasurer be made acquainted with it who 
shall end it And yf anyone prove so troublesome as to revenge 
himselfe by oprobious and revenginge speeches he shall 
forfeit I2d. of his pay, halfe to the pty. wronged and the 
other halfe into the poore boxe. 

8. It is ordered that every pay-day men and women 
beinge caled both into one roome by the Bayliffe he shall 
audibly read these orders in the hearinge of them all upon 
payne of forfeitinge I2d. for every omission to be put into 
the poore boxe. 

These are the earliest rules of which we have a record. 
In course of time rules i, 2 and 3, with all fines and 
penalties were dropped. The remaining rules, much 
altered, were incorporated with others, and are still read 
four times yearly to the inmates who assemble in the chapel 

It must have been a great shock to the framers of these 
rules to discover that their own baihff, " George Bah," was 
not beyond reproach. On June 7th, 1653, the Feoffees 
admonished him and ordered him " to bring back a new 

20 

Vol. XXXV r. 



282 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



bell of the same weight and goodness as that bell was hee 
tooke out of the almshouse and likewise an Iron Grain whicli 
was taken out of the kitchen and this to be done by the 
29th September next." 

In 1656 the Bailiff was dismissed, and his offence was so 
great that a whole page of the audit book was used to record it. 
It appeared that a lease had been granted, as was customary, 
of three tenements in Old Market Street for three lives, 
and that the last life died in 1645. From that date until 
1656 George Ball had collected and retained the rent, 
£54 9s. in all. The Feoffees treated him generously. They 
allowed a deduction of ^^ig i6s., the Lord's rent which he 
had paid, and as to the balance of £^4 13s., accepted a 
bond for £2^, and forgave him the rest " because the rents 
were not as high as now they are." 

The following inventory was made June 13th, 1653, of 
all the " standing " goods belonging to the Hospital : — 
In the auditt hall : 

Thre table boards wth frames one side Gupboard Benches 
stande about the hall and for orteene joynt stooles 
of severall Sortes. 
In the next Room to the said Hall : 

One old Table borde, an old carpett and two benches. 
In the Buttery : 

One old chest wthout a locke Two shelves and an old 
stand to sett a barell or kilderkine of drinke upon. 
In the chancell of the Ghappell : 

A chest with a locke and key. An old table. In the said 
chest or cofer a Pall or coveringe with the Picture 
of Ghrist wrought in it and an old Garpet to lay 
under the same Pall and two old cushions. 
A silver chalice with a cover in the custody of the Bayliffe. 
In the Vestry within the Ghauncell : 

One chest with three lockes and keyes wherein lyeth 
the small chest with the deeds and writings An Old 
tableboard ther. 



Trinity Hospital. 



283 



And another old cofer and an old deske that turneth 
round to lay a boake upon. 
In the Chapell : 

An old Pulpit and sixe old seates. 
In the pavement : 

A can of bel mettale to catch water in A large brasse 
triffle or whell for the rope of the 2 boucketts of the 
well to run in and two iron cheynes to the bouckette 
a yard long And 3 iron hoopes a peece to the buckette 
with a locke and key to the well. 
In the old Hall by the well : 

One old table boarde with benches about the in side 
of it. 

In the custody of the Bayliff : 

A bell that did hange in the narrow galery the wch he 
is to fitt up againe in his place as it was. 
In the Kitchen : 

A great brasse Crocke A pair of Tongues and spitt. 

A barge to clothes in A dresser on 

both sides of the ckitchen with & old tubbe to put 
the clothes in and a . . . stocke A great iron 
crane in the chimney : in ye keeping of George Ball. 
In the custody of John WilHams : 

One of the Almshouse men ther for the use of the poore 
Delivered to him the 24th day of FFebruary 1651 
by me Daniell Watkins as Mr. George Ball the bayliffe 
then bid me. 

One great brasse Crocke or Pot. 

One great brass cettle ffower Pewter Platters two of them 
of a large sorte and the other two of a lesser sorte. 

One great pewter fflagon spout pott of the old fation 
like an yewer. 

One brasse Candle Sticke of an old fashion wth a hole 
in the lower end of the sockett to thrust out cleane 
the snufe of a candle at. 

One payre of Irons with hookes to turn spitts on 



284 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

One payre of hangers for a crocke. 

One paire of iron Pothookes and a pothead of wood one 
great iron spitt. 

A subsequent inventory, made in 1656, states that the 
Pall was of " wrought silke and velvet cloth," and also 
mentions a pulpit cloth " Imbroidered with silke silver 
and gowled," a great Bible (rebound with great bosses and 
clasps in 1659 ^ ^^^^ ^4^-), and a box for the poor money 
of iron in the chapel. In the dining room there was also a 
sideboard with carved posts, and two new " strapped 
carpitts 10 yards hallph all/' A note was made in 1654 
that the Treasurer be desired to provide carpets — then 
equivalent to a table cloth, and rushes for the floor and 
chairs and andirons for the audit hall. 

We must all regret the loss of the old piece of plate dated 
1577, the silver chalice with a cover " of the inventory. 
On May 7th, 1700, it was delivered to Mr. Wm. Jackson, 
then chosen Treasurer, and disappears from the records for 
ever. 

The rooms mentioned in the inventory indicate that the 
buildings on the south side of Old Market Street were then 
fairly large. This almshouse subsequently became known 
as the " Dial Almshouse," a name by which it was known 
until comparatively recent times. The reason for the name 
is found in the following extracts from the accounts for 
1656-8. 

Paid John Lorde for an iron clock the some of 2 10 o 

Paid Will Haxtwood, Smith, for making ye 
frame with iron rods and setting up the 
clock, with copy fingers to ye dyall and 
other work ... .. .. .. .-3 2 o 

Paid him for other iron work and mending the 

clapp of the bell and for a new payse . . 3 00 

Paid for fitting up and pulling downe ye scaffold 

and expenses on work . . . . . . 5 00 



Trinity Hospital. 



285 



Paid for two new ropes for the clock . . . . 6 00 

Paid Richd. Jordan for painting the dyalls and 

posts in oyle coullers and gould letters, being 

double done . . . . . . . , . . 4 00 00 

Paid Will. Jones, joyner, for good stuffe and 

casing of the dyall . . . . . . . . i 15 00 

Paid for a lock and cay and new j em ells to the 

clock house door . . . . .... 2 00 



About this time, also, the castle was being used as a 
general quarry, and stone was brought from it to mend the 
chimneys and other places of the almshouse, twenty-two 
cart-loads of stone costing 5s. lod. and fifty-eight cart-loads 
£t 9s., the cost of digging being 2d. a load extra. 

The buildings on the north side now ceased to be used 
as a lodging place, and in 1651 were let to " Widdow 
Gammon " for £4 a year. This state of affairs was not very 
satisfactory, and at the audit held February 9th, 1669, it 
was decided that no future lease of the property be granted, 
and that possession be obtained and the premises employed 
according to the wishes of the benefactor. Nothing, however^ 
was done until 1673, when Alderm.an Stephens was requested 
to hasten the rebuilding of the premises, which were to 
accomodate twelve poor people. Alderman Stephens did 
not bring in his account until 1676, when the several dis- 
bursements in building the new almshouse and repairing 
the old almshouse on the south side amounted to £236 i6s. lod. 
The new almshouse was for long known as the " Iron Gate " 
side, so called from the large double gates opening into Old 
Market Street. 

In 1669 it was decided that no pension be granted to 
any person or persons whatsoever out of the revenue of 
the Hospital, but only to such as shall have a chamber or 
dwelling." The practice of granting general gifts to poor 
and distressed persons which had previously been so common 
had by this time ceased , but in spite of the resolution recorded 



286 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

the feoffees were soon granting regular pensions to non- 
residents. 

In 173 1 the feoffees were indined to take down the old 
hospital and chapel and rebuild and enlarge them by taking 
in the tenement adjoining and next Lawford Street with the 
garden ; but on inspecting the buildings it was resolved to 
repair them only, and further to make them as light and 
commodious as possible, and to augment the poor people's 
pay. This was done the following year, and in 1739 the 
buildings on the north side were extended at a cost of 
£753 14s. lod., including a sum of ^10 paid to Daniel Millard 
the builder for an effigy of the founder, which was placed in 
a niche in the centre of the new portion. The figure has now 
been placed above the central porch of the rebuilt almshouse 
completed 1913. 

The chapel was rebuilt by the Corporation in 1796 at a 
cost of £463 4s. 3d. The only remains of this chapel 
are a carved scroll which once stood above the altar, and is 
now preserved in the Municipal Museum and Art Gallery, 
and the wood panelling in the vestry of the present chapel. 
The latter was built in 188 1-3, when the brasses of the 
founder and his wife were again placed before the altar. 

The whole of the south side buildings were rebuilt at 
various times during the nineteenth century, and with the 
rebuilding of the north side almshouse just completed the 
last of the old buildings was passed away. The life of the 
almshouse during the last hundred years hardly comes 
within the scope of this paper, but it is interesting to 
contrast the number of inmates and rates of pay at various 
times : — 



1395 24 Almspeople 
1512 8 



{Vide charter). 

Paid 6d. each weekly, 
IS. id. quarterly, 4d. each 
yearly, with oatmeal, 
salt and wood. 



Trinity Hospital. 



287 



1607 



12 



IS. each weekly. 

2s. 2d. each (about). 

2S. 




f 20 



Trinity South 
Trinity North 

Almspeople 



II 



1822 
1831 

1834 
1872 
1876 
1880 



45 




5s. 
6s. 



56 



60 



The last addition was made in lieu of extra payments 
they had received, viz. St. Thomas Day, lod. ; Lady Day, 
IS. 8d. ; June 24th, lod. ; September 29th, is. 6d. ; and one 
ton of coal yearly and four yards of dowlas on St. Thomas 
Day. 

The net annual income of the hospital is now about ;f 2,600, 
and after the payment of the inmates — fifty-two in 
number — the balance is applied in weekly payments to 
non-resident pensioners. 

In concluding this account of one of Bristol's most 
interesting charities, I have to express my indebtedness to 
the Trustees of the Bristol Municipal Charities to whom the 
administration of the Hospital passed in 1836, for access to 
their books and documents ; to Mr. F. S. Hockaday for extracts 
from his valuable collection of transcripts ; to Mr. Lewis 
J. U. Way for a transcript of the Charter of Hen. IV ; and 
to the Committee of the Bristol Museum and Art Gallery 
for their kind permission to reproduce the water colour 
drawings by Delamotte and O'Neill in the Braikenridge 
collection. 



OLD ARLE COURT. 



By ANNE MANNOOCH WELCH. 



Old Arle Court, an ancient manor house approached by 
an avenue, was situated in Arle village proper, with a mill 
close by, and in close proximity to an affluent of the River 



The site of a chapel, which probably went at the Reforma- 
tion, can be identified by human bones having been dug 
up in what was apparently the burying- yard. In a 
well-watered field adjacent to the site of Arle Court and 
the chapel there used to be a pond, which local tradition 
said was the remains of a moat. In old maps it certainly 
looks larger than when I remember it, shortly before it 
was filled up. As the old manor house was Elizabethan, 
• and the elm avenue must have been planted at about the 

same time, one cannot but feel that older and moated 
buildings must have preceded it, and it is possible that this 
field may have been the site of these. This idea is 
strengthened by the fact that the stream has obviously 
been deflected here, probably to feed the moat, whence it 
passes on to the mill. 

It must be understood that old Arle Court is an estate 
that has absolutely vanished, and the name has been taken 
by a new estate on the (new) Gloucester Road. The only 
value of a paper like this is as an endeavour, by the aid of 
local knowledge, to piece together the few facts that remain, 
before all memory of it is finally swept away. 

Old Arle Court in its last form as an Elizabethan building, 
contained much old oak, panellings and a beautiful staircase, 
also some good tapestry, which on its demolition some 
thirty-five years ago were removed to the new Arle Court 



Chelt. 




Old Arle Court. 



289 



on the (new) main Cheltenham to Gloucester Road. But 
it must be urged (for this is a source of endless confusion) 
that this, the new Arle Court, is not o;a the site of the old 
estate, but is a property formerly called " Grove Field," 
purchased by the late Mr. Thomas Packer Butt, and given 
the old name. This was unfortunate, as a new Arle seems 
to be growing up round the house on the Gloucester Road,, 
and hence great confusion is caused to strangers and postal 
servants. The present owner is Mr. Herbert Unwin, who- 
bought the estate from the Rev. Walter Butt a few years 
back. 

The history of the old Arle Court estate is unknown 
previous to the fifteenth century, when a family by the name 
of Arle, Aries, or de Arle, was in possession, and had probably 
lived there for many generations. Apparently they took 
their name from the place, and Mr. St. C. Baddeley tells me 
that in 1346 there was a William de Arle. About the same 
time the neighbouring village of Cheltenham gave its name 
to a family of eminence, and " Richard de Cheltenham " 
was elected Abbot of Tewkesbury in 1481. 

Arle Court was approached by the (then) main road 
betvveen Cheltenham, Gloucester and Tewkesbury. The 
exact position of old Arle Court may now be identified by 
the farm which has grown up on the spot, still called " Arle 
Court Farm," a namic which is often a puzzle to passers-by, 
so entirely has the old place been swept away and superseded 
by the new Arle Court on the new Gloucester Road, some 
two miles away. 

Arle Court Farm, now owned and occupied by Mr. Frank 
Brown, is situated in Arle village proper, not far from the 
gates of Arle House, and is now approached by the Arle 
Road (old name Sandfields), which only came into being 
about the time of the Enclosures Act (1830). Even as late 
as 1828 my grandmother, then a bride, used often to have 
to remove her sandals to shake out the sand when she strolled 
with her husband up the half-made road. This being so. 



290 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

and there being no Arle Road at that time, the old Arle 
Court drive gates opened, after a long and stately avenue 
of elms, on to what we now call the Tewkesbury Road, 
the continuation of the Cheltenham High Street, north-west. 

Cheltenham remained a village with one street, down 
which the Chelt flowed till the end of the eighteenth century, 
when the visit of King George III in 1788, and the consequent 
booming of the waters, laid the foundation of its prosperity 
The Promenade emerged from a brickfield about 1818, and 
soon the town spread towards Montpellier and Lansdown, 
and a more direct way to Gloucester was needed, and 
therefore the new Gloucester Road was made. 

" An ancient and shaded avenue of trees still exists near 
Arle Court. There is an air of antiquity about the spot," 
says a water-drinking guide-book about one hundred years 
ago. 

Many people still remember this avenue in its decay. 
Till lately great grassy roots marked the situation, but now 
the road is merely a cart-track through a field, with two 
Georgian lodges (very seldom recognised), one on and one 
near the Tewkesbury Road, both built by the first Mr. Butt 
at the beginning of the last century. 

Very httle now remains of the old Arle Court. The 
back premises form the present farmhouse, which, however, 
on the exterior gives no sign of age, as the whole has been 
faced with modern bricks. 

The old court-house (see illustrations), well remembered 
by people still living in the village, was a tj^pical manor 
house, not very large, with low spacious apartments below, 
and upstairs each room as usual opened into the other. 
The doors were not furnished with handles, but with little 
round apertures into which you inserted a finger and hfted 
the latch, and the floors rather uneven with occasional steps, 
the windows small with lozenge panes of glass, and in later 
days at least heavily overhung with ivy. 

In the part now occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Brown there 



Old Arle Court. 



291 



is a beam in the sitting-room ceiling which is said to be a 
complete tree, while a large recess in the hall appears to 
have been a chimney. ^ 

The cellar, foundations, one block of windows, an old 
brick wall running down to the stream, and a very ancient 
stone barn, now used as a potato store, are the only other 
remains, while the gardens, in which coins and buttons and 
an old ring have been dug up, and which include the site 
of the chapel and burying-yard, are thickly planted with 
fruit trees. It is difficult now to reconstruct in thought the 
former state of things when the old life flowed around, but 
the close and the pond for fish, so necessary in those self- 
sufficing days, are there, and the mill, which is mentioned in 
Domesday, remains as a row of cottages. 

As usual with very early properties, old Arle Court was 
built on a thick, sandy deposit. Owing to difficulties of 
adequate water supply, sand and gravel were preferred to 
heavier soils. 

The name " Arle " is always said by the village people 
to come from the arley " trees, v/hich used to abound 
here, and there were many round the old moat. Mr. St. C. 
Baddeley, in " Place Names of Gloucestershire," says the 
name was taken from a species of alder tree. 

Arle Church, of which there are now no remains, 
formerly existed at the adjacent village of Arle, an 
ancient hamlet of Cheltenham, and now part of the 
parish. 

In the registers of Cirencester Abbey, collected and 
pubhshed in Prynn's MSS., Arle is designated '/ Alra/' 
and described as having a church which " was given to the 
mother church of Chiltham (Cheltenham) by Walter de 
Bruscella, whose heirs continued long after at Leckington 
(Leckhampton). 

Recumbent effigies and flat grave-stones of the Crusader 
period, as well as portions of Norman stone-work, were dug 
up during the last century, and a massive beam, bearing the 



292 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

sacred monogram in Norman-Latin and the date of 1250, 
was found in 1803. This probably carried the rood. 

I can, however, find no confirmation of this statement, 
which is given in Norman's History of Cheltenham, by John 
Coding, pubhshed 1853 and 1863. 

One thing, however, is quite certain, and that is that 
there was a burying-ground in the old Court gardens. Both 
my father and Mr. Butt have told me that they have seen 
human bones dug up, always without any remains of a 
coffin. That there was a chapel we do know, and that, judging 
by the site of the burying-yard, it must have adjoined the 
old EHzabethan court-house. Also a market gardener's wife, 
who lived on the spot twenty-five years ago, tells me that 
in the cellars, which were left after the demohtion of the 
house, were leaden window frames and bits of coloured glass, 
which the village people told her came from the old chapel. 

A very interesting theory has been advanced by 
Mr. Martin Rule that the great St. Anselm spent some days 
of retirement at Aries. If so, it was during the time of his 
great struggle with William Rufus. 

Mr. Baddeley tells me that there is no mention of Arle 
in the cartulary of St. Peter's, but Mr. Rule's statement 
is supported by Rudder, p. 143 (date 1779), who obviousl 
quotes from the same source : — 

" Ethelbald, King of the Mercians, gave to Cod an 
St. Peter of Cloucester, and to the nuns there, twenty hides 
of land in a village called Aire." 

The story runs thus ^ : — 

" But William desired him (Anselm) to postpone his. 
departure (from Cloucester). And he retired to Arle, a 
manor in the parish of Cheltenham, belonging to St. Peter's 
Abbey at Cloucester." 

A footnote says : "I confess I speak without absolute 
certainty. The county historians seem to have nothing 
to say that can help me. The History of St. Peter's, Gloucester, 

1 Rule, Life and Times of St. Anselm, vol. i. p. 322. 



Old Arle Court. 



293 



says, ' Ethelbaldus rex Merciorum dedit Deo et Sancto 
Petro Gloucestriae . . . viginti hidas terrae in villa quae 
vocatur Aire,' but all I can get from Bigland ^ is the following 
about Arle : ' Attached to the ancient strAicture was a chapel 
now destroyed, on a beam of which was a date 1250. Here 
likewise is a medicinal spring.' " 

Mr. Butt has most kindly given me a letter from Mr. Rule, 
dated February 12th, 1898, which he wrote in reply to an 
inquiry as to his authority for this statement. Mr. Rule owns 
he cannot at the moment put his hand on it, but continues : — 
" I think the passage lurks in one of the minor chronicles 
comprised in the Rolls Series, and though it may be in some 
other printed book, I do not think I found it in an unpubhshed 
MS. I think that had this been the case I should have 
remembered the fact. It certainly is ' findable,' though 
possibly at the cost of much time and unexhaustible 
patience. To the best of my recollection the record was 
brief enough, and to the effect that the ' villa ' where Abbot 
Anselm was residing when summoned to Gloucester was a 
place at no great distance of the name of ' Aire.' This was 
my only clue, unless, indeed, memory has played me false, 
as it may well have done in the lapse of nearly twenty years. 

To the best of my recollection I took all possible pains 
to learn what recorded place within, say, thirty miles of 
Gloucester might fairly be thought to answer to the name 
of ' Aire,' and came to the conclusion that Arle Court was 
the only likely candidate for the honour. That the villa 
called ' Aire ' should be a property belonging to the Abbey 
of St. Peter, Gloucester, would seem to be likely enough ; 
for nothing would be more congruous than that Serlo, of all 
men, should, under the trying circumstances in which his 
brother abbot found himself, offer him the hospitality of 
a temporary home suitable to so exemplary a' monk as 
Anselm, and of a seclusion favourable to the literary work 
on which he was at that time engaged." 

1 Couniy of Gljucester, vol. i. p. 312. 



294 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

" We know where it was that St. Anselm elaborated the 
Cur Deus Homo. It would be interesting to find with 
certainty the spot on which he elaborated the De Incar- 
natione Verbi." 

Mr. St. Clair Baddeley tells us Arle was originally a manor, 
but together with Redgrove soon got merged into Cheltenham. 
It is seldom mentioned, but we read in Rudder, " John 
Cheltenham died seized of lands in Cheltenham near Arle " 
33 Edward III, and we observe that in 1692 its contribution 
towards the Royal Aid was about half that of Cheltenham. 

Cheltenham. 

£ s. d. 

1692 To the Royal Aid . . . . 145 13 o 

1694 ,, Land Tax . . . . 226 7 o 

1694 ,, Poll Tax . . . . 130 19 0 

Arle. 

1692 To the Royal Aid . . . . 78 12 o 

1694 ,, ,, Land Tax . . . . 77 4 4 

1694 ,, ,, Poll Tax . . . . 17 6 o 

In 1712 Atkyns tells us that " Cheltenham had only one 
seat, e.g. Mr. Justice Dormer's at Arle . . . The number of 
houses in the town was two hundred and fift}^ and seventy- 
one in the hamlets, of these Arle and Alstone had thirty 
each, Westal six, and Naunton and Sandford five." In the 
time of the water-drinking fever Arle provided lodgings, as 
did all the country-side, for the fashionable multitude that 
flocked in the wake of George III, and for which the tiny 
market town could provide no accommodation. 

Of the manors of Arle and Redgrove no documentary 
evidence remains whatever, and, indeed, the very situation 
of Redgrove has been lost so entirely that an advertisement 
I put a few weeks ago in a local paper as to its exact locality 
obtained no reply. We know from the way it is mentioned 
in old documents that it must have been adjacent to Arle. 
From local knowledge I can only surmise that it included 



Old Arle Court. 



295 



the districts of " Fiddler's Green " and the " Golden Valley," 
and this theory is strengthened by the fact that a ditch 
situated near the (new) Gloucester Road and (new) Arle Court 
was always considered by the late Mr.^.Butt to mark the 
confines of Redgrove Manor, and he would in consequence 
never have it filled up. Mr. Frederick Ticehurst, steward 
of the Manor of Cheltenham, also tells me he can find no 
allusion to Redgrove in the manorial documents in his 
possession, which go back four hundred years, and that 
whereas a tithing man is still appointed for Arle and another 
for Alstone, none is appointed for Redgrove. One more 
fact worthy of notice is . that Redgrove had no voice in the 
appointment of the five churchwardens for the mother church 
of Cheltenham, for while two were appointed for Cheltenham, 
one for Arle, one for Alstone, and one for Westal, Naunton 
and Sandford, none was appointed for Redgrove. This very 
ancient and curious custom apparently fell into abeyance 
early in the last century. 

The latest allusions to Redgrove are in Fosbrook, who 
wrote his guide book in 1807. He says : — 

" Sir Fleetwood Dormer obtained it in marriage with 
Catherine Lygon, and died in 1693, leaving this manor and 
that of Redgrove to his son, the Hon. Robert Dormer, Judge 
of the King's Bench, who died about 1722, leaving four 
daughters and coheiresses. Catherine Dormer, one of these, 
who died in 1757, left Arle Court with Redgrove to the Hon. 
John Yorke." 

And finally my father always told me that the Arle estate 
ended at the (new) Gloucester Road, thus tacitly siipporting 
my theory by including what I believe to be this elusive 
Manor of Redgrove. 

Mr. Baddeley writes with regard to these manors : " You 
see these very small manors, originally equally old estate of 
the Crown, tended to be identified merely with Cheltenham, 
which we must recollect was the capital manor of its hundred. 
Hence they have_been obscured." 



296 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

It is interesting to reflect that we have evidence a few 
centuries later that this wa^^ absolutely the case, and that 
when the Prince of Wales came into his inheritance an 
exhaustive survey was necessary. This was in 1625. The 
point for us to observe being that from local knowledge of 
names of places still extant Arle and Redgrove were certainly 
included in this survey of the Royal Manor of Cheltenham. 

" . . . . That the circuit of the Manor beginneth at 
Barbridge, North West . . . and from thence to the outside 
of Harterfield towards the Wes.t and from thence to a house 
of Reynold Milton's, called the Branyards, and from thence 
to Old-acre, and from thence to Barbridge aforesaid, which 
notable places are, and alwa3^s of antiquity were the limits, 
or the particular bound marks and meeres of the whole 
precincts or boundaries of the Manor. The Prince is the 
immediate and only chief lord of the soil within the Manor 
of Cheltenham, but of such soil as lieth without the Manor, 
and within the hundred there are others who are lords thereof, 
but yet the Prince is lord paramount thereof." 

As this survey of the Royal Manor of Cheltenham happens 
to begin at the north-west it starts from Arle, and 
" Barbridge " is a local name which constantly crops up in 
old deeds. It is mentioned in the Lygon deed (see later). 
Where it is exactly situated I am not quite certain, but I 
fancy it was an important piece of land near Kingsmead and 
near the old court-house, and it is always described as 
" shooting on the brook." The survey then works round 
the confines of Cheltenham and back to the west, where 
" Harterfield," now called " Arthurstfield," is still a farm 
on the limits of the district, which according to my theory 
is the lost Manor of Redgrove, and not far from the road 
and row of cottages to which the late Mr. Butt gave the old 
name of " Redgrove," obviously having the same idea in 
his mind. 

One more conclusive piece of evidence is that the parcels 
of land in Arle, mentioned in the Lygon-Talbot deed, are 



Old Arle Court. 



297 



definitely described as tying " in the Manor of Cheltenham,'' 
and since writing this I have come across a handful of 
documents of the seventeenth and early eighteenth century, 
being manorial certificates relating to surrenders of land 
and other business done by the Gregory family of Arle when 
they appeared at courts held by the lord of " the Maner de 
Cheltenham." 

As the earliest document is dated 1628, the court is 
invariably held by one of the Button family, who gave 
lords to the manor for two hundred years, and one or two 
are signed by Prynne (of Charlton- Kings), to whom we are 
so much indebted for his compilations and collections of 
much interesting and antiquarian matter which would 
otherwise have been lost, and whose orderly hand we see 
in many documentary indices of the period. 

Mr. Baddeley has most kindly sent me some notes on 
these Domesday sub-manors of Cheltenham. 

There were three distinct manors at Cheltenham in 1086 
(Domesday Survey) all belonging to the king, and in one 
(Cheltenham), the largest of the three, a hide and a half 
belonged to the church, which maintained a priest and two 
teams of oxen. 

With regard to the two smaller manors, which are not 
mentioned by name, but which he says cannot be any others 
than Arle and Redgrove — both were cultivated — one 
contained 120 acres, the other 240 acres. ^ 

As to Redgrove Manor, this very small one, the site of 
which has been apparently lost, I own I cannot quite under- 
stand how these things were. No evidence remains as far as 
I can find, but on this point I am absolutely out of my 
depth. Mr. Baddeley continues : — • 

" At Arle the lord (King WilHam) held two teams of oxen. 
At Redgrove the lord (King WiUiam (held one team of oxen. 

^ At the time of the Enclosures Act (1830) there was a quantity 
of waste land. It is noticeable that the Act for Arle and Alstone was 
quite independent of that for Cheltenham. 

21 

Vol. XXXVI. 



298 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



At Arle the acreage was 240 acres. 

At Redgrove the acreage was 120 acres. 

In Cheltenham and Arle combined there were two mills. 

In Redgrove there were three mills. 

One priest for all. 

Tenants at Cheltenham, 37. 

Tenant at Arle, i. 

Tenants at Redgrove, 6 — 2 villains, 4 bordars. 

With regard to the mills Mr. Sawyer writes : " There are 
still five mills in Cheltenham, though some of them have gone 
out of use. Following the flow of the Chelt, they are 
(i) Sandford Mill, (2) Barrett's Mill, (3) Upper Alstone Mill, 
(4) Lower Alstone Mill, (5) Arle Mill." This theory is thus.^ 
quite upset. 

" This seems to show that Arle and Cheltenham were 
reckoned together at twenty villains and ten bordars, while 
Redgrove was separate. These manors paid partly in money 
and also in kind — pigs, cows, honey." 

Of the Arle family, whence they came, exactly where 
they lived, how they got their name, we know nothing. 
Every vestige of the family has disappeared. One notice 
alone has been shown me by Mr. St. Clair Baddeley, of 
John (de) Arle witnessing a transfer of land : ^ " Hiis testibus ; 
Johanne Huggeford, scutifero ; Johanne de Arle ; . . . et 
aliis. Datum apud Twenynge in festo Annunciacionis 
Beatse Mariae Virginis anno regni Regis Henrice Sexti post 
Conquestum tricesimo tertio." This we infer (and the date 
bears it out) was the father of the lady who married William 
Greville, whose brother the judge purchased the old Court 
from him, and whose daughter and heiress in turn took the 
estate into the Lygon family. 

The earliest landowners we have any knowledge of seem 
to belong to the " de Hereford " family. On Coding's 
testimony Walter de Hereford was lessee of the Manor of 
Cheltenham, 1154-1156. In the Great Rolls of the Pipe we 

^ Landboc of Winchcomhe, vol. ii. p. 562. Date 1457. 



Old Arle Court. 



299 



read: " Et Walto"de H'efor^, lii. ti.tt. in Chilteha, 2 H. II 
(1156)." He was also, we know, lord of the Manor of Dymock, 
and it was he whom we understand^ presented some lands 
in Cheltenham, together with the Manor of Redgrove, to 
Llanthony Priory at Gloucester, in whose possession it re- 
mained till the monastic dissolution in the reign of Henry VIII. 
This influential family seems to have been great and 
munificent donors to Llanthony Priory, and in Atkyns, 
p. 511, we read : " This illustrious ^ Earl Milo, the King's 
Constable, Founder and Patron of the Church, well satisfyed 
in the religious conversation of those Monks, and how they 
merited of God, and how prevalent their Prayers must needs 
be, he and all his Family, his martial Sons and beautiful 
Daughters endowed this Church with various Gifts and 
large Possessions." " Walter de Hereford gave certain 
* assarts in Chiltenham ' to Llanthony Priory : the Priory 
is accordingly certified to hold an estate here, called Redgrove 
and lands in Cheltenham. Accordingly this Manor was 
granted to Will. Lygon for 6s. reserved rent ; after which 
it descended with Arle Court.'' 

There is one other name associated with Arle of whom 
we can gather no knowledge. Walter de Bruscella (a 
Fleming, Mr. Baddeley tells me) gave Arle Chapel to the 
mother church of Cheltenham. On Goding's authority he 
and his heirs resided at Leckhampton (Leckington) . This 
I cannot verify. 

With the marriage of the (de) Arle daughter and heiress 
in the late fifteenth century to Robert Greville, a member 
of the family which owned Charlton Manor at Charlton-Kings, 
and which originally sprung from the wealthy wool merchants 
of the name at Chipping-Campden, the more authentic 
history of Arle Court begins, for Robert Greville keeping 
the Charlton- Kings estate for himself and his bride, and 
founding a line there which gave lords to the manor till 
1648, sold Arle Court to his younger brother Wilham. 
1 Steward of the Royal Manor of Cheltenham. 



300 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



This William Greville became the famous Judge Greville, 
who attained the sergeant's coif in November, 1504, and 
sat in the Court of Common Pleas from May 21st, 1509, till 
his death in 1513. 

Of the life of this family at Arle Court during the reigns 
of Henry VII and the early years of Henry VHI we know 
nothing, but it appears that communication between Arle 
and Charlton-Kings was kept up, for we note that one of 
Judge Greville's daughters (not Margaret, who took Arle 
Court into the Lygon family) married a Greville cousin of 
Charlton-Kings (Gyles Grevill, of Rushboro), and I find a 
Grevile " dies 1717 with lands in Arle. 

Mr. Butt tells me that there was an old picture at the 
house, of no intrinsic value whatever, which tradition 
declared to be Judge Greville, but that nothing definitely 
was known about it, and so unfortunately it was sold. 

We cannot help wondering, while we are considering the 
fifteenth - century Arle Court, on which side were the 
sympathies of John and William (de) Arle ^ during the 
struggles of York and Lancaster ; but we know when again, 
nearly two hundred years later, armed forces marched 
down the same road, past this old property, this time to 
the siege of Gloucester (as before to the Battle of Tewkesbury) , 
that the Lygon family generally espoused the Parliamentary 
cause. 

As usual it is to the parish church one goes when records 
are very scarce, and the remains of Judge Greville and his 
family lie near the communion table, with now, alas ! no 
stone to mark the site, for unfortunately St. Mary's has 
suffered many things at the hands of Victorian renovators, 
and an Order in Council of i860 may be responsible for the 
fact that many of the oldest memorial stones have been 
swept away. But most happily the Greville brass, the 
oldest remaining in the parish church, has been preserved, 

1 We know they were alive 1457, and John was doubtless father 
to the lady who married Robert Greville. Battle of Tewkesbury, 1463. 



Old Arle Court. 



301 



and has been inserted in the floor near the font in the north 
porch, and of late years it has been covered with matting 
to save it from further obHteration. Comparing the present 
state of the brass with the description given by Bigland 
in his Historical, Momimental and Genealogical Collections 
relative to the County of Gloucester, date 1791, it is satisfactory 
to note that no more of the brass rim has been torn off 
during the intervening 120 years ; but unfortunately to 
" the large, blue flat stone " mentioned by Bigland a coat 
of arms in brass, of substantial size, and belonging to a 
totally different family, has been attached. 

Bigland, 1791, page 314, thus describes the brass : — 
" In the Chancel : On a large, blue flat stone, the effigies in 
Brass, of a Man in his Judge's Robes and coif, his Wife, 
three Sons and seven Daughters ; Inscription round the 
margin remaining . . . Sloughter, whiche William 
decissed the 11 Daye of Marche, in the iiii yere of the 
Reigne of Kinge Henry VIII." A footnote explains : 
" This memorial was placed for William Grevil, of Arle 
Court, in this Parish, who was one of the Justices of the 
Court of Common Pleas in the reign of Henry VIII." 

The following is the description of the Greville brass a? 
given by Mr. Cecil Davis in The Memorial Brasses of 
Gloucestershire. Size of Brass, 4 ft. 2 in. by 2 ft. 8 in. As it 
is an important brass I give his description at length. 

Description. — " In this county are four brasses com- 
memorating judges. This brass is so much worn, that it is 
with great difficulty that the various lines incised on its 
surface can be determined. On his head Sir WilHam wears 
the coif which became a distinguishing feature in the costume 
of a serjeant-at-law. But the Judicature Act has extinguished 
that order, and all judges created since 1873 have their 
white wigs unspotted with that circular black patch, which 
was one of the relics of the Middle Ages. 

" Following the custom of the times, Sir William's hair is 
long, reaching to his shoulders. Round his neck is a tippet, 



302 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



and he wears a long robe with narrow sleeves, and over it 
a mantle fastened on the left shoulder. The shoes are large 
and round- toed. There seems to be a gibeciere, but the brass 
is too much worn to distinguish it plainty. His lady wears 
the then fashionable pedimental head-dress, a long, close- 
fitting gown, tight sleeves with deeply-refiexed fur cuffs and 
a loose hip girdle. 

" Under Sir William are three sons in long tunics with large 
bell sleeves. The hair is reaching the shoulders, but cut to 
form a fringe across the forehead. The shoes are wide. 

" Beneath the wife are eight ^ daughters, dressed somewhat 
similarly to their mother, but the robe is not so long, and 
thus it may be noticed that the girls, as well as the boys, 
wore wide-toed shoes. All the figures are erect, with hands 
clasped in prayer. Sir William is turned to his left, to look 
towards his wife, who is turned to her right. In like manner 
the sons are turned to their left, and the daughters to their 
right." 

Mr. Davis also quotes from Foss's Judges of England, 
p. 311 : " Wilham Grevil, son of Richard Grevil, Esq., of 
Ilmington, in Gloucestershire, attained the sergeant's coif 
in November, 1504. He was made a Judge of the Common 
Pleas on May 21st, 1509 — i Henry VIII — and so remained 
till 1513, when he died, and was buried in Cheltenham 
Church." 

When Goding wrote his history of Cheltenham (1853, and 
repubhshed in 1863) the brass was evidently in its original 
position in front of the Communion Table. He writes 
thus : — 

" The oldest memorials are the flat stones covering the 
vaults, which form the floor of the church. The continual 
tread of footsteps has defaced these to a great extent, but 
here and there the name and heraldic distinction of the once 

1 Most historians say seven. I have counted them carefully and 
1 make out eight heads, but there are only twelve feet, but the brass 
is so terribly worn it is very hard to distinguish any details whatever. 



Old Arle Court. 



303 



great and noble are decipherable. Will. Prinn and members 
of that celebrated race have their last resting-place denoted 
by a recently-restored flat stone nearly opposite the Com- 
munion Table. Adjoining is the family vault of the Greville 
family. This is unquestionably the oldest memorial stone 
now in the church that is clearly traceable. It is a relic of one 
of those fine brass mementoes for which this county is justly 
celebrated. It denotes the burial-place of the renowned 
Judge Greville, who sat in the Common Pleas during the 
reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII. . . . They resided at 
Arle Court, a mansion that yet retains, both externally 
and internally, marks of antiquity. On the chancel floor is 
the effigy in brass of Greville, time of Henry VIII." 

We may infer that Judge Greville inherited or amassed 
considerable wealth, for on his death in 1513 he was enabled 
to leave three daughters coheiresses — Margarett, Alice and 
Elinor. Why out of his family of ten children, including 
three sons, these daughters alone were chosen to succeed 
is not clear. Possibly the remaining children died in child- 
hood, for with the appalling rate of infant mortality one 
cannot fail to be struck in casting the eye down any old 
register. The only daughter who concerns us is Margarett, 
for with her doubtless brilliant marriage to Sir Richard 
Lygon the Arle estate went into the family of the direct 
ancestor of the present Earl Beauchamp, and for three 
generations it apparently remained in possession of the head 
of the family, after that it went to a younger branch. 
We conclude from the fact that Nash thinks fit to mention 
the acquisition of " Aries Court, in Gloucestershire," in the 
Lygon pedigree, together with " Beauchamp's Court," and 
later " Madresfield," that it was considered a property of 
considerable importance, and through the old deed which 
I came across we have some means of judging of what the 
property consisted, for the extent of the estate is described 
at length. 

From the fact that the family are buried at Malvern we 



304 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



gather that the Lygons were possibly not resident landlords, 
though one can well imagine that now and then the family 
moved to their Gloucestershire property, or that at times it 
would be lent or leased to younger members of the family, as 
in the case of Roger Lygon of Fairford (and of Arle Court), 
and again of Thomas and then to his brother, John Henry 
Lygon, of whom we really know nothing. 

When records are very scarce every item is of importance, 
and we note that Wilham Lygon at the dissolution of 
Lanthony Priory rented the Manor of Redgrove at Arle 
" for six shilhngs reserved rents/' As we know the Manor 
of Redgrove adjoined his property at Arle, we infer that he 
took interest in his Gloucestershire estates, though whether 
he ever lived at Arle Court we have no means of knowing. 
He died 1567. 

In 1554 Queen Mary leased the Royal Manor of Cheltenham 
to Catherine Buckler and Roger Lygon for their joint lives. 
To quote from Goding, p. 44 : " They jointly were the 
lessees of the manor until the commencement of the 
seventeenth century. They resided at the very ancient 
mansion of Arle Court." And again, p. 60 : " Queen Mary, 
upon taking possession of the manor, let it on lease for a term 
of years. The lessees were the legal representatives of two 
ancient resident families — the Lygons. Mrs. Catherine 
Buckler and Roger Lygon, Esq., leased or farmed the estate 
during their joint lives, and they appear to have taken some 
interest in their property. To them we are indebted for the 
commencement of a record of events connected with the 
manor. The roll of the court is in a good state of preservation. 
The first entry is in the year 1555, the second year of the 
reign of Queen Mary." 

This last statement of Goding is quite true, and Mr. 
Frederick Ticehurst has them in his care. They are in a good 
state of preservation, but very difficult to read. They 
probably contain much information of interest to us, and 
outside are legibly inscribed with the name of Lygon in 



Old Arle Court. 



305 



rather large writing. Coding, who was a tax collector,, 
Hved in a Httle house in North Street, and gathered 
. together an enormous amount of information about Chelten- 
ham ; but he is surprisingly inaccurate, and the sources 
whence he gained his facts are often hard to find. 

That Roger Lygon and his wife had a beautiful home at 
Fairford we also know, situated, I am told, on what is now 
part of the churchyard. 

This Roger Lygon is not mentioned in the family pedigree 
by Nash, but from the date of his death, in 1584, he was 
probably a younger son of the afore-mentioned William 
Lygon. In those days of prolific families the historian must 
have felt that it was quite impossible to include all the 
younger sons and yet keep the genealogical records to any 
reasonable size. 

In one statement at least we know that Goding was 
absolutely wrong, for he describes Catherine Buckler as 
Roger Lygon's " widowed sister," whereas she was his wife, 
having previously married twice before. This was doubtless 
ohce more an alliance of birth with money obtained from 
the great wool-growing industry, which at this time formed 
the staple wealth of the country, for this lady was first the 
wife of Sir Edmund Tame, Knight, of Fairford, in Gloucester- 
shire, who was grandson and heir to the wealthy John Tame> 
the donor of the celebrated stained glass windows, and the 
builder of the church to enclose them, and we know that she 
held Fairford in jointure after her first husband's death. 
She married secondly Sir Walter Buckle, Privy Counsellor 
to Queen Elizabeth, and thirdly Roger Lygon. 

To quote from Collinses Peerage of England, by Brydges : 
" Roger Lygon, of Fairford, in Gloucestershire, died 1584^ 
having married Catherine, daughter of Sir WilHam Dennis, 
of Puckleworth, and widow of Sir Edmund Tame and Sir 
Walter Buckle, Knights. They lie buried in the Church 
of Fairford, where there is a handsome monument in 



3o6 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

stone with two portraitures at length of the said Roger 
and his wife." ^ 

This fine tomb is situated in the north transept, and is 
well worth a visit. The two recumbent figures in freestone 
of the handsome Elizabethan gentleman and his lady are 
in life-size, Roger Lygon clad in armour and his wife in 
the dress of the period. There is no inscription on the 
tomb, but heraldic devices surround it, and it is in an 
excellent state of preservation. 

Copied from Nash's History of Worcestershire, and then 
continued from other sources : — 



1 Vol. ix. p. 108. 



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Transactions for the Year 1913. 



This pedigree is obviously incomplete. In the manor 
documents I find a Thomas Lygon, of Arle, mentioned in 
1617, who apparently dies childless, and is succeeded by 
his brother, John Henry Lygon. I can only conjecture 
these were brothers to Richard Lygon, the head of 
the family, who lived at Madresfield. In 1625 Francis 
Gregory buys land from him, and seems to have died 
in 1627, for then John Lygon, he of the second 
marriage of the head of the family, comes into his own,, 
and passes on the property to his descendants. More 
of him later on. 

Obviously about now the interesting question arises 
which of the Lygons built the old Elizabethan manor house 
and planted the elm avenue, which so many of us remember, 
and which has been already described (see photographs), 
I wrote to Lord Beauchamp, but he knows nothing about it ; 
yet one cannot help thinking that among family papers 
records of building expenses, etc., might possibly be found. 
All we know is that the old Arle Court was Ehzabethan, 
that it was probably not built on the site of the older 
buildings, which we surmise must have been a stone's throw 
away, but we know that it stood close to the old chapel and 
burying-ground, considerations of hygiene not carrying 
much weight in those days, and that this chapel contained 
the beam of 1250, since lost. 

At this point comes in the only little piece of original 
information, for a few days ago, looking through an old 
deed box, I came across a parchment sealed with heavy 
fleur-de-hs seals, and signed in a clear, cultivated hand, 
" John Lygon." It turned out to be a deed poll of December 
iith, 1630, revoking a previous deed of 1622 between John 
Lygon, of Arle Court, and members of his mother's family, 
" Charrington Talbott " and the late " John Talbott," and 
relating to some fields at Arle. 

Two roods at the east end of Kingsmead, five sellions of 



Old Arle Court. 



309 



land in Itchland ( Yeachland) , one sellion of land in Barbridge 
Field. 

At first I could not understand hov^ the document came 
into our possession. I took it to Mr. Frederick Ticehurst, 
who says it is of no value except that of sentiment. I found 
•on further investigation these three identical parcels of 
land were conveyed next day, December 12th, 1630, by 
indenture of feoffment to my great-great-great-great- 
.grandfather, Francis Gregory, of Arle. Doubtless the Lygon 
and Tablot deed was passed on with the land to the purchaser 
as of no value to the previous owner. 

To local people this deed is interesting as it incidentally 
enumerates the neighbouring villages in which the Lygon 
family owned land, and we caji thus understand what a very 
large and valuable property it was. 

Of the names of the villages mentioned all lie between 
Cheltenham and Gloucester. Only three I cannot quite 
identify. They are "Cheltenham, Arle, Elmeston, Ayle- 
mondston (?), Uckington, Hardwicke, Staverton, Starton (?), 
Heydon, Boddington, Leigh, Derehurst, and Ffoyrott (?). We 
also learn from this deed that John Lygon had a second 
daughter named Elizabeth, besides his heiress Catherine. 

This "John Lygon" (again a younger son, and not 
mentioned by Nash) is the son of Richard Lygon, of Madres- 
field, who died 1584, by his second wife, Margaret, daughter 
of John Talbot. Now for the first time the Arle estate goes 
definitely to the younger branch of the family, and continues 
there. We gather from Nash that the Lygon family by this 
time had become by a series of happy marriages extremely 
rich in land, the only source of income for people of position 
in those days, for Nash observes in his somewhat discursive 
pedigree that Sir William Lygon (elder brother to John Lygon, 
and heir to his father) " sold many manors." Consequently 
we infer that this important Gloucestershire property might 
well be spared as provision for this son of the second marriage. 
From this time also e gather that the owners of Arle Court 



310 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



were resident landlords, and we know that the old parish 
church of Cheltenham received their mortal remains. We 
also fancy that it was probably their only estate, not as so 
often happens in the case of the owners of Arle Court merely 
one of many in various parts of the surrounding counties. 

Blacker, in his Monumental Inscriptions of the Parish 
Church of Cheltenham, compiled 1877, notes- among his 
" Flatstone Inscriptions " : " The following . . . are no 
longer visible, having been covered with concrete and 
tiling." " Here lyeth the body of John Lygon of Arle Court, 
in the County of Gloucester, Esqr., who departed this hfe 
the 2ist day of Septr., 1644," and I easily found his name 
and date of death in the parish church register of 1644. 

It is most fortunate that now, when Nash concludes (as 
far as we are concerned) , we have another witness from whence 
to take up the thread, for what must have been a very fine 
memorial tablet in the north chancel of the parish church 
of Cheltenham commemorated Catherine," the heiress of 
John Lygon, of Arle Court, and wife to Sir Fleetwood 
Dormer. With the roll of rich vale land? as her heritage 
we can well understand the widowed husband's grateful 
allusion : — 

" Maritum si non Patrem, Hseredem scripsit 
Haec ilium moriens amplo Patrimonio 
Ille hanc amissam hoc Monumento decoravit." 

This handsome monument, emblazoned with heraldry 
(15 quarterings) , has been swept entirely away. At what 
date sacrilegious hands were placed on this interesting 
memorial we have no means of knowing. During the water- 
drinking era we are told that the throng and the press was 
such that galleries had to be erected. I have seen the old 
document, dated 1775, relating to the gallery in the north 
aisle, and noted that it was merely 52 feet by 9 feet, but 
where the old tablet could have been I cannot understand. 
About forty-five years ago these galleries were taken down 



Old Arle Court. 



and the high pews removed (see the old picture in the vestry) , 
and the church brought up to date. At such times one 
cannot but think that often much of deep family and 
antiquarian interest goes too. It is even possible that the 
shattered remains of this noble memorial tablet to Catherine 
Lady Dormer are buried in the corner of the churchyard, 
where tradition has it many other monumental remains 
find a resting-place. Unfortunately the old verger died last 
year, and we have no one left who can explain these things 
to us. 

Lady Dormer died 1678, and her husband in 1693, 
leaving sons to inherit — Thomas, John and Robert (I think). 

In the north transept, on a handsome monument. ^ 

Arms : "Azure, ten billetts, 4, 3, 2, i. or, on a chief of 
the last a demi lion issuant sable," for Dormer; impaling, 
Argent, two lions passant, gules," for Lygon. 

" Hie juxta sita est 
Catharina 

Fleetwoodi Dormer, Equitis Aurati, Spousa, 
Johannis Lygon, de Arle Court, Armigeri, 
Ex Elizabethae Uxoris filia ; 
Utrius-que Parentis Haeres unica ; 
Cujus Familia in Agro Wigorniensi 

per trecentos & amplius annos ; 
Floruit, & adhuc soeliciter floret : 
A tanto licet genere oriunda nobilique nupta 
Stirpem tamen & conjugem 
Utros-que antea illustres, 
Morum sanctitate illustriores reddidit. 
Maritum si non Patrem, Hseredem scripsit 
Haec ilium moriens amplo Patrimonio, 
' Ille hanc amissam hoc Monumento decoravit. 



1 Bigland, p. .316. 



312 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



Decessit Febru. 3, 



Anno 



iEtatis 72. 

Domini 1678. 

Johannes Lygon, supradictus, obiit 1644 

Filius unicus Ricardi Lygon, 

de Maddersfield, Arm. ex secundis 

Nuptiis cum Margaretta, Filia." 

John Talbott, miUtis, ex stirpe Comitum Salopiae 
Affinis etiam fuit Baronibus 

de Berkly Castro, ahisque Proceribus ; 

& per Uxores suas Haeredibus 

quorum Insignia Superne 

depinguntur. 



On the atchievement mentioned in the inscription are 
the fifteen following coats of arms with the names annexed : — 

1. Lygon, as before. 

2. " Gules, a fess or, in chief two mulletts argent," for 
Bracey. 

3. " Azure on a bend c^, three bars dancette gules," for 
Madersfield. 

4. " Argent, fretty gules," for Harfleet. . 

5. " Or, a cross pierced azure," for Tecors. 

6. " Gules, three lions passant argent," for Giffard. 

7. " Gules, a fess between six martlets or," for 
Beauchamp. 

8. " Parti per pale or and gules, three roundlets counter- 
changed," for Abbot. 

9. " Argent, on a fess azure, three fleurs-de-hs or," for 
Uffleet. 

10. " Argent, a bend between six martlets gules a 
crescent for difference," for Furneval. 

11. " Or, a lion rampant per fess gules and sable," for 
Luftot. 

12. " Or, a frett gules," for Verdon. 



Old Arle Court. 



313 



13. Sable, on a cross within a bordure engrailed or, 
iive pellets," for Grevil. 

14. " Or, a bird rising vert, within a tressure sable," for 
Arle. ' 

15. " Argent, a chevron azure, between three garbs or, 
banded and stalked vert," for Southey. 

Nash [History of Worcestershire) tells us, Lygon entered 
his pedigree and arms in the Heralds' College a.d. 1569, 1634 
and 1683." 

From Foss's Judges of England : — 

Robert Dormer, a descendant of the Buckinghamshire 
family of that name, a branch of which was ennobled by 
James I with the title of Lord Dormer of Wenge, which has 
flourished ever since, was the grandson of Sir Fleetwood 
Dormer, and the second son of John Dormer, of Ley Grange 
and Purston, a barrister, by Katherine, daughter of Thomas 
Woodward, of Ripple, in Worcestershire. To his elder brother, 
John, Charles II, in 1661, presented a baronetcy, which 
became extinct in 1726. Robert was born in 1649, ^^^> having 
entered Lincoln's Inn, was called to the bar in 1675. He is 
mentioned as junior counsel for the Crown in several trials 
in 1680, and was soon afterwards constituted Chancellor of 
Durham. 

" In 1698 he represented Aylesbury, in 1701 the County of 
Buckinghamshire, and in 1702 Northallerton. In the great 
question of Ashby and White he opposed the assumed 
priviledge of the House of Commons, which would have 
prevented an elector from proceeding at common law for 
the injury he sustained by the returning officer refusing his 
vote. On January 8th, 1706, he was made a judge of the 
Common Pleas, and sat there nearly one-and-twenty years, 
till his death on September i8th, 1726. His seat was at Arle 
Court, near Cheltenham. His marriage with Mary, daughter 
of Sir Richard Blake, of London, produced him four daughters 

22 

Vol. XXXVI. 



314 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

only, one of whom married Lord Fortescue of Credan, and 
another John Parkhurst, of Catesby in Northamptonshire, 
the father of the author of the Greek Lexicon to the New 
Testament." 

In Atkyns we read (1712) :— 

"... Mr. Justice Dormer is the present Proprietor, 
who has a seat in this Place and a very large Estate in the 
Neighbourhood, and in Buckinghamshire and in other 
Counties. His Birth and Learning have justly placed him 
on the Bench of the Common Pleas." 

He died 1726. 

It is curious to notice that twice in its history old Arle 
Court is the home of a distinguished member of the legal 
profession, also how often the estate goes through the female 
line. 

Once more there is no male heir, and four daughters 
are left, Catherine inheriting Arle Court as her share. 
Apparently she never married, and on her death, in 1747, 
the estate is willed^ to the Hon. John Yorke, third son of 
the Earl of Hardwicke (extinct peerage), whose wife was 
a member of the Lygon family. 

In 1795 the old Arle Court was sold to T. Butt, Esq., 
of Minchinhampton, but much of the land seems to have been 
in the ownership of the Welch family ^ of Arle, by marriage 
with the heiress of the Gregorys, 1773. 

1 Some say sold, but this does not seem likely. 

2 Also of North Shoebury -and Southchurch, Essex, by marriage 
with the heiress of the Whites at Alstone, 1797. 




G. H. West Photo. 



THE CLOTHIERS' WINDOW. 
Semur en Auxois, France. 
XIV Century. 

i 

N .B.— Weaving, Fulltng, Roughing, Shearing an ancient, the others are restorations. 



THE 

WOOLLEN INDUSTRY OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE: 
A RETROSPECT. 1 

By Sir WILLIAM H. MARLING, Bart. 

The manufacture of woollen cloth in these Islands is of very 
ancient origin. The Romans taught spinning and weaving 
to their British subjects, and estabhshed an imperial 
manufactory of woollen and linen cloth for their legionaries 
at the " Venta Belgarum " (Winchester), whilst Saxon 
Chronicles and a fragment of the shroud of Edward the 
Confessor, said to have been preserved at Bromesberrow 
Place in this county, show that these arts, as well as that of 
dyeing, were practised in the eleventh century. The industry 
received a great impetus at the time of the Norman Conquest, 
when numbers of artisans from the Continent, particularly 
from Flanders, followed in the train of William's victorious 
army. In the reigns of Henry II and Richard, according 
to Sir Matthew Hale (a Gloucestershire man), " this kingdom 
greatly flourished in the art of manufacturing woollen cloth," 
but by the troublesome wars of John, Henry III and Edward I 
and II, the trade was wholly lost. Madox's History of the 
Exchequer mentions Gloucester as one of the towns that 
" paid fines to King John for hcense to buy and sell dyed 
cloth as they were accustomed to do in the time of Henry II." 
It is, however, to that great Plantagenet monarch, 
Edward III, that we are indebted for the revival of this, for 
centuries, our staple manufacture. Fuller, the Church 
historian, tells us that " the King and State began no\y to 
grow sensible of the great gain the Netherlands got by our 

^ Read at the opening of the Winter Session of the Stroud Textile 
School, October. 5th, 1908. 



3i6 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



wool, in memory whereof the Duke of Burgundy not long 
after instituted the ' Order of the Golden Fleece,' wherein 
indeed the ' Fleece ' was ours, the ' Golden ' their , so vast 
their emolument by the trade of clothing. Our king therefore 
resolved, if possible, to reduce the trade to his own country, 
who as yet were ignorant of that art, as knowing no more 
what to do with their wooll than the sheep which weare it, 
as to any artificial and curious drapery — their best cloathes 
then being no better than freezes, such their coarseness for 
want of skill in their making." By the promise of immunities 
and privileges he induced about seventy families of skilled 
Flemish workmen to settle in England, and bestowed them 
in various districts, including Gloucestershire. No doubt 
further improvements in the manufacture resulted from the 
influx of skilled Huguenot artisans which followed the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes. 

Fuller tells us that " a prime Dutch cloth maker in 
Gloucestershire had the sirname of ' Web ' given him by 
King Edward there." This surname is still frequent around 
Stroud. Other local names, such as Clutterbuck, Hague, 
Malpass, Marmont, Prout, Pettatt, etc., are probably trace- 
able to foreign immigration, as well as are some technical 
terms used in weaving and dyeing, such as " lam " (Fr. lame), 
signifying the blades of a loom, and " rousing " (Fr. rouge), 
meaning red dyeing. 

Following the lead of Edward HI, the Lord Mayor and 
Corporation of London in the middle of the fourteenth 
century, for the encouragement of the woollen trade, made it a 
rule to present annually at Christmas six yards of the best 
and finest Enghsh broadcloth to each of the great officers of 
State, such as the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Chief Justice, 
the Master of the Rolls and others. This custom has been 
maintained uninterruptedly for 450 years, the Corporation 
of the City every autumn inviting the woollen manufacturers 
of the country to send superfine black cloths to the Guildhall 
for competition, and for many years past the cloth so chosen 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 317 

has come from the Stroud valleys. The estabHshment of the 
Worshipful Company of Drapers in 1438 and that of the 
Clothworkers in 1480 testifies to the growing importance of 
the industry, and in quite recent times these Companies have 
given generous assistance to it by voting monies in aid of 
technical education and by awarding gold medals to the best 
exhibits at the South Kensington Exhibition of 1882. 

In the spacious days of Queen Elizabeth the wool staplers 
of the Cotteswolds greatly flourished, and their bygone 
magnificence is still attested by noble churches such as 
Chipping Campden, Northleach and Fairford, by Grammar 
Schools such as Chipping Campden, Northleach and Burford, 
and by many a stately mansion. During this reign, too, the 
manufacture of woollens made rapid progress, although, as 
Mr. Hyett tells us in his History of Gloucester, it had begun to 
decHne in that city before Elizabeth's death. 

During the Great Rebellion, when Cirencester was taken 
by the Royahsts and many of the woollen mills were 
plundered, Samuel Webb, of the Ham Mill, Stroud, for 
services rendered to King Charles' cause, received from 
Prince Maurice and Prince Rupert written Protections," 
said to be preserved in Sir John Dorington's hbrary at 
Lypiatt Park. 

Coming down to the last century, it may be mentioned 
that Frederick, Prince of Wales in 1750 inspected Southfield 
Mills, Woodchester, and that in 1788 George III visited 
Woodchester Mills and lay one night at the Hill House, now 
known as Rodborough Manor. On the latter occasion many 
of the machines were carried out into an adjoining meadow, 
where the various processes were witnessed by the King and 
Queen and Princesses, who walked on scarlet cloth laid down 
for their accommodation. 

From a very early period the trade has been the subject 
of legislation, some of it foolish and vexatious, the use of 
indigo as a dye being at one time prohibited under heavy 
penalties, and at another time the length and width of cloth 



3i8 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



being fixed by statute. A curious attempt was once made to 
benefit the industry by enacting that the dead should be 
buried in woollen shrouds ! On the other hand, the repeal of a 
tax of 6d. per lb. on imported wool was not obtained until 
1824. 1757 we find the Stroud clothiers petitioning the 
House of Commons in regard to the commotion resulting 
from a rising of weavers there. The intervention of Parlia- 
ment was again invoked in 1803, but this time it was asked 
to inquire into the effect upon the labour market caused by 
the setting up of newly-invented gig mills. 

The establishment of the woollen industry in these valleys 
is undoubtedly due to the quality and abundance of the 
streams, which were essential for the processes of manufacture 
and for the supply of the only motive power known previous 
to the introduction of steam. Until towards the close of the 
seventeenth century the Enghsh clothier used only Enghsh 
wool, but in the following century the superior fineness of 
Spanish wool known as " Merino " (a corruption of " marino " 
— oversea) began to be recognised and to be employed with 
our own English wool. Later the merino strain was brought 
into Saxony, Prussia and Silesia, and later still into the 
Austrian Empire. This continental wool was of even better 
quality, the great landowners bestowing much care upon 
their flocks, some of which numbered as many as 10,000 sheep. 
To-day East Prussia, Silesia and Moravia produce wool of the 
very finest quality, in this respect (though not in "staple") 
superior to anything grown in Australia or New Zealand, and 
it is of these continental wools exclusively that the best 
superfine broadcloth is composed. Early in the nineteenth 
century the exportation of Australian and New Zealand wool 
began. My grandfather, who was born in 1780, saw when a 
young man the first consignment — some half-dozen bales 
from New South Wales — landed at the London Docks, the 
small beginning of that great influx in Colonial wool which 
has so largely superseded Continental wool in our factories. 

Formerly cloth was not woven at the miU, but either in a 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 319 

master- weaver's shop or in the weaver's cottage, the 
manufacturer providing the yarn, both warp and weft, and 
the master-weaver or the weaver (as tt^e case might be) the 
loom, and of course, standing room for it. The master- 
weaver often employed as many as half a dozen journeymen, 
who worked in a shed adjoining his house ; and hundreds of 
cottages included a room where one and sometimes two looms 
stood, and where the cottager and some of his family worked. 
About the year 1830 the master-weaver began to be displaced 
by the manufacturers fitting up weaving sheds near their 
mills, in order to secure greater regularity and better work. 

By 1838 the introduction of the " power-loom " had 
occasioned much temporary distress and consequent dis- 
content amongst the hand-loom weavers, and in the following 
year a Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into this 
and other matters, the Commission in its turn directing 
Mr. W. A. Miles to investigate and report to them. This 
gentleman seems to have performed his work with remarkable 
care and impartiality, and the Blue Book containing the 
evidence collected by him gives much curious and valuable 
information as to the condition of the clothworkers in 
Gloucestershire two generations ago. 

Mr. Miles obtained evidence from ministers of religion, 
magistrates, shopkeepers, operatives, manufacturers and 
others, and in his report there frequently recur the names of 
families still resident among us, such as Apperly, Cripps, 
Davies, Evans, Hooper, Marling,Playne, Ricardo and Stanton, 
many of them still engaged in the woollen trade.. It may be 
well to remember that at the time of his report (i.e. seven 
years after the great Reform Act of 1832) our present Poor 
Law system (1834) had scarcely got into full operation, and 
the ill-advised Beer House Act of 1830 had greatly increased 
the evils of intemperance, whilst the present police force had 
not yet supplanted the parish constable. 

On the whole Mr. Miles' recital is a sad one, and in striking 
contrast to the happier conditions prevaihng in the Stroud 



320 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

Valley to-day. Up to 1825 the woollen trade of the West of 
England appears on the whole to have prospered ; but in 
that year a great financial panic occurred, may banks closed 
their doors, and commercial depression resulted, with its 
inevitable consequence— reduction in wages. Not un- 
naturally in many parts of the country strikes followed, and 
there were strikes amongst the Gloucestershire weavers in 
1828 and again in 1834. We must truly sympathise with 
these unfortunate men, driven by want almost to desperation. 
Various remedies were devised, amongst them the cultivation 
of allotment gardens and the encouragement of migration to 
other districts where labour was more in demand, whilst not 
a few benevolent residents, such as the Rev. John Elliott 
(the late centenarian incumbent of Randwick) , Mr. Anthony 
Fewster, of Nailsworth, Capt. Slade, of Uley, Mr. Peter 
Playne, of Dunkirk, and especially Mr. David Ricardo, of 
Gatcombe, exerted themselves in assisting emigration. Some 
parishes, such as Uley and Bisley, borrowed money for this 
purpose, and Mr. Miles gives a statement showing the cost of 
emigrating sixty-eight persons from Bisley parish, who on 
31st August, 1837, were placed on board a steam vessel at 
Bristol to join their ship then lying at Kingroad. 
This is the account : — 

£ s. d. 

Clothing 68 persons at £1 los. 8|d. per head, 

including Bibles, Prayer Books, etc . . 104 9 7 

Cash paid for 2 waggons and a cart, to take 
the 68 persons to Bristol, their victuals 
on leaving and on the road, and breakfast 
at Bristol 24 13 6 

Cash for one day's victuals, the first day put 

on board the steam packet 200 

Cash paid Dr. Rogers, the emigrant Surgeon, 
for 2 men and their wives that were above 
the age to go passage free, /15 each . . 60 o o 

£191 3 I 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 321 

All the evidence produced before Mr. Miles went to show 
that strikes only made the situation of the hand-loom 
weaver worse. At the same time manj^.of the manufacturers 
were ruined. It is the old story : strikes are a species of 
civil war, in which, as in actual war, it is sometimes hard to 
say whether the victors or the vanquished suffer most. 
Happily, in the fifty years during which I have been connected 
with the trade I can recall no strike of the cloth workers in 
these valleys. Their wages, like those of all other operatives^ 
have risen, and, although they may not have been raised 
by Trade Unions to so high a rate as in the north, yet I 
am inchned to think that in no part of England have textile 
operatives really fared better, for most house-wives will tell 
you that a steady weekly income of 20s. is better for a family 
than an intermittent one of say 25s. In 1839 the position 
of the hand-loom weaver was most pitiable, especially where 
he worked at home or in the shop of a master-weaver, his 
employment being irregular, and his weekly wage (even 
when in work) averaging only 6s. lojd. The hand-loom 
weaver in a factory was better off, earning lis. gd. for a 
week of seventy hours. The wages of women and children 
' '^r a week of sixty hours were proportionately low. Moreover, 
the Truck Act of 1831 was frequently evaded, and wages 
too often paid, not in coin of the realm, but in order-notes, 
given by the emplo^/er for goods at a truck " shop, costing 
from 10 to 20 per cent, above market price. It was an 
iniquitous practice, and (it is only fair to say) was condemned 
by the better class of manufacturers. 

One hundred years ago the price of bread was subject 
.to violent fluctuations, after a good harvest being cheap, 
and after a bad one excessively dear. When a child I 
remember my grandmother telling of a neighbour who said 
to her in one of those famine years : " Ah, Mrs. Marling, 
I should bless God if we could see the quartern loaf down 
to a shilling ! " In 1838 the price of the quartern loaf 
seems to have been about 7jd., tea 5s. a pound, sugar 8d. 



322 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



a pound, meat, bacon, butter and cheese not greatly differing 
from present prices, whilst clothing we know was much 
dearer. 

It is clear that the underpaid condition of the weaver 
was chiefly owing to their redundant numbers and the 
introduction of the power-loom. 

In 1839 wages generally, though on the whole materially 
lower than those of to-day, were far better than those of 
the hand-loom weavers. For instance, masons earned 15s. 
to 17s. a week, blacksmiths 15s., sawyers i6s., carpenters 
15s., plasterers 15s., labourers 9s. (with cottage and garden 
and extra at harvest). 

In the cloth trade wool-sorters earned 30s., white wool- 
scourers earned 14s., wool-pickers (women) 6s., wool-feeders 
(children) 3s., mule spinners (men) 20s., warpers (women) 7s., 
millmen 20s., burlers (women) 6s., shearmen 13s., brushers 
14s., drawers and markers (women) 9s., spinners (women) 6s., 
and the week never meant less than sixty working hours. 

In such circumstances it is difficult to conceive how the 
poor managed to live, and the situation was aggravated by 
the most pernicious Beer Act of 1830, which empowered 
any ratepayer to open his house as a beer-shop, free from 
any Justice's license or control, merely on payment of two 
guineas to the local office of excise. These beer-houses, for 
which lonely spots seem frequently to have been designedly 
chosen, were too often the haunts of bad characters and 
receivers of stolen property, particularly of " slinge." Slinge 
(as the theft of wool, yarn, waste, etc., was locally termed) 
had become so common a practice that manufacturers were 
obliged to allow for it in their calculations of manufacturing 
costs. This illicit trade was fostered not only by the existence 
of the beer-shops, but also by the inactivity of the parish 
constables, and by the singular provision of the law which 
forbade the search of suspected persons between the hours 
of sunrise and sunset ! As a consequence " slinge " was 
carried with impunity during daylight by women a^nd 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 323 

children. The value of " shnge " seems to have ranged up 
to as much as 7s. a pound, though the " shngers " often 
gained as Httle as lod. of this from the receivers, who appear 
to have acted with much cunning and precaution, and by 
a system of transferring the stuff from one district to another 
to have baffled detection. " Slinge " from this district even 
found its way to Yorkshire, and Mr. Miles records a sale by 
pubHc auction there, when 140 bags reahsed £1,000 ! At 
last the manufacturers combined to establish a police system 
of their own for the detection and punishment of offenders, 
two officers (from the, London force) being stationed at 
'Hampton, one at Ebley and one at Stonehouse. This did 
something to put an end to slingeing, although it was not 
altogether unknown even in my time, as Mr. Samuel Hill 
(the worthy wool-loft manager at Stanley Mills in the early 
sixties) could testify were he living, and I myself recollect a 
member of our firm on his way home one day overtaking 
one of our stove-men, whose old chimney-pot hat aroused 
suspicion. On knocking off the hat he found it full of wool 
— which had never grown on the wearer's head ! I told 
my friend that he had committed an assault for which he 
was liable to prosecution, but in the event it was the thief 
who was prosecuted, and got two months' imprisonment. 

Mr. Miles appears to have made an extensive inquiry 
into the question of educational facilities in the district, and 
to have found here sixty-seven day schools educating 4,743 
children (of whom 602 were the children of hand-loom 
weavers) out of a total population of 62,775 — or rather more 
than one in thirteen. His return of Sunday schools is not so 
complete ; nevertheless he enumerates twenty-eight Church 
schools and forty-six Nonconformist, educating between 
them some 10,000 children and adults, i.e. about one in six 
of the total population. Amongst other interesting matter 
Mr. Miles records the establishment by my mother of an 
infant school at the Thrupp, and I cannot deny myself the 
pleasure of quoting in full the following letter to him from 



324 



Transactions for the Year 1913. 



my father. Even to eyes not filial I think it will be considered 
that this letter contains some admirable suggestions, and 
that the principles it lays down are as applicable to-day as 
when the letter was written — nearly seventy years ago. 

" Ham Mills, 

" March 20th, 1839. 

" Dear Sir, 

" I accede with pleasure to your request by giving you an 
outline of my ideas on the subject of the education of the 
labouring classes. Happily its importance is now admitted 
by all, and the present question is not whether they shall be 
educated, but in what manner and by what means, and I 
sincerely trust that will soon be determined by the intro- 
duction of some comprehensive and effectual scheme. 

" I am fully persuaded that the inquiries you have been 
making in this district relative to one particular class of 
labourers, have proved that for that class especially, and 
indeed for all, a sound system of education adapted to fit the 
rising generation for their respective stations is imperatively 
and immediately required. 

" The system of education adopted in our common schools 
should have reference to our social condition as a manu- 
facturing, agricultural and commercial people ; to our 
peculiar geographical situation and political relations. Our 
territory at home is limited and occupied, but we have 
possessions in the American and Australian continents which 
ought to be rendered an easy outlet for our rapidly-increasing 
population and an inexhaustible supply for their increasing 
wants. It is my opinion that, in not a few of our schools, as 
much of the element of what is commonly called learning is 
taught as can be necessary for the children of the labouring 
classes, but the formation of those habits of industr}^ and the 
communication of that knowledge of agriculture and the arts, 
which are calculated to make them skilful workmen and good 
and intelligent labourers, is sadly neglected. 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 325 

I am deeply impressed with the absolute necessity there 
is for all education being based on the principles of the Bible, 
and would countenance no system in which sound moral and 
religious instruction were not made th^' foundation of every- 
thing else ; yet I must confess my fears, that there is a 
tendency in many quarters to attend to this subject to the 
almost total exclusion of other very important and very 
necessary parts of education, not that too much regard is paid 
to the former, but far too little to the latter. 

" There exists at present amongst all ranks of society a 
general desire to promote the cause of education, and very 
much is being done "by personal efforts and pecuniary 
assistance, but most unhappily a spirit of religious sectarian- 
ism prevails and exhibits itself in some of its worst forms on 
this subject, when all denominational distinctions ought to 
be merged in one combined effort to benefit the rising genera- 
tion. Though this spirit cannot be at once eradicated, yet 
much may be done to mitigate its injurious effects. 

" That the people are exerting themselves is a matter of 
congratulation, and the Government in my opinion will best 
promote the good cause, not by superseding those exertions 
but by fostering, enlightening and aiding them. 

"It is with great diffidence that I would suggest any 
particular plan, but I may venture to say that a great 
improvement might be effected by the establishment of a 
' Training School,' which might serve two most important 
purposes, viz. to quahfy masters and mistresses and to present 
a model of what a common school ought to be, the expenses 
being defrayed out of the resources of the county. A 
committee or council might be connected with it, before 
which teachers in this and other establishments might be 
•examined, and if found duly quahfied, diplomas should be 
granted by the said council. 

" Thus the first step would be gained, the next would be to 
induce the patrons, committee or managers of the existing 
schools throughout the country to employ only such teachers 



326 Transactions for the Year 1913. 



as have passed their examination before the council, of what 
might be called ' The National Training School.' This I 
think might be done by offering to every school where a 
teacher is employed, an annual pecuniary grant on one other 
condition, viz. that certain prescribed branches of knowledge 
be taught. The grant need not be large, but a moderate 
amount would be a powerful inducement to estabHsh schools, 
and would do much to ensure an efficient disciphne in all 
schools which received the grant ; for I should further 
recommend that visitors be appointed, and that those schools 
should lose their grant for the year in which the conditions 
were not complied with. 

" In connection with these schools, I think it would be well 
to have for the elder boys (if not for the girls) an industrial 
department in which gardening and the rudiments of 
agriculture especially should be taught, and as much practical 
knowledge in other departments of industry as might be 
found attainable. 

" For this purpose an extensive plot of land would be 
required, where perhaps each boy night have his own 
allotment ; in this I cannot anticipate much difficulty, as 
it would not be necessary to have the land attached to the 
school. In London it might not be so practical, but in all 
country places, and even in large towns, it might be effected. 

" Some such system as this, I am convinced, is wanted. 
It must be evident to all reflecting minds that in the present 
enterprising age, when changes and improvements in almost 
every department of our social economy are constantly taking 
place, the children of the labouring population should be 
trained to habits of adaptiveness so as to be able to apply 
themselves to those new circumstances in which they may 
be placed, thus mitigating the painful vicissitudes which are 
frequently occurring, especially in our manufacturing 
districts. Extensive changes in any long-established 
system, however beneficial in their ultimate results, can 
hardly ever be effected without considerable suffering to 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 327 

those whose daily bread has been obtained under the 
exploded system. 

" The habits and acquirements of those who generally 
emigrate from our distressed districts/are for the most part 
but ill-adapted to cope with the difhcuties which they must 
encounter in any of the Colonies ; while the training necessary 
to render a man a successful emigrant, would also render him 
a more useful member of society at home. 

" After a tolerably extensive acquaintance with the state 
of the manufacturing population of this district, I am con- 
vinced that those whose ingenuity is most conspicuous in 
the culture of their gardens and in their other domestic 
arrangements, are the best workmen, husbands, and fathers. 

"In these schools, too, considerable attention should 
be paid to history, especially of England ; the advantages 
of our well-balanced constitutional Government should be 
rendered clear to the children ; and instruction should be 
given respecting the laws which as they advance to years of 
maturity the children will be expected to obey. Their 
reasonableness and equity should be rendered apparent, 
as well as the advantages resulting to all classes of society 
from their general observance. No one department of 
National education has, I think, been so much neglected as 
this ; surely it is but reasonable that those who are to obey 
the laws should be informed what those laws actually are. 

" My hmits will not permit me to proceed further into 
detail ; yet I must observe that if the Government is to give 
any efficient aid to education, it must have no respect to 
religious parties. But as in all schools a certain system of 
moral and religious training must be adopted, therefore it 
must be left to the patrons of the school to supply that which 
may be most generally approved ; and it is my opinion 
that this branch will be far better attended to by them, than 
if controlled in any way by the public authorities. 

" Assistance should be given to the building of school 
rooms as at present, but on a more liberal scale. 



328 . Teansactions for the Year 1913. 



" I conceive that any system of parochial or district 
taxation for the purposes of education would work badly 
in this country, on account of the peculiar position of religious 
parties ; it would tend to perpetual irritations and disputes. 
If the resources of the county will not allow of any large 
appropriation of money for aiding in the support of schools, 
some specific tax for this especial object might be introduced, 
and I believe there is none to which the people would not 
willingly submit. 

" The plan I have now shadowed out possesses, I think, 
not a few advantages ; it proposes that the Government 
should do just enough to draw forth the voluntary efforts 
and energies of the people, without which the vitality 
necessary to the success of any scheme will be wanting, 
while at the same time it gives the Government the power 
to introduce and maintain at a very moderate cost the most 
efficient and best digested scheme of education in all the 
schools which would receive the public grant, and as all 
schools, I conceive, would be desirous of the grant, conse- 
quently all would adopt the improved system. 

" Your own request must be my apology for troubhng 
you at such length. The subject is one of immense conse- 
quence, and something should be done immediately ; delay 
will only present us with new difficulties. 

" I am, etc., 
" (Signed) SAMUEL S. MARLING. 
" W. A. Miles, Esq., 

Etc., Etc., Etc." 

In concluding his report Mr. Miles observes that the 
•opinions of witnesses on many points was contradictory, 
and " candidly confessed his inabihty to point out or to 
recommend any legislative enactment hkely to benefit in 
a sound and permanent manner the interests of the weavers, 
and respectfully left the matter to the superior judgment " 
of the Roval Commission ! 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 329 

Although the inquiry does not appear to have resulted 
at once in remedial legislation, nevertheless forces were at 
work to improve the lot of the hand-looi^i weaver. Amongst 
these forces were the concentrating in one mill of all pro- 
cesses of manufacture, and the continuous development of 
machinery, which together effected a great saving in the 
time and cost of manufacture, and thereby tended to widen 
the margin of profit. Thus here, as elsewhere, it happened 
that the very means (namely the introduction of machinery 
and especially of the power loom) which at the time the 
workers regarded as the cause of their undoing proved 
eventually the means of their betterment. Still, the change 
was necessarily gradual, and when I went into business Mty 
years ago doeskins, Venetians and kerseymeres were stil 
handwoven in scores of cottages, and the click of the loom 
was a familiar sound as I rode down the village to the mills. 
I always felt very sorry for the hand-loom weaver as he 
brought his piece into the wool-loft, for his earnings, even in 
the fifties (allowing for playtime) I fancy did not average 
much above los. a week. A middle-aged, or elderly man, 
rather sad-faced (at least looking as though he had never 
been young) and often quaintly dressed — sometimes in a 
blue frock-coat with copper buttons, once gilt, or in a 
swallow-tail one, once black but grown green with age 
(presumably some gentleman's left-off garment) — his pathetic 
figure now lives only in the memory of a few old clothiers like 
me. 

[By the way, the good old word "clothier" meant for 
centuries the cloth maker, or as he is now called the " woollen 
manufacturer." But nowadays " clothier " has come to 
mean the man who makes the cloth into clothes. I wish 
the tailors, wholesale and retail, had not appropriated our 
name !] 

It may now be well to give a brief description of the 
principal processes employed to convert the fleece of wool 
into cloth. Down to the end of the seventeenth century every 

23 

Vol. XXXVI 



330 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

operation except that of "fulling" or "milling" was 
performed by hand ; but in the present day hand-processes 
have been superseded in almost every case by machinery. 
After sorting and blending, the wool by a series of machines 
is scoured (to remove animal grease), squeezed, dried, 
willyed and picked ; and (in the case of " burry " or faulty 
wool) is dipped in dilute sulphuric acid and afterwards dried 
at a high temperature. This " pickling " process carbonises 
and pulverises vegetable matter without injury to the wool. 
A similar carbonising process is sometimes used on wool- 
dyed cloths by means of aluminium chloride instead of 
sulphuric acid. Up to forty years ago wool scouring was 
done by hand, the wool being steeped in a furnace con- 
taining a mixture of stale urine and soda, and then stirred 
in a wire basket through which ran brook water in order to 
remove the saponified grease. To prepare it for " carding " 
the wool is next moistened with oil. The " carding " process 
follows, in which the fibres are combed (or rather brushed) 
lengthwise by being passed through a series of cylinders 
covered with steel wire, called " scribblers," and is combed 
from the final cylinder or " condenser " in a number of 
" slivers " wound upon a roll. These rolls are transferred 
to the spinning machine or " mule," which draws out the 
" sliver " and at the same time twists it into yarn and winds 
it upon bobbins. In former days a species of " jenny " 
(locally known as a " billy ") prepared the carded wool 
for the mule, but far less perfectly than the condenser does. 

Yarn intended for warp is sized, wound upon a beam and 
placed in the loom. The weft is less firml}/ twisted, and does 
not require sizing. When woven the cloth is scoured and 
dried, and knots and imperfections are removed by hand. 
Next comes " fulling " or " milling " or " felting " with soap 
dissolved in warm water. This was anciently performed by 
" fuUing-stocks," which were used at Temple Guiting in this 
county as early as the twelfth century. The stocks were a 
pair of huge wooden hammers raised and lowered alternately 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 331 

by cogs turned by a water wheel. The operation is now 
generally performed by the " fuller," a machine in which 
the cloth, being drawn and squeezed between two cylinders, 
is felted more quickly and safely, 'fhe felting property 
pecuHar to wool is due to the serrated structure of the fibres, 
which (under proper conditions of pressure, moisture and 
heat) interlock and shrink together, giving the fabric a 
firm, leathery texture. A piece of broadcloth measuring 
sixty yards in length and one hundred inches in width 
before " milling " is reduced by that process to about forty- 
eight yards long by sixty inches wide. After cleansing with 
fuller's earth, the nap of the felted cloth is raised by teazles 
placed in a revolving cylinder or " gig mill," over which the 
cloth passes, a process termed " roughing " or " dressing," 
and the nap so raised is next shorn to an even surface by 
passing the cloth between a steel blade and revolving cylinder 
with spiral blades, or " cutter " on the same principle as 
that of a lawn mower. Up to the early days of the nineteenth 
century cloth was shorn by a clumsy pair of hand shears ; 
but about 1825 Mr. Lewis, of Brimscombe, invented his 
" cross cutter," which effected an important improvement in 
the process, and has even now not been entirely displaced. 
Permanent lustre is given to the cloth by "potting," i.e. 
rolling it tightly round an iron roll and immersing in water 
heated to 160 deg. or 180 deg. F. After tentering, drying 
and brushing, it is hot pressed and finally cold pressed, and 
is then ready for the warehouse. In olden days the cloth in 
favourable weather was dried in the open air on long upright 
frames called " racks," and old pictures of the locality show 
how the landscape was enlivened by bands of red, white, 
blue, and other coloured cloths on the " rack-hills " of the 
various mills. 

The above-described operations are those necessary for 
the production of broadcloths, which may be either wool- 
dyed or piece-dyed — in the former case the wool being dyed 
after scouring, and in the latter the cloth being dyed after 



332 Transactions for the Year 1913. 

" potting." Most of the processes subsequent to " milling " 
are repeated many times, so that the whole period required 
for the manufacture is usually not less than seven or eight 
weeks. A fine and well-finished superfine cloth should 
resemble fine chamois leather in texture, and the pile rival 
that of velvet in closeness and softness. A generation ago 
it was the regulation garb of clergymen, doctors and lawyers, 
and of all gentlemen for evening dress. No other material 
feels and looks and wears so well, and it is perhaps regrettable 
that by the caprice of fashion other fabrics have so largely 
superseded the classic broadcloths of England. Besides 
these, however, the looms of Gloucestershire produce doeskin, 
and a great variety of more recent fabrics, such as beavers, 
devons, hunters, meltons, Venetians, serges, tweeds, cheviots, 
vicunas and worsted coatings and trouserings, ladies' dress 
stuffs, etc. 

The weaving of broadcloth, as we all know, is the simplest 
and most primitive, two harnesses only being used, that of 
kerseymeres, serges, doeskins and Venetians requiring from 
three to seven harnesses, whilst that of fancies is often 
complicated, and has to be done by the Jacquard loom. On 
the other hand, the finishing processes in the case of undressed 
and fancy cloths are fewer, and consequently goods can be 
turned out in shorter time. 

We who are still woollen manufacturers may regret that 
the number of woollen mills in the West of England has for 
years so diminished, and that consequently our trade does 
not possess the commanding position which it formerly 
occupied ; but it is consolatory to feel that many other 
industries have grown up, and that employment for the work- 
ing classes is better secured by the industrial eggs not being 
all in the woollen basket ! I have always been glad to think 
that few trades in the world are so healthful for the workers 
as the woolen trade, certainly none more so, and that the 
looks of our workpeople testify to this. I believe also that 
between employers and employed a sentiment of mutual 



The Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire. 333 

goodwill and confidence has been steadily increasing, and 
will not easily be shaken. Let us hope that the present-day 
application of chemistry to such processes as wool-scouring, 
dyeing, etc., and the general recognition of the fact that in 
these days all manufactures must be conducted on scientific 
rather than on simply empirical methods, will contribute to 
restore ere long the prosperity which the industry enjoyed 
thirty years ago. 



FLOWERS IN STONE, 

By IDA M. ROPER, F.L.S. 

In a paper published in the earher part of this volume the 
subject of "Flowers in Stone as applied to Church Architecture 
in Bristol " was dealt with, and some examples were given 
that are to be found in St. Mary Redcliffe Church. In order, 
however, to do justice to the many elaborate carvings to be 
seen in that splendid edifice, it may be worth while to enlarge 
somewhat more on the flowers that inspired the carvers of 
the different periods during which the church was being 
built. 

The flowers may not seem to vary much, but it is the 
workmanship that produces the effects. The earliest examples 
are found in the inner north porch and on the exterior of the 
tower, and are of the best type of Decorative ornamentation. 
When about a.d. 1349 the ravages of the Black Death 
amongst all classes caused a marked change in architecture 
elsewhere, it is fortunate that here the decoration of the new 
roofs put on during the following half-century shows but 
little falling-off from the best execution of floral work, 
although conventional takes the place of the purely 
naturalistic. 

In the raised choir roof the bosses are boldly handled, 
and appear to be much undercut as in the best period of the 
art, while on the eastward part of the nave, which followed 
immediately in building, actual flowers were sparingly 
introduced ; but the foliage of holly, bay, thistle and 
dandelion can be recognised amongst the countless bosses, 
together with the familiar vine, ivy and oak arranged in 
many patterns. There is an artificial and overcrowded 
arrangement to be noticed, but this massing together in a 



i 



Flowers ix Stones. 



335 



small space seems redeemed by representing good models. 
At this period occurs the only example of " diaper work " 
noticed in Bristol, although so much used in contemporary 
decoration, being placed on the buttress of the tower, and 
made up of the four-petal flower that afterwards was so 
common for cornices. 

In the north aisles of the church amongst the bosses to 
be seen in the dim light are examples of the white bryony, 
not spread out as in the Cathedral, and several of horse 
chestnut leaves. This tree was common in Italy, and the 
design may have been brought thence in the early part of 
the fifteenth century, when these portions were being rebuilt, i 

At the same period, however, the English rose was not 
neglected by the carvers, as there are two bosses at least 
composed of these flowers arranged on an entwined branch, 
as well as another made into a wreath of roses. After about 
A.D. 1425 the use of floral motives seems to have been given 
up, and human faces and geometrical forms took their place. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my indebtedness to 
a work on a kindred subject : Bosses and Corbels of Exeter 
Cathedral, by E. K. Prideaux and G. R. Holt Shafto. I 
expressed appreciation of it during my lecture, and find that 
in writing the fair copy for the printer I unconsciously used 
several expressions which were similar to what I had read 
in Miss Prideaux' s work. 

1 Proceedings of the Clifton Ayitiquarian Club, vol. vii. p. 60. 



'Botmn of fubliratioitfj. 



CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS from the Fourteenth Century to 
the close of the Seventeenth Century. By J. Charles Cox, LL.D., 
F.S.A. London : Methuen & Co. 7s. 6d. 

In the old English church before the Conquest the duties of seeing 
that the church was rightly built, and that the necessaries of divine 
worship were duly provided and kept in good order, were laid upon the 
priests. The oldest copy of wardens' accounts now existing is one 
belonging to the Church of St. Michael, Bath, running from Michaelmas, 
1349, to the same date 1350, and Dr. Cox states that churchwardens 
are described in the Rolls of Parliament for 1341 as " wardens of the 
goods of the church." But there seems to be no evidence to show at 
what time and in what way the office came into existence ; the reference 
given by Dr. Cox to the Council of London in 11 27 cannot be verified, 
for there seems to be no mention of any officers charged with the duties 
afterwards performed by churchwardens either in the first or any other 
canon of that Council. But it is clear that the system was in full 
working order in the latter part of the fourteenth century. The accounts 
of St. Michael's, Bath, in 1 349, rendered by Thomas the Mason and 
Thomas the Tanner (it is well to note the names of the earliest English 
wardens), follow the form which is afterwards so familiar, first the 
balance from the preceding year, then the receipts — rents, a legacy, 
collections and proceeds of sale of church goods ; then expenses — 
anniversaries, repairs, wax, oil, candles, and 46s. 2d. for a missal, 
exceeding the receipts by 6s. 7d. There are also accounts of Hedon, 
St. James, beginning in 1350, St. Augustine 1370, and St. Nicholas 
1379 cind at Tavistock beginning in 1385 ; after 1400 they are not 
uncommon. Bristol possesses a far fuller series of ancient accounts 
than any other place outside London : the accounts at All Saints begin 
in 1407, St. Ewen 1454, St. Mary Redcliff 1470, St. John Baptist 1472, 
St. Nicholas, the crypt church 1489, the upper church 1520, Christ 
Church 1534, St. Thomas the Martyr 1544, St. Werburgh 1548, St. 
Philip and St. James and St. Mary-le-Port 1558, St. James 15C6, and 
St. Michael 1575. No account older than 1700 is mentioned as 
belonging to any Gloucester church, and in the shire only St. Andrew, 
Clifton, 1538, and Minchinhampton 1555, appear before 1600, and only 
Deerhurst and Hampnett 1606, Eastington 1616, and Ruerdean 1677, 
in the following century. In comparison we may note that in Somerset 
two churches possess accounts dating before 1400, four possess accounts 



Notices of Publications. 



337 



of the next century, and six have accounts of the period 1 500-1600. 
The turning-point in the history of wardens" accounts is the death of 
Henry VIII, who, whatever ruin he wrought upon the minsters, did 
not injure the parish churches. Before thaf time the parish church was 
the centre of the life of the parish, and the people offered willingly that 
they might make it and its ornaments as beautiful as they could. There 
is a very striking extract from the 1476 accounts of Croscombe which 
we visited last year, beginning : "Comes Thomas Blowre and John Hill 
and presents in of Robin Hood's reckonings 40s.," and there follow nine 
more " comings," including the Weyhers, the Hogglers, the Youngmen, 
the Tuckers, and the Maidens, bringing gifts amounting in all to 

28. 5d., besides a pair of white damask vestments, the gift of Isobel 
Mayow. Then came the disastrous reign of Edward VI, when the poor 
were robbed of their guild funds, and the churches of their ornaments, 
and the accounts were before long charged with payments for armour 
gunpowder and prisons, and the cost of slaying owls and pole-cats. 
It is well that churchwardens have become once more purely church 
officers. Dr. Cox gives first a description of wardens' accounts earlier 
than 1500, then a list of those which date from the two following 
centuries arranged in chronological order, and all these are also made 
up into an index under the headings of their counties. Finally there is 
a full and well-arranged general index. 

Dr. Cox points out that the parish vestry is the most democratic 
body in England ; there all are equal on the floor of the church, squire 
and peasant, parson and nonconformist count for one each, no more 
and no less ; they count the heads and do not weigh them, still less do 
they weigh the pockets, unless a poll is demanded. Now every adult 
male may come, in old days he must come under penalty of a fine if he 
absented himself. A little is said about the development of select 
vestries. It is difficult to know how they grew up. At St. Thomas the 
Martyr, Bristol, the old systen of electing two new wardens each year 
Continued until 1593, but from 1594 onwards only one new warden was 
elected in each year, the warden elected in the previous year serving as 
senior warden, but there is nothing to show how or why the change was 
made. It would seem that the practice of choosing women to serve as 
wardens was relatively more frequent in old times than it is now. 
There is no doubt that it would be a most unfortunate thing if any 
new-fangled plan of " Representative Bodies " were allowed to 
supersede the old democratic vestries. Compulsory church rates were 
a consequence of the Reformation, and it is an excellent thing that 
church people have been compelled to fall back on the ancient practice 
of free-will offerings. The larger part of the book consists of a series 



338 Transactions for the Year 19 13. 



of chapters on the different objects of church expenditure, and these 
chapters throw many most interesting side-Hghts on the church history 
of the period. The passing bell rung to summon the priest for the 
administration of the last sacraments, and to call the faithful to prayer 
for the passing soul, was known at St. Edmund's, Sarum, as the " forth - 
fare " bell till the reign of Henry VIII. This is a true old English word ; 
in the old English chronicles the usual expression for a death is forthferde, 
the past tense of forthferan : 994 Her forthferde Sigeric arcebisceop — 
" In this year Archbishop Sigeric died," and it is interesting to find the 
name surviving for so long. The chapter on " Church Sittings " is 
worth careful reading, for it shows at how early a date the evil practice 
of appropriating sittings and erecting private pews grew up, with the 
consequent exclusion of the poor, an evil that was intensified by the 
practice of charging money for sittings. But in fact there is hardly 
any aspect of church life on which much light is not thrown. The book 
is very carefully compiled, and seems to be thoroughly trustworthy. 

C. S. T. 

THE HERMITS AND ANCHORITES OF ENGLAND. By Rotha 

Mary Clay. London : Methuen & Co. 7s. 6d. 
It is hardly likely, perhaps, that a book on Hermits and Anchorites 
will appeal very strongly to a motor-loving, hurrying, and self-assertive 
generation ; yet for the very reason that the life of contemplation 
was so entirely different from the life of the present day, the book 
may have very definite uses. There can be no doubt that in rough 
and lawless times the shelter which the church threw over many, 
especially among women, who desired to withdraw from an active 
life, served a very, good purpose. In the period covered by the book 
there was a difference between the Anchorite and the Hermit — the 
Anchorite was enclosed within the four walls of his cell ; while the 
Hermit might go out of his cell and mix with his fellow-men. If we 
take out of the history of the conversion of Northumbria the work 
of such men as St. Aidan and St. Cuthbert, we take out of it much 
which was most inspiring, and which did most lasting good. 

Hermits were everywhere — in island, and moor, and fen, as well 
as by highways and bridges, and in the midst of great towns. There 
were cave-dwellers as well as those who acted as light-keepers by 
the coast, and Miss Clay gives a most interesting account of the manner 
of life of each kind of hermit. In our own district hermits are mentioned 
in six different places in Bristol, besides St. Vincent's Chapel in 
Ghyston Cliff, In Gloucester, or close by, were six others ; at Ardland 
and St. Briavel's in the Forest of Dean, and Taynton Wood were others. 

i 



Notices of Publications. 



339 



Some were found in villages as Meysey-hampton, Campden, Ashchurch 
and Wickwar, and there was one in the Chapel of St. Tiriac, at the 
Mouth of the Wye. A system which was so widespread as this, and 
which lasted for so long a time, cannot have been altogether bad, 
and in fact the solitaries seemed to have been generally regarded with 
reverence. No doubt, as Miss Clay points out, among so many there 
were some who fell below the level of their rule, and those among 
the common people whose looseness of life was shamed by the strictness 
of the rule of the solitary life were not slow to make much of such 
lapses. The chapter on " Prophets and Counsellors " gives many 
strange instances of the influence which hermits exercised over princes 
and rulers, and also of the untimely end to which they came through 
their boldness. Contrary to a very common idea a person might 
not become an Anchorite or Hermit of his own free-will, any more 
than he could make himself a Monk or Priest, or a woman could become 
a Nun by self -dedication. The solitary life was a career, and the one 
who desired to enter on the career must tread the appointed path. 
Lay-people must obtain the sanction of the Bishop, and one in religion 
the leave of the Superior also. Bishop Thoresby, on May 7th, 135 1, 
issued a Commission to the Archdeacon of Worcester to examine into 
the life and conversation of Lucy de Newchurche, who desired to be 
enclosed in the Hermitage of St. Brandan, at Bristol, and if he found 
her worthy to enclose her. It is evident that real care was taken that 
the way of the solitary life should be closed against unworthy applicants, 
and of course the exercise of very ordinary prudence would require 
that this should be so. Miss Clay gives a translation of the service 
of the enclosing of an Anchorite, and a very beautiful service it is. 
The chapters " Concerning the body," " Trial and temptation," and 
^' Human intercourse," deal in a very human way with the manner 
of the solitary life and with its dangers and helps, the instructions 
given being marked by much shrewdness and common sense. Miss 
Clay gives a list of cells arranged under Covmties. Twenty-six are 
mentioned in Gloucestershire, including Bristol, twenty-one in Somerset, 
and one hundred in Yorkshire. It does not appear that the number 
depended much on the nature of the district, whether it was waste 
or thickly inhabited. Ninety cells are mentioned as having existed 
in the large and thickly-inhabited County of Norfolk, of which thirt3^-two 
were connected with Norwich and twelve with Lynn, while in the 
very similar County of Suffolk only twelve are mentioned. Forty 
appear in Kent, eight in Surrey, seventeen in Devon, and thirty-four 
in Lincolnshire ; possibly the institution was more popular in some 
districts than in others. There is a full and carefully compiled index. 



340 



Transactions for the Year 191 3. 



and also more than forty pictures, either of places which are of interest 
in connection with cells, or copies of illustrations taken from ancient 
manuscripts. It is likely that the book will leave the impression that 
there was more good in the institution of the solitary life than many 
people have thought. ^ 

THE HISTORY AND MEMORIALS OF ST. MARK'S CHURCH, 
BRISTOL, which is now the Lord Mayor's Chapel (formerly 
called the Church of the Gaunts). By Ida M. Roper. Bristol : 
W. C. Hemmons. MCMXII. 6d. 

Bristol is fortunate beyond any other English city in possessing an 
ancient abbey church, one of the most beautiful parish churches in 
England, and the church of a religious hospital, still substantially as 
the Reformation found it, and it is of this last church that Miss Roper 
has written. The booklet is in the main an account of the fabric of 
the church, which came into the possession of the Corporation by 
purchase from Henry VIII. Divine service was regularly held there 
till the end of the century. In 1687 it was assigned to the use of those 
Huguenots who had settled in Bristol. In 1721 it was fitted up for the 
constant use of the Corporation, and it has continued to be the official 
church of the Mayor and Corporation ever since that time. In 1829 
it was restored, official seats for the Mayor and members of the Corpora- 
tion being placed beneath canopies along one of the side walls after the 
manner of a college chapel. In 1889 the work of 1829 was undone, 
and whatever may be thought about the material and taste of the 
work which disappeared, many people may think that it would have 
been better if the collegiate arrangement of the official seats had been 
retained. The ranges of low seats in a lofty and narrow church are 
not imposing. But nothing was done which in any way injured the 
fabric, which still affords an excellent example of a chapel of a small 
religious house. Since 172 1 it has been used as a burial-place by families 
of note locally, and there are two thirteenth-century figures which are 
supposed with good reason to represent the founders of the hospita ; 
also there is some interesting glass which was inserted in 1829, so that 
there is very much of interest apart from the ancient building. The 
Corporation desired that there should be a good guide to the building, 
they asked Miss Roper to compile it, and the work could not have been 
placed in better hands. The letterpress is illustrated by two ground 
plans and eleven pictures. It is to be noted that the hospital was not 
dissolved in 1536, but was surrendered as one of the greater houses on 

December 9th, 1539. C. S. T. 

i 



INDEX. ' 

(compiled by ROLAND AUSTIN.) 



Abbeydore, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Abbot Family, Arms of, 312. 

Henry Napier, 10 1. 
Abbots, James, 90. 
Abbots Leigh, Beggar's Bush, 91, 92. 

Hugstone, The, 91. 

Lipstone, The, 92. 

Manor of, 69. 

Perambulation of, 91, 92. 
Abenhall, Visit of Society to, 194, 199. 
Abingdon, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Abrahall, John, 142. 
Abury. See Avebury. 
Acanthus, The, in stonework, 152. 
Achonry, James, Bishop of, 50. 
Acorn, The, in stonework, 157, 166. 
Acorneburg, Walter de, 141. 
{?) Acton, Arms of, 34. 

Robert of, 60, 62. 
Adam le Frankelcyn, 59. 

le Herdare, 61. 
Adams, Roger, Vicar of Kempley, 150. 
Adderbury, Visit of Society to, 196, 

203. 

Adlestrop, Visit of Society to, 195, 199. 
Agg-Gardiner, A. T., President of the 

Society, 191. 
Aldhelm, Bishop of Sherborne, 20. 
Alfred the Great, 10. 
Allen, F. J ., 27. 

Ahnondsbury, Visits of Society to, 194, 
196, 199. 

Alneto, Alexander de, 56, 57. See also 

Alno, Auno. 
Alno (or Auno), Alexander de, 56. 

Fulk de, 56. 

Geoffrey de, 56. 

Henry de, 56. 

Robert de, 56. 

See also Alneto, Auno. 
Alphington font, 169. 
Aire. See Arle. 

Alstone, Appointment of churchwarden 
at, 295. 
Enclosure Act, 297. 
Houses in, 1712, 294. 
Tithingman for, 295. 
Alveston, Visit of Society to, 195, 199. 
Ampney Crucis, Visits of Society to, 194, 
196, 199. 

Ampney, Down. See Down Ampney. 
Andrew, St., 34. 

Anselm, St., at Arle, 292, 293, 294. 

Anthony, St., 146. 

Antill, Robert, 273. 

Apostles, Representations of, 34. 

Apper Legh, Sir Nicolas, 60. 

Nicholas de, 62. 
Apperly Family, 319. 
Apple, The, in stonework, 158. 
Archer, Family of, 38 

Edmond le, 38. 

Geoffrey le, 38. . 



Archer {continued) — 

Joan, 38. 

Lettice, 38. 

Nicholas, 38. 

Robert, 38. 
Arle, Family of, 289, 298. 
Arms of, 313. 

John de, 298, 300. 

William de, 289, 300. 
Arle :— 

Barbridge, 296. 

Church, 291. 

Churchwarden, Appointment of, 295. 
Court, 307. 
Court (New), 288, 289. 
Court (Old), by Anne Mannooch Welch 
(illustrated), 288-314. 

Avenue of trees [illustrated), 290, 308. 

Barn, 291. 

Burial ground, 291, 292, 308. 

Chapel, 288, 291, 292, 293, 299, 308, 
Rood beam, 292, 293. 

Moat, 288. 

Staircase at, 288. 

Tapestry at, 288. 
Court Farm, 289. 
Effigies found at, 291. 
Enclosure Act, 297. 
Field-names — 

Barbridge, 309. 

Grove, 289. 

Yeachland, 309. 
House, Visit of Society to, 40. 
Houses in, 1712, 294. 
Kingsmead, 296, 308. 
Land at, 292, 293, 296, 308. 
Land Tax paid by, 294. 
Manor of, 294, 297, 298. 

Domesday Survey, 297, 298. 

Merged in Cheltenham, 294. 
Mill, 288 291, 298. 
Origin of name, 291. 
Poll Tax paid by, 294. 
Road, 289, 290. 
Royal Aid paid by, 294. 
St. Anselm at, 292, 293, 294. 
Sandfields, 289. 

Tithingman appointed for, 295. 
Armagnac, Count of, 45, 47, 49. 
Armorial bearings in Cheltenham parish 

church, 312, 313. 
Armorial bearings of : — 

Abbot, 312. 

(?) Acton, 34. 

Arle, 313. 

Ash ton, 68. 

Beauchamp, 35, 312. 

Bekynton, Thomas, 43. 

(?) Berkeley of Beverstone, 34. 

(?) Berkeley of Stoke, 34. 

Boteler, 35, 36. 

Bracey, 312. 

Brads tone, 35. 



342 



Index. 



Armorial bearings {continued) — 

Bristol — Tallow Chandlers' Company, 

112. 

Brydges, 36. 
(?) BuUeyn 35. 
Cassey, 6. 
Clevedon, 68. 
Deane, 36. 
Despencer, 35. 
Dormer, 311. 

Edward the Confessor, 35. 
Elizabeth of York, 14. 
England, 35. 
France, 35. 
Furneval, 312. 
Giffard, 312. 

Gifiord of Brimpsfield, 35. 

Glastonbi ry Abb y, 19. 

Gloucester — St. Peter's Abbey, 35. 

Greville, 35, 313. 

Guise, 34. 

Gunthorpe, 14. 

Harfleet, 312. 

(?) Langley, 34- 

Langley of Siddington 35. 

Luftot, 312. 

Lygon, 311, 312, 313. 

Lyons, Edmunde de, 67. 

Madersfield, 312. 

Mill of Harescombe, 34. 

Montacute, 35. 

Parke, 35. 

Sou they, 313. 

Stafford, 35. 

Tecors, 312. 

Throckmorton, 35. 

Tracy, 35. 

Tyre of Hardwicke, 35. 

Uffleet, 312. 

Vampage, 35. 

Veale, 36. 

Verdon, 312. 

(?) Walrond, 35. 

Whittington of Pauntley, 35. 
Arpent, a measure of land, 159. 
Arrowsmith, J. W., Death of, 2. 
Arthur, King, Burial of, 20. 
Arthurstfield Farm, 296. 
Arum, Wild, in stonework, 153. 
Arundel Family, 69. 
Ashleworth, Visit of Society to, 194, 199. 
Ashmead Family, 40. 
Ashton Family. 61. 
Arms of, 68. 

Katherine of, 57. 

Robert de, 63, 67. 

Simon of, 60. 

William of, 61, 62. 
Ashton Keynes, Visits of Society to, 194, 

197, 204. 
Ashton (Long Ashton), 231. 

Barrow Court, 82. 

Bloomc House, 73. 

Burwalls, 55, 56, 57, 61, 62, 64, 68, 70, 

78, 79, 80, 85, 86, 87, 93, 100. 
Chocolate houses, 97, 98. 
Confirmation of lands in, 58-60. 
Court 56 58. 
Court Estate, 71, 78. 
Cupiloe, 75, 76> 77, 78, 98. 
Down, 62, 64, 79. 
Enclosure of lands, 93. 
Field-names — 

Bcrccroft, 59. 

Bolecroft. 59. 

Botercylve. 57 

Endemore, 59. 



Ashton (Long Ashton), Field-names — 
{continued) — 
Estgarstone, 59. . 
Holecroft, 59. 
La Langedoime, 59. 
Le Gores, 61. 
le Hulle, 59. 
Le Schupenelonde, 59. 
Mearns, 79. 

Smyth's half-acre, 79, 86. 

Wykelonde, 61. 

Yhonlegh, 59. 
HiU, 93. 
Hohnslade, 70. 
Hunt's house, 86. 
Kenscote Mill, 61. 
Knightwood, 62, 68, 69, 70. 
Lead smelting at, 72. 
Leigh Woods, An account of, by Lewis 

J. U. Way {plan), 55-102. 
Ligheslade, 70. 
Lime Kiln, 71. 

Lydehill (Ludhill, Ludhull), 62, 68, 
70. 

Manor, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61. 
Moor, 59. 
New Inn, 82. 

Nightingale Valley, see Stokeleigh Slade, 
infra. 

Rownham, 71, 80, 81, 86. 
Chapel, 82, 83, 84. 

Ferry, 72, 82, 226, 227, 230, 236, 240, 

243, 244, 245, 246. 
Mead, 229, 231, 232, 236, 238 240, 

241, 242, 243, 244. 
Station, 87. 
St. Mary's Church, 100. 
Scarlet Well, 79, 80, 81. 
Scarlet Well Mill, 98. 
Shaking Rock, 87, 88. 
Stokeleigh 55, 56, 59, 69, 70, 71, 73, 87, 
89, 90, 92, 93, 100. 
Granted to St. Augustine's Abbey, 

Bristol, 62-8. 
Quarries, 73, 75, 76, 78, 87. 
Stokeleigh Slade (Nightingale Valley), 
55. 7i> 74. 75. 76, 96, 98, 100, loi, 
243- 
Underbill, 86. 
Vicar of, 62. 

Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Ashton Lyons, Manor of, 58. 
Ashton Meriet, 56. 
Ashton Philips, Manor of, 6r. 
Ashton Theynes, Manor of, 82. 
Assyria, Temples of, 152. 
Asthall, Visit of Society to, 196, 203. 
Aston Blank, or Cold Aston, Manor of. 



viii ui, i.i j. 

Atkyns, Sir Robert, the Younger, 220. 
Atte Bar ugh. Peter, 252. 

Will of, 252. 
atte Berwe, Robert, 68. 
atte Fenne, Henry, 64. 
atte Lane, John, 58. 
Atterbury, Bishop, 206. 
Auno, Alexander dc, 56, 58, 59. 

Agnes de, 58, 60. 

See also Alneto, Alno. 
Aust, The name of, 206. 

Vineyard, 159. 
Austin, Roland, 41. 
Avebury font, 169. 

Visits of Society to, 195, 197, 204. 
Avening, Visit of Society to, 196 199. 
Avens, Yellow, in stonework, 153 155. 



i 



Index. 



343 



Avington font, 169. 

Avon, River, 55. 22^ 245, 246. 

Called Bristol Channel, 231, 232, 241, 
241. 244. 
Aylemondston, 309. 
Aylesbury, 313. 

Ayscough, William, Bishop of Salisbury, 49. 
Ayston. See Ashton. 

Baddeley, W. St. Clair, 289, 291, 292, 294, 

295, 297, 298. 
President of the Society, 193. 
Baddeley, W. St. Clair ; The History 

of Kempley Manor and Church, 

Gloucestershire {illustrated), 130-51. 
His Plare-Nantes of Gloucestershire, 

Notice of, 205-8. 
Badgeworth Visits of Society to, 195, 197, 

199. 

Church, Ball- flower ornament in, 163. 
Badsey, Churchwardens' Accounts of, by 
Rev. W. H. Price, Notice of, 
212-14. 

Cock-money at, 213. 

Hoglers' collections, 213. 

Visit of Society to, 194, 204. 
Baker, Richard, 266. 

Sir Richard, 38. 

See also Elton, John. 
Balch, F E. ; Notes on Wookey Hole, 

20-22, 25. 
Ball, George, 281, 282, 283. 
Balle, Thomas, Vicar of Kempley, 142, 150 
Ball-flower in stonework, 163, 164. 
Bamfyld, Sir Charles, 89. 
Bannister, Canon A. T., 134. 
Banwell, Hollers' collections, 213. 

Visit of Society to, 196, 203. 
Barewe, Elya of, 61. 
Barker, W^. R., quoted, 122-4. 
Barkly, Sir Henry, President of the Society, 
191. 

Barn at Wells, 15. 
Barnard, E. A. B., 212. 
Barns, Moses, 92. 

Barowe, Hugh, Vicar of Kempley, 150. 
Barrett, William, letter to Sir J. H. Smyth, 
88, 89. 

quoted, 109, 118, 119, 120, 259. 
Barrington, Great, Visit of Society to, 195, 
199. 

Barry, Joan, 263. 
Barstaple, Alice, 256, 
Elizabeth, 270. 

Isabel {nie Derby), 251, 252, 254, 256, 
257, 259, 260 

Brass of, 254, 255. 

Will of, 255, 256. 
Joan, 256. 

John, Mayor of Bristol, 251, 252, 253, 
254, 255, 256, 257, 258 260.' 
Brass of, 254, 286. 
Death of, 254. 
Ef&gy of, 286. 
Obit for, 264. 270. 
Will of, 253, 254. 
Nicholas, 251, 255, 256 257. 
Thomas, 256, 257. 
Bartholomew, St., 34 
Bartlett, Rev. C. O., 170, 181. 
Barton estate (Gloucestershire), 189. 
Baskerville, Emma de, 133, 139. 

Walter de, 132, 133, 135, 139. 
Bassett, Joan, 140. 

Ralph Lord, 140. * 
Bath, Church of St, Michael Accounts of, 
336. 



Bath [continued)— 
Priory of St. Peter, 56. 
Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 194, 196,. 
203. 

Bath and Wells, Bishops of : — 

Bekynton, Thomas, 11, 12, 23, 42-54. 

Bohi^h, Reginald de, 10, 11, 18. 

Bromby, Charles Henry, 100. 

Bubwith, Nicholas, 10, 11, 12, 23, 51 

Burnell, Robert, 14, 15. 

Bytton, William, 10, 12. 

Drokensford, John, 14. 

Godfrey, 24. 

Harewell, John, 10. 

Knight, William, 12. 

Lake, Arthur, 26. 

Lewes, Robert of, 10. 

Marchia, William de, 12. 

Savaric, 10, 17, 18, 20. 

Shrewsbury, Ralph de, 10, 13, 15 22, 51. 

Stafford, John, 46, 49. 

Tours, John of, 10. 

Trotman, Jocelin, 10, 11, 14, 24. 
Bath and Wells, Diocese of, 10. 
Bathram, George, 263. 
Bathurst, Earl, President of the Society,. 
191. 

Batten, George, 239, 241, 242. 

Joan, 223, 226, 230, 232, 236, 241. 

John, 224, 225, 226, 228, 231, 234 235, 
236, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 245. 
Bavent, Robert, 68. 
Bay, The, in stonework, 166, 334. 
Bayeux, 130. 

Bayly, John, 71, 72,. 224, 230, 243, 245. 
Widow, 224, 244. 
William, 244. 
Bayning Family, 38. 
Bayouse, Joyce de, 63. 
Bazeley, Canon ; Notes on Wells 
Cathedral, 9-15. 
Notes on Boteler's Chapel, Gloucester 

Cathedral, 33-5. 
Notes on Tredington Church, 36-8. 
President of the Society, 193. 
Bazley, Gardner, President of the Society, 
192. 

Beale Family, 40. 

John William, 95. 
Beauchamp Family, 39. 
Arms of, 35, 312. 

Ann, 307. 

Sir Richard, 307. 

of Powyck, William Lord, 142. 

See also Lygon. 
Beauchamps Court, 303, 307. 
Beaufort, Cardinal, 44. 
Becher, John, iii. 

Beckford, Visit of Society to, 196, 197, 199. 
Beckington, Thomas. See Bekynton. 
Beckington, 44, 45. 

Beddoe, John, President of the Society, 
192. 

Bedminster St. Katherine's Hospital, 56, 
57. 

Robert, Master of, 57. 
Beech, The, in stonework, 158 
Beer Act of 1830, 319, 322. 
Beere, Abbot of Glastonbury, 18 19. 
Beket, John, 63, 68. 
Bekynton, Thomas, 11, 12, 23. 

Device of, 43. 

Thomas Bekynton, by the Right Rev. 

the Lord Bishop of Gloucester, 

42-54. 
Belletur, Thomas, 266. 
Bells. See Church Bells. 



344 



Index. 



Belyetere, Agnes, 210. 
Henry, 210. 
Johannes le, 210. 
John, 210. 
Simon le, 210. 
Simon (ii), 210. 
Walter, 210. 
Bengough, Alderman Henry, 265. 
Bennett, WilUam, 78. 
Beresford, Prebendary, 23. 
(?) Berkeley of Beverstone, Arms of, 34, 
of Coberley, Alice, 38. 
Elizabeth, 38. 
Joan, 38. 
Margaret, 38. 
Thomas, 38. 
Sir Thomas (2), 38. 
(?) of Stoke, Arms of, 34. 
Lady Margaret, Tomb of, 159, 160, 161. 
Maurice III, seventh lord, Tomb of, 163. 
Maurice IV, ninth lord. Tomb of, 161. 
WilUam, Lord, 13. 
Berkeley, Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 

194, 193, 196, 197, 199. 
Berkensall, Katherine, 82. 
Berkshire, Visits of the Society to. 202. 
Berwick, Jo., 245. 

Bethlehem, Representation of , 148. 
Beverston, Visits of Society to, 195, 196, 
199. 

Bibury, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 199, 
Bick, Charles, 36, 37. 
Bickerton, Robert de, 141. 
Bicknor. See Enghsh Bicknor. 
Biddulph, M., President of the Society, 
192. 

Birch, The, in stonework, 165. 
Birchett, Samuel, Vicrr of Kempley, 142, 
151- 

Birdhp, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 199. 
Birtsmorton, Visits of Society to, 195, 196, 
204. 

Bishop's Cleeve, Visits of Society to, 194, 

195, 197, 199- 

Bisley, Visit of Society to, 194, 199. 

Weavers of, 320. 
Bisse, Family of, 26. 
Bitton, 189. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 199. 
Black Prince, The, 39. 
Blagdon, Lands in, 265. 
Blake, Mary, 307, 313. 

Sir Richard, 313. 
Blane, William, 245. 
Blannin, Mr., 90. 
Bleadon, Grant of, 208, 209. 
Bledington font, [illustrated), 169, 174. 

Visit of Society to, 194, 199. 
Blockley, Visit of Society to, 195, 204. 
Blound, Adam le 58. 
Blount, Thomas, 257, 258. 
Bloxham, Visit of Society to, 196, 203. 
Blue-bell, The, in stonework, 153. 
Blundell: Sir George, Vicar of Kempley, 
150. 

Thomas, Vicar of Kempley, 150. 
Boarhunt font, 169. 
" Bobbies," Origin of name, 105. 
Boddington, 309. 

Visit of Society to, 195, 199. 
Bohun, Humphrey de. Earl of Hereford, 
135- 

Margaret de, 133. 

Reginald de, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
10, II, 18. 
Boin, Roger, 133. 
Bois. See Boys. 



Bond, Bligh, 18. 
Boniface IX, Pope, 253. 
Bordeaux, 45, 47, 48. 
Bosbury, Visit of Society to, 196,, 202. 
Boteler, Reginald, Abbot of Gloucester, 33, 
34- 

Arms of, 35. 
Edmund le, 135. 
Botener, Alice, 257. 

WilUam, 257. 
Botieux, Family of, 26. 
Boucher, Charles E., 4. 
Bourne, Rev. Canon, President of the 
Society, 191. 
John, Vicar of Kempley, 151. 
Bourton-on-the-Hill, Visit of the Society 

to, 195, 199. 
Bourton-on- the- Water, Visits of the Society 

to, 194, 195, 199. 
Bouvines, 139. 

Bowerwalls, Long Ashton. See Ashton. . 
Boys, Richard de, 134. 

Robert de, 134. 

Roger de, 134. 
Bracey Family, Arms of, 312. 
Bradford-on-Avon, Visit of Society to, 196, 
204. 

Bradley Hundred (Domesday), 207. 
Bradstone, Arms of, 35. 
Brai (Normandy), 139. 
Braikenridge Collection, 162, 166. 
Brakspear, Harold, 121. 
Branch, Thomas, 75. 
Branwode, John, 266. 
Branyards House, 296. 
Brasses at : — 

Bristol, Trinity Hospital, 254, 255. 

Cheltenham, St. Mary's Church, 300-3. 
Brasses of : — 

Barstaple, Isabel and John, 254, 255, 
286. 

Greville, Sir WilUam, 300-3. 
Breccia stone, 218. 
Brecknock, Honour of , 138. 
Breconshire. See Church plate. 
Bredon, Visits of Society to, 192, 195, 197, 
204. 

Bremesese Hundred (Herefordshire), 184. 
Bricks, Use of modern, 106. 
Brimpsfield, Manor of, 14. 

Visit of Society to, 196, 199. 
BrisUngton gateway {illustrated), 114, 115, 

118, 119, 120. 
Bristol, Abbots of. See Hunt ; Knowle 

Nailheart ; Newbury. 
Bristol, Bishop of. See Bush, Paul. 
Bristol :— 

Archaeological Notes for 1912, by 
John E. Pritchard [illustrated), 
103-29. 

Flowers in Stone as appUed to the 
Church Architecture of Bristol, by 
Ida M. Roper [illustrated), 152-67, 
334-5- 

Abbey of St. Augustine, 62-8, 221. 
Almshouses, 104, 265. 

Foster's Almshouse, 276, 277. 

Ridley's Almshouses [illustrated), 104. 

See also Hospital, infra. 
Anchor Society, 110. 
Armorial bearings on houses in, iii. 
Arno's Castle, 120. 

Gateway, 114, 115. 

Vale, 117, 118. 
Assembly Room, lo^, i io. 
Back, The, 106. 

Baldwin Street, Tenement in, 263. 



Index. 



345 



Bristol [continued) — 
Barrs, The, 266. 
Bell Avenue, 108. 

Lane, 108. 
Bengough's Almshouse, 265. 
Black Castle, 114, 117. 
Bowling green, 106. 
Brandon Hill, 104, 105, 113. 
Bricks in, First use of modern, 106. 
Broad Mead, 266. 
Broad Street, Tenement in, 263. 
Brunswick Chapel, 106. 

Square, 106. 
Butts, The, 105. 
Cabot Tower, 113. 
Carmelites, Gardens of the, 126. 
Castle, 115-21, 259, 275, 285. 
Castle Bridge, 116. 

Ditch, 116. 

Gate, 118-21 

Green, 119. 

Street, 116, 117, 119. 
Cathedral, 109. 

Berkeley tombs, 159, 160, 161. 

Floral sculpture in, 154, 156-63. 

Lands held by, 225, 228, 233, 234, 
235, 236, 240, 243, 244. 
Chapel of the Three Kings of Cologne, 
276. 

" Charlies' Boxes " [ilhisirated) , 104, 105, 
106. 

Christmas Steps, 154. 
Churches — 

St. Mark, 164, 166. 

History and Memorials of, by Ida M. 
Roper, Notice of, 340. 
St. Mary Redcliffe bells, 210, 211. 

Carvings in, 156, 164-6 ,334, 335. 
St. Nicholas, 106. 

Proctors of, 266. 
St. Philip, Churchyard of, 259. 

Proctors of, 266. 
St. Thomas the Martyr, Carvings in, 
166. 

Selection of Wardens, 337. 

St. Werburgh, Clerk of, 255. 
Rector of, 255. 
Churchwardens' accounts, 336. 
City Bow Alley, 113. 
College. See Cathedral. 
College Green, 125. 

Place, 104, 105. 
Constables established in, 105. 
Corn Street, 263. 
Cross, 259. 
Custom House, 106. 
Denmark Street, 122, 126. 
Docks, 228, 232. 
Dowry Square, 109. 
Drawbridge, 105. 
Dundas Wharf, 105. 

Durdham Down, 225, 226, 228, 229, 233, 

235, 237, 240, 241, 247, 248. 
Ferry Avenue, 107. 
Fortifications, Brandon Hill, 113, 114. 
Frescoes in, 108. 
Gates [illustrated), 114-21. 
Gaunts' Hospital, 123, 124. 

House, 122-9. 
Gay Lane, 113. 
Gay Street, 113. 
Grammar School, 113, 125, 128. 
Grope Lane, 263. 
Guides, no, 117, 118. 
HiUgrove Street, 113. 
History of, Barrett's, 118. 
Hope Hill, 109. 



Bristol [continued) — 
Horsefair, 105. 
Hospital of Billeswick, 57. 

of Queen EUzabeth, 123, 124, 126, 127. 
of St. Bartholomew, 154. 
of St. Katharine, 78, 79. 
Trinity, by Wilfrid Leighton, 251- 
87. 

Account book, First, 262. 
Accounts of, 263, 264, 265-76. 
Advowson of, 252. 
Almshouses, North side, 259, 260. 
Audit of accounts, 278, 279. 
Bailiff of, 262, 279, 281, 282. 
Benefactors to, 260, 261, 262, 263, 

264, 265. 
Chantry certificate, 276. 
Chapel, 254, 255, 259, 260. 

Accounts of, 267. 

Brasses in, 254, 255. 

Lands, 275, 276. 

Rebuilt, 256, 286. 

Value of Property in, 1546, 276 
Chaplains of, 255, 256. 
Charters relating to, 251, 252, 253, 

256, 257, 258, 259 260. 
Dial almshouse, 284. 
Drawings of, 287. 
Foundation of, 251, 252, 259. 
Guild of Holy Trinity, 252, 253, 257. 

258, 261. 
Income of, 287. 

Inmates, Number of, 286, 287. 

Inventory of property, 2 8 2-4. 

Iron Gateside almshouse, 285. 

Lambert's gift, 264. 

Licences granted, 251, 253. 

Modern buildings, 259. 

Payments to inmates, 286, 287. 

Plate, 284. 

Porter of, 280, 281. 

Proctor of, 261. 

Rents of. See Accounts. 

Rules of, 279-82. 

Simon, the porter of, 272. 

Transfer to Corporation of Bristol. 
254, 260, 261, 277. 

Treasurer of, 278, 279, 281. 
Hotwell, 222, 228, 232. 
Johnny Ball Lane, 113. 
Kingsdown, 113. 
King Street (Old), 104. 
Knyfesmythe Street, 262. 
Lawford's Gate, 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 

252, 271, 275- 
Lord Mayor's Chapel. See Churches : 

St. Mark. 
Mansion House, 107. 
Market (Old), 116, 117, 266. 
Marsh, The, 106. 
Mary-le-Port Street, 266. 
Merchant Venturers, Society of, 222. 
Clerks to, 88. 
School, 125, 128. 
Milk Street, 104. 
Mill Avenue, 108. 
Mill Lane, 107. 
Museum, 108, 117, 129. 
Music Room [illustrated), 109, no. 
Newgate, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 

121. 

Old Market Street, 251, 259, 275. " 
Pipe Lane, 125. 

Plans of, 115, 116, 119, 126, 127. 
PoUce force estabUshed, 105. 
Pre-historic stone on Redland Green, 3. 
Prince Street, 109, no. 



Vol. XXXVI, 



24 



346 



Index. 



Bristol {continued) — 

Provost of, 220. 

Queen Square [illustraied), 106-9. 

Queen Street, 119. 

Queen Street Gate, 116. 

Queen's Gate, 118, 119. 

Redcliff Hill, 105. 

Redcliff Parade, 107. 

Redcliff Street, 105. 

Redland Green, 112. 

Red Maids' School, 122-9 {ploji). 

Reeve of. See Lyons, Nicholas. 

Riots, 107. 

St. Michael's Steps, 105. 

St. Philip's Slip, 273. 

St. Stephen's Avenue, 105. 

St. Thomas Street, 266, 269, 271, 273. 

Secret chambers in, 108. 

Spanish Mahogany, Use of in, 108. 

Star Tavern, 278. 

Stone, Ancient, on Redland Cxreen, 112. 

Tallow Chandlers' Company, in, 112. 

Theatre, 109. 

Thomas Street, 105. 

Trinity Street, 109. 

Trinity Hospital. See Hospital. 

Trough, 105. 

Union Street, 105. 

Unity Street, 125. 

Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 193, 194, 

195, 197, 199- 
Watchmen in, 104, 105, 106. 
Watchmen's boxes, 104, 105, 106. 
Welsh Back, 107. 
WilUam HI, Monument of, io5. 
Wine Street, 105. 
Winter Meetings in, 1912, 3. 
Wool Hall, 105. 
York Street, 106. 
See also CUfton. 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaaological 

Society : — 
Annual Report for 19 12, 1-4. 
Election of Council, 1913, 5. 
Financial Statement, 1912, 6-8. 
Library accommodation, 4. 

Gifts to, 4. 
Places of Meeting, and Presidents of, 

191-3- 

Places Visited : Chronological, County 
and Alphabetical: Lists, by F. S. 
HocKADAY, 194-204. 

Proceedings at Wells and Glastonbury, 
1-30. 

Proceedings at Gloucester, Tredington, 
Stoke Orchard and Swindon, 31-41. 

Bristol and Portishead Pier and Railway 
Company formed, 97. 

Britford Church, Carved foliage at, 152. 

Broadway, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 
204. 

Brockworth font [illustraied], 171, 174. 

^'^isits of Society to, 194, io7> i99- 
Bromby, Charles Henry, Bishop of Bath 

and Wells, 100. 
Bromesberrow Place, 315. 
Bronipton, Andrew de, 63, 68. 
Bromyard, 184, 185. 
Brooches, La Tene, 16. 
Brookthorpe, Visit of Society to, 195, 199 
Broughton, Visit of Society to, 196, 203. 
Brown, Alderman,, 279. 

I'rank, 289, 290. 

John, 93. 
Brunt, — ., 279. 
Bruscclla, Family of, 291, 299. 

Walter dc, 291, 299. 



Bruton, 189. 

Brychtynebough. See Bcdminster : St. 

Katherine's. 
Brydges, Arms of, 36. 
Alice, 38. 

Giles, Lord Chandos, 38. 
Thomas, 38. 
Bryony, White, in stonework, 161, 165, 
166, 335. 

Bubwith, Nicholas, Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, 10, II, 12, 23, 51. 
Buckland, Agnes, 26. 

Walter, 26. 
Buckland, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 
199. 

Buckle, Catherine [nee Dennis), 305. 

Sir Walter, 305. 
Buckler, Catherine [nee Dennis), 304, 305. 
Bucknell font, 169. 
Bufawuda, 186. 

Bulley font [illustrated], 171, 175. 
(?) Bulleyn, Arms of, 35. 
Burford Grammar School, 317. 

Visits of Society to, 195, 196, 197, 203. 
Burghill, Basilia (or Dulcia) de, 136, 138. 

Pain de, 136, 138. 

Roger de, 138. 
Burgundy, Duke of, 316. 
Burke, Edmund, no. 

Burnell, Robert, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
14. 15- 

Burwalls, Long Ashton. Sec Ashlon. 
Bush, Paul, Bishop of Bristol, 69. 
Bushley, Visit of Society to, 197, 204. 
Butt, Thomas Packer, 289, 290, 292, 295, 

296, 314. 
Rev. Walter, 289, 293, 300. 
Buttercup, The, in stonework, 161, 162, 

165. 

Bytton, William, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, 10, 12. 

Cabbage, The, in stonework, 166. 
Cadle, Amy, 264. 

Thomas, 264. 
Caerphilly, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Caerwent, Visit of Society to, 195, 197, 202., 
Cailly, Osbert de, 139. 

Petronel de, 139. 

Richard de, 139. 
Caldeslie. See Shelsley Walsh. 
Caldicot, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Cam, Sir John, Vicar of Kcmpley, 150. 
Cambridge, Will., 92. 
Campanula, The, in stonework, 153, 155. 
Camps : — 

Burwalls, Long Ashton. Sec Ashton. 

Stokeleigh, Long Ashton. Sec Ashton. 
Cantelupe, Matilda de, 136, 139. 

William de, 136, 139. 
Canterbury, Archbishops of. See 

Chicholey ; Stigand. 
Canterbury, St. Martin's font, 169. 
Canynges, Johanna, Effigy of, 166. 

Margaret, 257. 

Simon, 257. 

\\'iUiam,~257. 
Effigy of, 166. 
Capes, Canon W., 135. 
Caradoc, Prince, 1S7. 
Cardiff, Visit of Society to, 193, 197, 202. 
Cardmaker, William, 266. 
Carell, John, 275. 
Carpenter, John, 221. 

John of Westbury, 266. 

Thomas, 252. 
Carr, William, 260. 

i 



Index. 



347 



Carrington, Fra., 8i. 
Cartwright, Charles, 36. 

William, 37. 
Carving, Schools of, 155. 

See also Flowers in Stone. 
Cassey, Arms of, 36. 
Catesby, 314. 

Caves at Wookey Hole, 20-2, 25. 
Cenwalch, King of Wessex, 17. 
Cerney, North, Manor of, 39. 
Carney, South, Visits of Society to, 194^ 
197, 199- 

Chalfield, Great, Visit of Society to, 196, 
204. 

Chamberlaine, Richard, 245. 
Chambersj Roger, 83. 
Chandos, Elizabeth, 38. 

Giles, Lord, 38. 
Chantry Certificate for Trinity Hospital, 

Bristol, 276. 
Chaplin, H., 90. 
Charles II, 313. 

" Charlie," Origin of name, 105. 
Charlton Manor, 299. 

Lords of the manor of, 299. 
Chastleton, Visits of Society to, 194,- 195, 

203. 
Cheddar, 189. 

Chedworth font {illustrated), 171, 175. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 195, 197, 199. 
Chelt, River, 288, 290. 
Cheltenham, John, 294. 

Richard de, Abbot of Tewkesbury, 289. 
Cheltenham, 290, 294. 
Fiddler's Green, 295. 
George III at, 290. 
" Golden Valley," 295. 
High Street, 290. 
Houses in, 1712, 294. 
Lands in, 294, 299. 
Land Tax paid by, 294. 
Manor of, 295, 296, 297 298, 304. 

Court Rolls, 304. 

Lords of, 297. 

Stewards of, 295, 299. 

Survey of, 296. 
Manors, Domesday, 297. 
Mills in, 298. 
Parish Church, 299. 

Armorial bearings in, 312, 313. 

Churchwardens, 295. 

Galleries in, 310, 311. 
Poll Tax paid by, 294. 
Promenade, 290. 
Royal aid paid by, 294. 
Village of, 289. 

Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 194, 195, 

197, 198, 199- 
Waters, 290. 
Chelvey, Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Chepstow, Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 1 
194, 195, 202. I 
Castle, 187, 188. 
Chesterblade font, 169. 
Chestnut tree in stonework, 335. 
Chicheley, Henry, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 49. 
Childe, Mrs. Baldwyn, 220. 
Childrey, 184. 

Chingestune (Herefordshire), 182, 183, 184, 

188, 220, 221. 
Chipping Campden Church, 317. 
Grammar School, 317. 
Visits of Society to, 192, 194, 196, 199. 
Chipping Norton, Visit of Society to, 195, 
203. 

Chipping Sodbury. See Sodbury. 



Chire. See Kyre. 

Choke Family, 69. 

Church, Canon, i, g, 12, 13. 

Church Architecture, Flowers in Stone in, 

152-67, 334-5- 
Church Bells of England, by H. B. 

Walters, Notice of, 209-11. 
Churchd^wn, Manor of, 39. 

Visit of Society to, 195, 199. 
Church Plate at Stoke Orchard, 39. 

Tredington, 37, 38. 
Church Plate of Breconshire, by Rev. J . T. 

Evans, Notice of, 211, 212. 
Churchwarden, Office of, 336. 

Earliest English, 336. 
Churchwardens' Accounts, by J. Charles 
Cox, Notice of, 336-8. 
Of Badsey, by Rev. W. H. Price, Notice 
of, 212-14. 
Chure. See Kyre. 

Circles, Stone, at Stanton Drew, 27-9. 
Cirencester, 317. 

Abbey, Register of, 291. 
Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 193, 194, 
195, 196, 197, 199- 
Clap ton- in-Gordano. (Somerset), Visit of 

Society to, 197, 203. 
Clare Family, 39. 
Gilbert de. 39. 
Richard de. Earl, 134. 
Clark, George, 242. 

John, 265, 267. 
Claverton, Visit of Society to, 194, 203. 
Clay, Rotha Mary ; Hermits and 
Anchorites of England, Notice of, 
338-40. 

Clayfield-Ireland, Mr., 114, 117. 
Clearwell, Visits of Society to, 194, 197, 
199- 

Cleres, Matthew de, 139. 

Richenda de, 139. 
Clerk, Christopher, 82. 

WilUam, 82. 
Gierke, Talbot, 75, 76. 
Clevedon Family, Arms of, 68. 

Sir John de, 68. 
Clevedon, Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Clifford Family, of Fr amp ton, 40. 

Walter de, 135. 
Clifford Chambers, Visit of Society to, 195, 
199. 

Clifton, Sir Robert, 47. 

William de, 221. 
CUfton, 183. 

The 1625 Survey of the Smaller Manor 
of, by Lewis J. Upton Way, 220- 
50. 

Belgrave Road, 227. 

Boundaries of the Parish of, 245, 246. 

Buttery Wood, 240, 242. 

Castle, 223. 

Chapel of St. Lambert, 245, 246. 
Chapel of St. Vincent, 246, 247. 
Chimney-piece at. III. ^ 
Church House, 227. 
Common, 225, 226, 227, 239. 
Cottage, The, 241. 
Dedistone stile, 245, 246. 
Domesday entry relating to, 220, 221. 
Down, 227, 241. 
Dowry Square, 242. 
Field-names — ■ 

Ambery Close, 225, 228, 233, 234. 

Batten's Ten Acres, 226. 

Cawsey Close, 225, 227. 

Clifton Field, 226, 228, 235, 238, 239, 
242. 



24 A 



348 



Index. 



Clifton, field-names — (continued) — 
Colly- acre Close, 225, 227. 
Down End, 235. 
Down End Paddock 229, 232. 
East Acre, 233, 238, 239. 
Five Acres, 229. 
Four Acres, 239. 
Foxholes, 235, 237. 
Further Deane, 236, 238. 
Further Field, 228. 
Hoells Deane, 229, 232, 236, 242. 
Hollyland, 229, 232, 234, 242. 
Home Close, 237, 238. 
Home-leyes, 225, 227, 230, 241. 
Honey-pen Hill, 230, 232. 
Howells Deane. See Hoells Deane. 
Laridge, 242, 243. 

Lauridge Meadow, 229, 232, 234, 243. 
Lide Field, 240, 241. 
Lower Deane, 233, 236, 238. 
Nether Clifton Field, 243. 
Nether Field, 229, 234, 242. 
Parson's Breech, 240, 242. 
Pitt Acre, 235. 
Roberts Land, 236. 
Shortgrove, 225, 226, 227, 228, 231 
233, 235. 

Shortgrove Paddock, 228, 231, 235. 

Smock, or Smoke Acre, 228, 231, 233, 
239, 241, 245, 246. 

Square Paddock, 235, 240. 

Ten Acres, 236, 240. 

Trynmore, 228, 229, 231, 235. 

Twelve Acres, 233, 239. 

Upper Deane, 237, 238, 239, 241. 

Welch Leyes, 230, 232, 238. 

West, 237. 

West Close, 235. 

West End, 240. 

Whitfield, 242, 243. 

Whithey Paddock, 229, 232, 236. 

Wood-downe Field, 234. 
Gloucester Row, 237. 
Goldney House, 227, 234. 
Granby Hill, 232. 

Green, 225, 227, 228, 233, 237, 238, 249, 
250. 

Harley Place, 241. 
Hawthorne, The, 245, 246. 
Honey- pen Common, 230. 
Hotwell Road, 242, 244. 
Jacob's Well, 230, 237, 238. 
Jacob's Wells Road, 232. 
Lansdown Place, 227. 
Lauridge Lane, 225. 
Lime manufactured at, 223. 
Lime kiln at, 230, 232, 245, 246. 
Limestone in, 245. 
Litfield Place, 241, 242. 
Manilla Hall, 249. 
Manor of, 221. 

Acreage of, 244. 

Copyholders, 232-44. 

Court Roll of 1627, 249. 

Demesne land, Extent of, 232. 

Demesne tenants, 224-32. 

House, 223. 

Lord of the, 223. 

Purchase by Society of Merchant 
Venturers, 222, 223. 

Rental of, 245. 

Separation of, 221. 
Map of, Earliest, 226. 

of 1746, 241, 242. 
Mcrestone, 245, 246. 
Millmoat, 233, 239, 243. 
Millmoat Lane, 230, 232, 233, 240, 242. 



Clifton (continued) — 

Parish Church, 223, 225, 227. 237 241, 
249. 

Accounts of, 336. 

Advowson of , 2 2 1 . 

Erection of present building, 222. 

Partly demolished, 222. 
Parsonage of, 224. 225, 227, 246, 249. 
Parsonage House, 245. 
Plan of, 1775, 249. 
Population in 1686, 223. 
Pro- Cathedral, 232. 
Proctor's Fountain, 232. 
Promenade, 232. 
Richmond Hill, 232. 
Road, 227. 
Rodney Place, 243. 
Royal Road, 245, 246. 
St. Andrew's. See Parish Church. 
St. Vincent's Chapel, 224. 
St. Vincent's Hill, 235, 237. 
Saville Place, 237. 
Street, 234, 237, 239, 241, 243. 
Suspension Bridge, 87, 93, 96. 
Waineway, The, 226, 229. 
Wallcam Slade, 245, 246. 
Whitstile, 245, 246. 

Wood, 226, 230, 232, 233, 237, 238, 240, 
243, 247, 249, 250. 
Acreage of, 227 

Worrall Road, 88. 

Zion Hill, 237. 

Zoological Gardens, 227. 
Clifton-on-Teme (also as Cliftone, CUftune), 
182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 221. 

Domesday entry relating to, 220. 

Vicar of, 220. 
Clistone. See CUfton. 
Clock at Wells Cathedral, 13. 
Cloth, Manufacture of, 329-33. 
Clutterbuck, Name of, 316. 
Clyvedon. See Clevedon. 
Cnut, 185, 186. 

Coates, Visit of Society to, 196, 199. 
Coberley, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 199. 
Cock-money, 213. 
Codrington, Francis, 260, 261, 262. 
Giles, 260. 

Cold Ash ton. Visits of Society to, 194, 197, 
199. 

Cold Aston. See Aston Blank. 
Coleshill, 184. 
Collins, — ., 273. 

Coin Rogers font (illustrated), 169, 176. 
Coin St. Aldwyn, Visit of Society to, 196, 
199. 

Coin St. Dennis font (illustrated), 169, 170, 
176. 

Colston, Thomas, 277. 
Columbariis, Georgia de, 139. 

Henry de, 139. 
Combe, Henry, in. 
Compton Abdale, Manor of, 39. 
Compton Greenfield, Visit of Society to, 
194, 199. 

Compton, Little, Visit of Society to, 195, 
203. 

Compton Wyniates, Visit of Society to, 195, 
203. 

Condcr, E., Exhibits Saxon carved stone, 3. 
Coppyc, Thomas, 273, 274. 
Cormeillcs, Abbey of, 182, 183, 184, 188. 
Cornwall Family, 38. 
Coster, Arthur, 75. 
Costwickc, Thomas, 76. 
Coutances, Geoffrey, Bishop of, 56. 
Covcrdale Bible, 32. 



Index. 



349 



Cowley font {illustrated), 171, 177. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 199. 
Cox, J. Charles ; Churchwardens Accounts, 

Notice of, 336-8. 
Cradock alias Tayler, Humphrey, Vicar of 
Kempley, 150, 151. 

John, Vicar of Kempley, 151. 
Craven, Augustus Berkeley, 36. 

William, Lord, 36. 

WilUam, Earl, 36. 
Crib, Tho., 91. 

Cricklade, Visits of Society to, 194, 195 

197, 204. 
Cripps Family, 319. 

Wilfred, President of the Society, 192. 
Cromlech at Druid Stoke, 217-19. 
Cromwell, Oliver, 119. 
Cropthome, Visit of Society to, 197, 204. 
Croscombe Church, Visit of Society to 

{illustrated), 26. 
Guilds, 26. 

Visit of Society to, 198, 203. 
Cross at Stalbridge, Dorset, 37. 

Tredington, 37. 
Crowdon, Brittany, 48. 
Crown, Guy de, 139. 

Petronel de, 139. 
Cuckoo-pint, The, in stonework, 153. 
Cuer. See Kyre. 
Culcreton, Land at, 135. 
Cynewulf, Charter of, 10. 
Cyr. See Kyre. 

Dagge, John, 82. 

Daglingworth, Visits of Society to, 195, 

196, 199. 
Dagworth, Thomas de, 135. 
Dale, Henry, 262. 
Daltera, Mrs., 90. 
Dancey, C. H., 34. 

In Memoriam, 215. 
Dandelion, The, in stonework, 166, 334. 
Daniel, — . 92. 
Daubeney Family, 69. 

George, 88. 
Da vies Family, 319. 

Dawkins, Professor Boyd ; On Wookey 

Hole, 25-6. 
Deane, Arms of, 36. 
Deerhurst, 185, 309. 

Churchwardens' accounts, 336. 
Visits of Society to, 191, 194, 195, 197, 
199. 

Dennis, Catherine, 304, 305. 

Eleanor, 307. 

Sir William, 307. 
Denny, Edward, Vicar of Kempley, 151. 
Denshyll Family, 26. 
Derby, Isabel, 251. 

See also Barstaple, Isabel. 

Walter, 251. 
Despenser Family, 39. 

Arms of, 35. 
Devizes, 45. 

D'Evreux, (?) Stephen, 139. 

Dials. See Sun Dials. 

Dickins, Alderman Can., 279. 

Dodintret Hundred (Worcestershire), 184. 

Dolmen at Stanton Drew, 29. 

Domesday Book, Entry relating to 

Westbury-on-Se-vern, 182-90. 
Dorchester, Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Dorington, Sir John, 317. 

President of the Society, 191, 192. 
Dormer Family, 313. 

Arms of, 311. 

Lords of Wenge, 313. 



Dormer Family {continued) — 

Catherine, 295, 307, 314. 

Monument to, 310, 311, 312, 313. 

Catherine {nee Lygon^, 295, 307, 310. 

Sir Fleetwood, 295, 307, 310, 311, 313. 

John, 311, 313. 

Sir John, I3art., 307, 313. 

Katherine {nee Woodward), 313. 

Mary {nee Blake), 307, 313. 

Hon. Robert, 294, 295, 307, 311,313, 314. 

Thomas, 311. 
Douglas, Rev. A. W., 172. 
Doulting, 155. 

Dowdeswell, Rev. E. R., President of the 

Society, 192. 
Dowdeswell, Visit of Society to 195, 199. 
Down Ampney, Visit of Society to, 197, 
199. 

Drokensford, John, Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, 14. 
Droys, John, 257, 258. 
Druid Stoke, Report on the Excavation at, 

by F. Were and L. J. U. Way, 

217-19. 

Drummond, Arthvir Hislop, Vicar of 

Kempley, 151. 
Ducie, Earl, President of the Society, igr. 
Dudbroke, David, 257, 258. 
Dugdale, R. W., 34. 
Duignan, W. H., 206. 
Dunstan, Abbot of Glastonbury, 20. 
Dunster, John, 262. 

Duntsbourne Rous, Visit of Society to, 195, 
199. 

Durant, Alicia, 61. 

Durham, Chancellor, of, 313. 

Dursley, Visits of Society to, 191, 193, 195, 

198, 199. 
Dutton, Family of, 297. 
Dyer, David, 78, 92. 

Dyer-Edwardes, T.; On American Life, 5. 

President of the Society, 193. 
Dymock, Manor of. Lord of, 299. 

Visits of Society to, 195, 197, 199. 
Dymond, C. W., 29. 

Dyrham, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 197, 
199. 

Eadric, 130. 

Eardisley, co. Hereford, 133. 
Eastham, 186. 

Eastinerton, Churchwardens' accounts, 336. 
Eastmont, Henry, 81. 
Eastnor, Visits of Society to, 195, 196, 202. 
Ebrington, Visit of Society to, 196, 200. 
Edevent. See Edwin Loach. 
Edgehill, Visit of Society to, 195, 203. 
Edgeworth, Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 
Edmond, St., 33, 35. 
Edric, 130. 

Education of the labouring classes, 324-8. 
Edward, St., 33. 

Edward the Confessor, 182, 183, 186, 188, 
220. 

Arms of, 35. 

Shroud of, 315. 
Edward the Elder, 10. 
Edward I, 143, 315. 
Edward II, 315. 
Edward III, 315, 316. 
Edward IV, 36. 
Edward VI, 69. 

Edwards, George Oldham, 98, 99, 100. 
John, 84. 

Edwin Loach {also as Edevent, Ladeuent, 
Ladevent); 182, 183, 184, 185, 220, 
221. 



350 



Index. 



Edwyne, Mathewe, 141. 
Edye, Rich, 363. 

Efenechtyd (Denbighshire) font, 169. 
Effigies at :— 

Arle, 291. 

Shepton Mallet, 27. 
Effigies of Roger and Catherine Lygon, 305, 
306. 

Egypt, Temples of, 152. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 317. 

Grant by, 277. 
Elizabeth of York, Badge of, 14. 
Elkins, Richard, Vicar of Kemp ley, 151. 
Elkstone, Visits of Society to 194, 196, 
200. 

Elliott, Rev. John, 320. 
Ellis, A. S., 183, 185, 220. 
Ellwine, Edmond, 272. 
Elmley Castle, Visit of Society to, 197, 
204. 

Elmore, Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 

Elmstone, 309. 

Elton alias Baker, John. 141. 

Ely, Prior of, Robert de Longchamp, 139. 

English Bicknor, Visit of Society to 196, 

199. 
Enmore, 46. 

Eric, Jarl of Norway, 186. 
Ethelbald, King of Mercia, 292, 293. 
Ethelred, King, 39. 
Ethelred the Unready; 183, 185, 186. 
Etheltheda, 39- 
Eton College, 49. 
Evans Family, 319. 
Rev. John, 118. 

Rev. J . T. ; The Church Plate of Brecon- 
shire, Notice cf, 211-12. 
Everard. See Evered. 
Evered, Thomas, 72, 85, 86. 
Evesham, Visits of Society to, 191, 193, 

194, 196, 197, 204. 
Ewelme, Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Ewenny, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Ewyas Harold, Abbey of, 131. 

Charter granted, 139. 

Grants to, 134. 

Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Exeter, Thomas Bekynton at, 46. 

Cathedral, Floral decoration in, 164, 165. 

Fairford Church, 305, 317. 

Effigies of Roger Lygon and wife, 305, 
306. 

Visits of Society to, 192, 193, 194, 195, 

196, 197, 200. 
Falmouth, 48. 
Fane, Thomas, 88. 
Faningcurt, Land at, 133. 
Faringdon, Little, Visit of Society to, 196, 

203. 

Farleigh Hungerford, Visit of Society to, 

196, 203. 
Farmer, Ralph, 279. 
Farmington, Visit of Society to, 194, 200. 
Farr, — ., 218. 
Feild, Anthony, 86. 
Feolonde, Robert de, 59. 
Fern, The, in stonework, 153, 166. 
Ferrers of Groby, Anne, 138. 

William, Lord, 138. 
Fewster, Anthony, 320. 
Ffoyrott, 309. 
Field, Joan, 263. 

Field-names. See Arle ; Ashton (Long) ; 

Clifton; Kempley. 
Fig, The, in stonework i6f 166. 
Finch, John, 142. 



Fitzhardinge, Baron, President of the 

Society, 192. 
FitzHugh, Maud, 138, 140.- 

William, Lord, 138, 140. 
Fitzjohn, Pain, 132. 

Sybil, 132. 
FitzOsbern, Earl Roger, 183, 188. - 

Earl William, 183, 187, 188. 
FitzRalph, Roger, 220. 
FitzRichard, Osbern, 182, 183, 184, 188, 
221. 

William, 182, 183, 184. 
FitzStephen, Ralph, 18. 
Fladbury, Visit of Society to, 197, 204. 
Flaxley, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 200. 
Flower, Arthur, 74. 

Edward, 73, 76, 87. 

Henry, 73. ■ 

Mary, 87. 

Flowers in Stone as applied to the Church 
Architecture of Bristol, by Ida M. 
Roper [illustrated), 152-67, 334- 
335- 

Floyer, Sir Peter, 77. 

FoUage in carved stone, 152-67. 

Folliot, Hugh, Bishop of Hereford, 135. 

John, of Sherborne, 134. 
Fonts, Gloucestershire, Part V, (c) Norman, 
by Alfred C. Fryer [illustrated), 
168-81. 

Forest, William, Chaplain of Kempley, 150. 
Fortescue Family, 26. 

Sir Adrian, 36. 

Anne, 36. 

Sir Francis, 36. 

Hugh, 26. 

Lord, of Credan, 314. 
Forthey, Thomas, 142. 
Fossil-bones in church porch, 37. 
Fowler, — ., of Leigh, 91, 92. 
Fownhope, Vicar of, 150. 
Fox, F. F., 249. 

President of the Society, 192. 

Sarra le, 61. 
Foy, John, 248. 

Frampton-on-Severn, Visit of Society to, 

197, 200. 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, 317. 
Freeman, E. A., quoted, 42, 51, 186. 
Freeman-Mitford, A. B. (Redesdale, Lord), 

President of the Society, 192. 
Frescoes by Antonio Verrio, 108. 
Fressen, Paul, 151. 
Frome, 189. 
Frome Herbert, 139. 
Fruit in stonework, 160 161. 
Fryer, Alfred C. ; Gloucestershire 

Fonts. . Part V. [c) Norman 

[illustrated), 168-81. 
Furneval Family, Arms of, 312. 
Fynche, Anne, 142. 
Henry, 142. 

John, 142. " 

Gainsborough, Earl of, President of the 

Society, 192. 
Gamage, or Gamages, Elizabeth de, 136, 

138. 

Godfrey de, 138. 

Matthew de, 138. 

Nicholas de, 138. 

William dc, 136, 138. 
Gammon, Widow, 285. 
Garland, alias Tovie, John, 71. 
Gatecumbe, John de, 68. 

William de, 62. 
Gaunt's Lands, 364. ^ 



Index. 



351 



Geffray, John, 141. 
George, St., 33, 34, 35,. 36. 
George III at Cheltenham, 290. 

At Woodchester, 317, 
Gibson, Edgar Charles S., Bishop of 

Gloucester, 5, 9. 
President of the Society, 193. 
Gibson, Edgar Charles Sumner, Bishop 

of Gloucester ; Thomas Bekynton, 

42-54- 

Giffard Family, Arms of, 312. 
Gifford of Brimpsfield, Arms of, 35. 
Giraldus Cambrensis, on burial of King 

Arthur, 20. 
Glamorganshire, Visits of the Society to, 

202. 

Glastonbury, Abbots of : — 
Beere, 18, 19. 
Dunstan, 20. 
Monyngton, Walter, 18. 
Savaric, 10. 

Sodbury, Adam de, 17, 18. 

Whyting, 18, 20. 
Glastonbury, 46. 
Glastonbury Abbey : — 

Arms of, 19. 

Chapter House, 19. 

Choir, 18. 

Conventual buildings, 19. 

Edgar Chapel, 18. 

Galilee Chapel, 18. 

Holy Sepulchre, Chapel of, 19. 

Lady Chapel, 18. 

Meare granted to, 17. 

North porch, 19. 

Presbytery, 18. 

St. Dunstan's Chapel, 18. 

St. Joseph's Chapel, 18. 

Towers, 18. 

Visit of the Society to, and Notes on 
{illustrated), 18-20. 
Glastonbury lake village (illustrated), 15, 
16, 17. 

Visits of Society to, 193, 195, 198, 203. 
Gloucester, Abbots of :— 

Boteler, Reginald, 33, 34. 

Parker, William, 20. 
Gloucester, Bishop of. See Gibson, 

Edgar Charles Sumner. 
Gloucester, Duke of. See Humphrey. 
Gloucester, Earl of. See Clare, Gilbert de. 
Gloucester, Milo of. Earl of Hereford, 

249. 

Gloucester, Abbey of St. Peter : — 
Arms of, 35. 

Grants to, 135, 292, 293. 

The great bell, 210. 
Gloucester Cathedral : — 

Ball-flower ornament in, 163. 

Boteler's Chapel, 33-6. 

Coverdale Bible in Library, 32. 

Heraldic Tiles, 36. 

Lady Chapel, 33. 

Library, 32. 

St. Andrew's Aisle, 33. 

St. Dunstan's Chapel, 33. 

St. John Baptist's Chapel, 33. 

St. Paul's Aisle, 33. 

St. Petronilla's Chapel, 32, 33. 

St. Philip's Chapel, 33. 

St. Thomas's Chapel, 33. 

Willington Chaijel, 33. 

Visit of the Society to, and Notes on 
{illustrated), 31-6. 
Gloucester, Chiirchwardens' accounts, 336. 

Cloth industry at, 315. 

Honour of, 56. . 



Gloucester {continued)— 
Llanthony Priory, 304. 

Gifts to, 299. 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 39. 
St. Oswald's Priory, 39, 40, 135, 185. 
Visits^pf Society to, 191, 192, 193, 194, 
195, 196, 197, 198, 200. 
Gloucester Road, 288, 290. 
Gloucestershire, Hermits in, 338. 

Place-names of, by W. St. Clair 

Baddeley, Notice of, 205-8. 
Schools in, 1838, 323. 
Sunday Schools in 1838, 323. 
Visits of the Society to places in, 1876- 

1913, 199-201. 
Weavers, 320. 

Woollen Industry of, by Sir William H. 
Marling, Bart., 315-33. 
Godelee, John de. Dean of Wells, 10, 14. 
Godfrey, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 24. 
Goding, John, 305. 
Godman, John, 229. 

Thomas, 74. 

William, 74. 
Goldhull, John, 141. 
Goodall, Mrs., 149. 

Robert W., Vicar of Kempley, 149, 151. 
Goodlake Family, 40. 
Goodrich Court, 2. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 198, 202. 
Gore, Edward, 87, 98. 
Gore-Langton, William Henry Powell, 98. 
Goslet. See Gostlette. 
Gospel, John le, 57. 
Gostlette, Johane, 82. 

John, 82, 83, 84. 

John Dagge, 82. 

William, 82. 
Gostwyke, Edward, 276. 
Gote, Elyas, 59. 

Grace Brothers, Messrs, 107, 108. 

Granville Family, 26 

Grape, The, in stonework, 153, 166. 

Gray, St. George ; On Lake Dwellings 

of Somerset, 15-16. 
Gregory, Family of, 297, 314. 

Francis, 308, 309. 
Greinville, Alexander de, 134. 
Greville, Family of, 299, 300. 
Arms of, 35, 313. 
Vault of, 303. 
Alice, 303. 
Elinor, 303. 
Gyles, 300. 

Margaret, 300, 303, 307. 
Richard, 302. 
Robert, 299, 300. 
William, 298. 

William, Judge, 299, 300, 302, 303, 307, 

Brass of, 300-3. 

Portrait of, 300. 
Grey, Edward, 277. 
Henry de, 136. 
Johnde, 136, 138, 139. 
Maude de, 136, 137, 138, 139. 
Peter, 277. 

Reginald de. See Grey of Wilton, First 

Baron. 
Richard, 277. 
Grey de Wilton, Anne, 138. 
Henry, Baron, 138, 141. 
Joan, 140. 

John, Baron, 137, 138, 140. 
Maud, 137, 138, 140. 
Reginald, Baron, 136, 137, 138, 140. 
Reginald, Fourth Baron, 138, 141. 
William, Lord, 142. 



352 



Index. 



Grosmont, Visit of Society to, 196, 202. 

Gruffydd, King, 187. 

Guienne, 46, 47. 

Guilds, Trade, 253. 

Guinevere, Queen, Burial of, 20. 

Guise Family, Arms of, 34. 

Sir W. v.. President of the Society, 191. 
Guisnes, 141. 

Gunnild, wife of Earl Hacon, 186, 187, 188. 
Gunthorpe, John, Dean of Wells, 11, 14. 

Arms of, 14. 
Gwent, annexed by the English, 187. 
Gwin, Henry, 73. 
Gylle, Walter, 61. 
Gytha, 186. 

Hacon, Earl, 186, 188. 
Hague, Name of, 316. 
Hailes. See Hayles. 
Hale, Sir Matthew, 314. 
Halfpenny, William, 106, 109. 
Halhagan, Manor of, 131. 
Hall, Maurice, 273, 274. 
Halswell, Richard, 82. 
Hame, 221. 

Ham Hill (by Yeovil), 155. 

Hampnett, Churchwardens' accounts, 336. 

Visit of Society to, 194, 200. 
Hampshire, Visits of the Society to, 202. 
Hampton Court, Visit of Society to, 196, 
202. 

Hancock & Co., Messrs., 108. 
Hanham Abbotts, Visit of Society to, 194, 
200. 

Hanley Castle, Visit of Society to, 195 204. 
Hardwicke, Earl of. See Yorke. 
Hard wi eke, 309. 

Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 
Hare, S. V., 96. 

Haresfield, Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 
Harewell, John, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
10. 

Harfieet Family, Arms of, 312. 

Harford, William Henry, 98, 99, 100. 

Harold, Earl, 186, 187. 

Harptree Ridge (Somerset), 27, 28. 

Harrington, George, 239. 

Harterfield, 296. 

Harthacnut, 185. 

Hartcliff, Royalty of, 76. 

Hartwell, John, 85. 

Harvey, Dr. A., 40. 

Russell, 122, 128. 
Harvey and Sons, 128. 
Hasfield font [illustrated], 169, 177. 
Hatherley, Liana de, 134. 
Hatherley, Land in, 134. 
Hatherop, Visit of Society to, 196, 200. 
Hawkesbury, Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 
Hawthorn, The, in stonework, 158, 165, 
166. 

Hawvyle, Sir WiUiam, 255. 

Haxtwood, Will, 284. 

Hayles, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 200. 

Hayrun, Amice, 59. 

Richard, 59. 

See also Heyrun. 
Hays, George, 277. 
Hazel, The, in stonework, 161. 
Heath, Rev. George, 118. 
Hemcns, — ., 273. 

Hemming, son of Earl Harold, 186. 
Hempsted, Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 
Hcnbury, Stone from, 218. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 197, 200. 
Henlcy-on-Thames, 45. 
Henry I, 131 



Henry II, 315. 

Grant by, 133. 
Henry III, 315. 

Henry IV, Grants by, 251, 253, 256. 
Henry V, Grant by, 257. 
Henry VI, 44, 45. 
Henry VII at Wells, 14. 
Henry VIII, 221. 

Grants by, 69, 82. 
Heraldry of Boteler's Chapel, Gloucester 
Cathedral, 34-6. 

See also Armorial Bearings. 
Herault, Jo., 84, 85. 
Herba Benedicta, 153, 155. 
Herb bennet, in stonework, 153, 155 
Hereford, de. Family of, 298, 299. . 
Hereford, Bishops of. See Folliot; 
Reinelm. 

Cecilia, Countess of, 132. 

Earl of. See Gloucester, Milo of. 

Walter de, 298, 299. 
Hereford, St. Peter's Priory, 131. 

Visit of Society to, 192, 197, 202. 
Herefordshire, Visits of the Society to, 202. 

Beacon, Visit of Society to, 195, 202. 
Hereman, William, 59, 60. 
Hereward, Adam, 58. 

Hermits and Anchorites of England, by 
RoTHA Mary Clay, Notice of, 
. 338-40. 
Hermits in Gloucestershire, 338. 
Herne, Edward, 78, 
Hewins, Professor, 170, 181. 
Hexham, Acca's Cross, 152. 
Heydon, 309. 
Heyrun, Geoffrey de, 56. 

See also Hayrun. 
Hicks, — ., 264. 
Hicks-Beach, W. F., 2. 
Hill, J. S. ; The Place-Names of Somerset, 
Notice of, 208-9. 
Samuel, 323. 
Hilling, Ann, 247. 

Richard, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 231, 
233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 
247. 

Hinkman, Archbishop of Rheims, 253. 
Hinton Charterhouse, Visit of Society to, 

196, 203. 

Hinton-on-the-Green, Visit of Society to, 

197, 200. 

Hobbs, Mr., of Bristol, 77- 
Hobson, Henry, 223, 230, 232. 
Hockaday, F. S., 287. 
HocKADAY, F. S. ; Bristol and Gloucester- 
shire Archaaological Society. Places 
Visited, 194-204. 
Hodges, Family of, 221. 

Anthony, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 
231, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 
239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245. ^ 

John, 224, 226, 228, 230, 231, 233, 236, 
237, 238, 241, 242, 245. 

Mary, 223. 

William, 234, 238. 

— ., 221. 
Hodgson, Rev. W. E., 22, 30. 
Hoglers of Badsey, 213. 

of Banwell, 213. 
Holder, William Ic, 141. 
Holford, Colonel, 172. 
Holly, The, in stonework, 166, 334. 
Homme, 186. 

House, 2. 
Hooke, Robert, 233, 234. 
Hooper Family, 319. 

John, of Kcmpley, 141. 



Index. 



353 



Hooper, John, Bishop 'of Worcester and 
Gloucester, 213. 

Richard, 142. 

Tacye, 142. 
Hooton, William de, 210. 
Hop, The, in stonework, 166. 
Hope, W. H. St. John, 10, 11. 
Horsley, Visit of Society to, 196; 200. 
Horton, Visit of Society to, 196, 200. 
Howard, Sir E. Stafford, President of the 
Society, 191. 

John, 92. 
Howe, Thomas, 144. 

Sir Thomas, 142. 
Howitt, G. A., 34. 
Hucclecote, Manor of, "39. 
Huggeford, John, 298. 
Huggins, John, 77. 
Hull, Sir Edward, 45, 46, 47. 
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 44. 
Hungerford, Lord de, 45. 
Hunt, Abbot of Bristol, 161. 
Hurry, Arnold E. ; Annual Report, 

1912, 1-4. 
Husse, Henry, Dean of Wells, 13. 
Hutton, Sir Adam of, 60. 

Stanley, 114. 

Ven.W. H., President of the Society, 193. 
Hwiccia, Earldom of, 186. 
Hyett, F. A., 149, 317. 

President of the Society, 192. 

Icomb, Visits of- Society to, 194, 196 200. 
Iffiey Church, 154. 

Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Jna, King of Wessex, 10, 20. 
Incense, Payment of, 135. 
Inglesham, Visit of Society to, 196, 204. 
Ippesley, John, 70. 

Iron Acton, Visits of Society to, 194, 196 
200. 

Isle of Purbeck, 155. 

Ivy in stonework, 158, 165, 166, 334. 

Jack-Barrow, The name, 206. 
Jackson, Ambrose, 74. 

Miles, 279. 

William, 284. 
Jacob, — ., 274. 
Jacquard loom, 332. 
Jakes, Nicholas, of Kempley, 150. 
James the Great, St., 34. 
James the Less, St., 34. 
Janekyns, Isabella, 141. 
Jerusalem, Representation of, 148. 
Jesse window at Wells, 13. 
Jesus Christ, Figure of, 147. 
John, King, 134, 315. 
John, St., 34, 147. 

John, the vintner, of Kempley, 135, 140. 
Jones, Chfford G., Vicar of Kempley, 151. 

J. Winter, 146. 

Wilham, 285. 

— ., 279. 
Jordan, Richard, 285. 
Joseph of Arimathea, 20. 
Juckes, Barnaby, 145. 
Jude, St., 34. 
Juniper plant, 163, 164. 

Katherine of Ashton's, 57. 
Kay, Sir Brook, President of the Society, 
191. 

Kemerton, Visit of Society to, 196, 200.] 
Kempley, Henry of, 150. 

John, the vintner, of, 135, 140. 

Matthew of, 150. 



Kempley : — 
The History of Kempley Manor and 
Church, by W. St Clair Baddeley 
(illustrated), 130-51. 
Advowson of, 132, 133, 135, 137, 142. 
Chancery cases, 142 
Churcfi, 143-51. 

Bells, 143, 145. 

Chancel arch, 143, 144. 

Date of building. 131. 

Paintings, 131, 145-9. 

Piscina, 144. 

Porch; 144. 

Priests' door, 143. 

Pyndar monument, 144. 

Restoration of, 2. 

Roof, 144. 

Stoup, 144. 

Tower, 137, 143, 145. 

Tympanum, 144. 

Wheel of hfe, 146. 

Windows, 143, 144, 145. 
Field-names — 

Akyrnburyesfeld, 141. 

Astfeld, 141. 

Bradbragge, 141. 

Brademersshe, 141. 

Carters, 140. 

Caterswaile, 141. 

Cloterboke, 141. 

Edwardes-place, 141. 

Edwynes, 140. 

Ffreynsshelond, 141. 

Frerecowrte, 141. 

Kenendersland, 141. 

Lecheholde, 141. 

Long Parke, 141. 

Marlay's-mede, 140. 

Mulfield, 141. 

Netherhell (or ? Netherhale), 137 
Parson's- close, 140. 
Parson 's-field, 140. 
Redole, 141. 

le Reye Wygge- broke, 141. 

Thynen-lype, 141. 

le Woddal Parrocke, 141. 

Wodefyld, 140. 

Wodewardes-place, 140, 141. 
Hall, 141. 
Manor, 130-42. 
Manor House, 142. 
Name, Origin of, 130. 
Parsonage, 142. 
Rectory, 142. 
Rents of Assize^ 140. 
Solar at, 141. 
Vicars of, 150, 151. 
Villof, 133. 

Visits of Society to, 195, 196, 197, 200. 
Kempsford, Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 
Kenn, Christopher, 82. 
Kennedy, Sir John, 38. 
Kennion, Mrs. J ., 9, 30. 

George W., Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
30. 

Kerr, Russell J., President of the Society, 
192. 

Keynsham, 162. 

Abbot of, 271. 
Keyser, C. E., 4, 38. 

Key-stones, Grotesque mask head, 108, 
109. 

Kilpeck Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Kinemont Land at, 133. 
Kingsweston, 183. 

Down, Stone from, 218. 

Estate, 3 



354 



Index. 



Kingswood Abbey, 135. 

Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 
Forest, 275. 
Kiningmont, Land at, 133. 
Kitcat, Rev. D., 172. 
Knight, J., 92. 

William, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 12. 
Knapp, Oswald J., 213. 
Knolle, Edmund de. Abbot of Bristol, 63, 

64, 65, 66, 67, 156. 
Knowle, Abbot of Bristol. See Knolle, 

Edmund de. 
Koppe, William 58. 
Kymus, William le, 58. 
Kyneburg, Abbess of Gloucester, 32, 33. 
Kyre {also as Chire, Chure, Cuer, Cyr) 
182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 220, 221. 
Domesday entry relating to, 220. 
Kyre Wyard, Rector of, 220. 

Laci Family, Favourite Saint of, 146. 
Laci, Emma de, 132. 

Gilbert de, 132, 136. 

Gilbert de, fourth baron, 133, 134, 139. 

Hugh de, 131, 132, 136, 149. 

Hugh de, fifth baron, 132, 134, 138, 
139- 

Margaret de, 137. 

Roger, second baron, 130, 131, 132. 

Walter de, 130, 131, 149. 

Walter de. Monk of Gloucester, 131. 

Walter de, sixth baron, 132, 139. 
Laci, Honour of, 130. 
Lacy. See Laci. 
Ladevent. See Edwin Loach. 
Lake, Arthur, Bishop of Bath and Wells. 
26. 

Lake dwellings at Glastonbury, 15-17. 

Meare, 15-17.. 
Lam, Meaning of, 316. 
Lambert, — ., 264, 265. 
Lambert, St., 264, 265. 
Lamiton, Adam of, 59, 60. 
Lammer, Sir William, Vicar of Kempley, 
150. 

Lamyngtnn, Adam de, 59, 60. 
Land Tax. See Arle ; Cheltenham. 
Langford, Visit of Society to, 196, 203. 
Langlcv, Arms of, 34. 

Of Siddington, Arms of, 35. 
Langton, William Gore, 93. 
Landsden, Thomas, 261. 
Lasborough Font {illustrated), 172, 178. 
Lasci. See Laci. 
La Tene brooches, 16. 
Latimer, John, quoted, 56, 93, 94, 95, 96, 
110, 112, 116, 117, 120, 124, 222, 
249, 259, 276. 
Lawrence, Henry, 75 
Lea. Visit of Society to, 198, 202. 
Lead smelting at Ash ton, 72. 
Lechlade, Visit of Society to, 196, 200. 
Leckhampton, Visit of Society to, 194, 

200. 

Ledbury, Hospital of St. Katherine, 132, 
135. 1.36, 137, 140, 142. 
Adam, Master of, 137. 
Visits of Society to, 192, 195, 196, 202. 
Leigh, Very Rev. J . W., Dean of Hereford, 
149. 

President of the Society, 192. 
Leigh, 309. 

Leigh Down, 62, 64, 80. 

The hugs tone, 91. 
Leigh Woods, Long Ashton, An account 
of, by Lewis J. U. Way {plan), 
55-102. 



Leigh Woods Land Company, 87, 97, 98, 

99, 100, lOI. 
Leighton. Wilfrid ; Trinity Hospital 

[Bristol], 251-87. 
Leland, John, 20. 
Leofric, 130. 

Leominster, Visit of Society to, 197, .202. 
Leuric, 130. 

Lewes, John, Vicar of Kempley, 151. 

Robert of, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 10.. 
Lewis, — ., of Brimscombe, 331 
Leybourn, Agnes de, 138. 

Roger de, 138. 
Lilly, Henry, 222, 224, 246, 247. 
Lily, Water, in stonework, 161, 164. 
Lime, Manufacture of, at Clifton, 223. 
Linton, 136. 

Lisle, Joan, Lady, Tomb of, 13. 

Thomas Talbot, Lord, 13. 
Littledean, Visits of Society to, 194, 196,, 
200. 

Llandaff, Bishop of. See Salley. 
Llandaff, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Llandewi font, 169, 170. 
Llangattock-Vibon^Avel, Visit of Society- 

to, 196, 202. 
Llanthony Abbey (Mon.), 131. 
Llantwit Major, Visit of Society to, 197,, 

202. 

Llewellyn, Rev. G. T., 206. 
Lockyer, Sir Norman, 29. 
London : — 

Company of Cloth workers established,. 

Sir- 
Company of Drapers established, 317. 

Corporation of. Presents of broadcloth 
bv, 316, 317. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, Bells of, 210. 

Visits of Society to, 192, 196, 202. 
Long Ashton. See Ashton ; Leigh Woods. 
Longchamp, Aveline de, 139. 

Emma de, 132, 133, 135, 139. 

Geoffrey de, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136,. 
138, 139- 

Georgia de, 139. 

Henry de (i), 136, 139. 

Henry de (ii), 136, 139. 

Hugh de (i), 139. 

Hugh de (ii), 133, 134, 136, 139. 

Hugh de (iii), 139. 

Isabel de, 132, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139 
Matilda, 136. 

Maud de, 136, 137, 138, 139 

Osbert de (i), 139. 

Osbert de (ii), 139. 

Petronel de (i), 139. 

Petronel de (ii), 139. 

Robert de. Prior of Ely, 139. 

Stephen de, 139. 

William de (i), 132, 133, 139. 

William de (ii), 139. 
Lorde, John, 284. 
Lovelace, William, 70 
Loxton, S., 126. 
Loxton (Som.), Name of, 209. 
Lucas, Thomas, 279. 
Ludby, William, 141. 
Ludlow, Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Luftot Family, Arms of, 312. 
Lydney, Visit of Society to, 194, 195, 20O' 
Lygon, Family of, 298, 300, 303, 304, 309 
Arms of, 311, 312, 313. 
Pedigree of, 307. 

Ann, 307. 

Ann {nee Beauchamp), 307. 
Arthur, 307. 
Sir Arthur, 307. 



Index. 



355 



Lygon, Catherine, 295, 307, 309. 
See also Dormer. 
Catherine {nee Dennis) 304, 305. 
Eleanor {hpc Dennis), 307. 
Elizabeth (i), 307, 311. 
Elizabeth (ii), 307, 309. 
John, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312. 
John Henry, 304, 308. 
Margaret (i), 307. 
Margaret (ii), 142. 
Margaret {nee Greville), 303, 307. 
Margaret {nee Russell), 307. 
Margaret (wee Talbot), 309, 312. 
Mary, 307. 

Mary (nee Russell), 307. 
Penelope, 307. 
Ralph, 307. 

Richard, 307, 308, 309, 312. 
Sir Richard, 303, 307. 
Robert, 304. 
Roger, 305. 

Ef&gy of, 305, 306. 
Thomas (i), 304, 307. 
Thomas (ii), 308. 
William (i), 299, 304. 305- 307- 
William (ii), 142. 
Sir William, 307, 309. 
William, Seventh Earl Beauchamp, 142, 
308. 

Lynch, Hugh de, 141. 
Lyons Family, 61, 69. 
Adam de, 58. 

Edmund de, 58, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 
67. 

Arms of, 67. 
Margaret de, 58. 
Nicholas, 57. 
Ralph de, 62. 
Thomas (i), 58. 
Thomas (if), 58. 
WilUam (^), 57, 58. 
William (ii), 58, 61, 62. 
Lyuns. See Lyons. 



Maclean, Sir John, President of the Society, 
191. 

McMurtrie James ; In Memoriam, 215. 
Madersfield Family Arms of, 312. 
Madley, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
Madresfield Court, 303. 
Manor of, 307. 
Lord of, 307. 
Maidenhead, 48. 
Maine. See Mayne. 
Maischoit, Forest of, 134. 
Malet Family, 27. 
Mallow, The, in stonework, 165. 
Malmesbury, Visits of Society to, 192, 195, 

i97> 204. 
Malpass, Name ®f, 316. 
Malvern, Great, Visit of Society to, 197, 

204. 

Malvern, Little, Visits of Society to, 196, 

197, 204. 
Mansell, Rev. W. Surman, 38. 
Mansfield, F. T., 91, 92. 
Maple, The, in stonework, 157, 158, 165, 

166. 

Mara, Aveline de, 139. 

Henry de, 139. 
March, Countess of, 141. 
Marchia. William de. Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, 12. 
Margaret of Anjou, 49. 
Marlborough, Visit of Society to, 195, 204. 
Marl Hill, 36. 



Marling Family, 319. 
Mrs, 321. 

Samuel S. ; Letter on Education of the 

Labouring Classes, 324-8. 
Sir William H., Bart. : The Woollen 
^^dustry of Gloucestershire, 315-33. 

Marmont, Name of, 316. 

Marriage, Fine for marrying a bond- 
woman ^ 141. 

Marshall, William. 263. 

Marshfield, Visits of Society to, 194, 197, 
200. 

Marston Sicca font {illustrated) 171, 176,. 
178. 

Visit of Society to, 196.. 200. 
Mary, Queen, 304. 
Masks in stonework, 159, 160. 
Masseday, Robert, 59. 
Masses. See Trental. 

Mather-Jackson, -Sir Henry, President of 

the Society, 192. 
Mathem, Visits of Society to, 195, 197,. 
202. 

Mathew, Joan, 263. 

John (i), 262, 263. 
Will of, 263. 

John (ii), 263. 

Margery, 263. 
Mathews, Susannah, 87. 
Mattesdon, Margaret, 38 

Nicholas de, 38. 

Robert, 38. 
Matthew, St., 34. 
Maunsel, William, 135. 
Maurice, Prince, 317. 
Mayne, Agnes, 83, 84 

Ann, 86. 

Cisly, 86. 

Deborah, 86. 

Edward, 86. 

John, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86. 

John (ii), 80, 84, 86, 87 
Mayow, Family of, 26. 

John, 141. 
Meare Church, 17. 

Fish house, 17. 

Lake dwelUng at, 15-17. 

Manor House, 17. 

Visit of Society to, 16, 17, 190, 203. 
Meath, Hugh de Laci, Lord of, 132. 
Medicago (or Medick), The, in stonework, 
162. 

Medicago orbicularis, 162. 

Megalithic Remains at Stanton Drew, 27-9, 

Mendip Hills, 218. 

Meredydd, King, 187. 

Merino wool, 318. 

Meysey Hampton, Visit of Society to, 196,. 
200. 

Michael the Miller, of Arle, 39. 
Micheldean, Visit of Society to, 191, 194, 
200. 

Micheltroy, Visit of Society to, 196, 202. 
Micklethwaite, J. T., 145. 
Mickleton, Visits of Society to, 195, 196, 
200. 

Middlesex, Visit of the Society to, 202. 
Middleton, Professor, 143. 
Miles, W. A., 319, 321, 323. 

Sir William, 99. 

— 95- 

Mill Family, of Harescombe, Arms of, 34. 
Millard, Daniel, 286. 
Millerd's Plans of Bristol, 119. 
Milo, Earl. See Gloucester, Milo of. 
Milton, Reynold, 296. 
Milward, Richard, 141. 



356 



Index. 



Minchinhampton, Churchwardens' 
accounts, 336. 

Visit of Society to, 194, 200 
Miners Family, 132. 

Family, Pedigree of, 138. 

Agnes de, 133, 138. 

Basilia de, 136, 138. 

Elizabeth de, 136, 138. 

Gilbert de, 133. 

Henry de, 133, 134, 138, 139 

Isabel de, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 
139- 

Richard de, 134. 
Roger de, 133. 

William de, 133, 134, 136, 138. 
Mines, William, 85. 

Minster Lovell, Visit of vSociety to, 197, 203. 
Mistletoe, The, in stonework, 158. 
Mitchinson, Bishop, 31, 41. 

President of the Society, 192. 
Monchensi, Agnes de, 132. 
Monmouth, Visits of Society to 192, ig6, 
198, 202. 

Monmouthshire, Visits of the Society to, 
202. 

Montacute, Arms of, 35. 
Monuments, Preservation of Ancient, 2. 
Monyngton, Walter, Abbot of Glastonbury, 
18. 

Moreton-in-Marsh, Visit of Society to, 

192, 195, 200. 
Moreton Valence, Visit of Society to, 197, 

200. 

Morgan, Julian, 264. 
Morgan Professor Lloyd, 218. 
On Stanton Drew, 28, 29. 

Nicholas, 264. 
Mortimer, Edmund, Lord, 137. 

Maud, 137. 

Roger de, 137. 
Moryn Family, 39. 

Robert, 39. 

Simon, 39. 
Moryn's mill, 39. 
Morys, John ap., 141. 
Motto at Bristol, no. 
Moubrai. See Mowbray. 
Mount Badon, Battle of, 20. 
Mowbray, Robert de, 56. 
Much Marcle, Visits of Society to, 196, 198. 
202. 

Mural paintings at Kempley, 145-9. 
Myehell, Thomas, 83. 

Nailheart, Abbot of Bristol, 157. 
Nailsworth, Visit of Society to, 192, 196, 
200. 

Nantes, Edict of, 316. 
Naunton, Churchwarden, Appointment of, 
295- 

Houses in, 1712, 294. 
Nede, Mathew, 263. 
Nempnett, Lands in, 265. 
Netherton, Visit of Society to, 197, 204. 
Neville, Anne, 39. 

Henry, 78. 
Newbury, Abbot of Bristol, 163. 
Newce, Clement, 224. 

Thomas, 224. 

William, 223, 224, 225, 227, 228, 230, 
248. 

William (ii), 224. 
Newent, 220, 221. 

in Domesday, 182, 183, 184, 188, 189. 
Saxon stone at, 3. 

Visits of Society to, 191, 193, 195, 197, 
200. 



Newington Bagpath, Visits of Society to, 

195, 196, 200. 

Newland, Visits of Society to, 191, 194,. 196, 
200. 

Newnham, Visits of Society to, 192, 195, 

196, 200. 

Newport, St. Woolas Church, 144. 

Niblett, J.D.T., 34- 

Nibley Green, Battle of, 13. 

Nibley, North, Visits of Society to, 196, 

197, 200. 

Nicholas, Abbot of Keynsham, 63, 64, 65, 
66. 67. 

Robert, 141. 
Nicolas, Sir N. H., 45. 

John, 78. 

Nightingale Valley. See Ash ton (Stoke- 

leigh Slade). 
Noble, Roger, 273. 
Noent. See Newent. 
Nootes, Margaret, 141. 
Northallerton, 313. 
Northcote Family, 26. 
Northleach Church, 317. 

Grammar School, 317. 

Visits of Society to 192, 194, 197 200. 
Northleigh, Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Northumbria, Eric, Earl of, 186. 
Norton, Sir George, 69, 70, 71, 
Notgrove font (illustrated), 169, 170, 179. 

Visit of Society to, 194, 200. 
Nuneham Courtenay, Visit of Society tO; 
197, 203. 

Nympsfield, Visit of Society to, 194, 200. 

Oak, The, in stonework, 157, 158, 160, 164, 

165, 166, 334. 
Obit of John and Elizabeth Barstaple.. 

270. 

Oddington, Visit of Society to, 194, 200. 
Olaf, St., 186. 
Old- acre, 296. 
Olhver, William, 82. 
Olveston, Visit of Society to, 195, 200. 
Oman, Professor, President of the Society, 
193- 

Order of the Golden Fleece, 316. 
Osborne, Jeremiah, 88. 
Osric, King, 32, 33. 

Overbury, Visits of Society to. 196, 197, 
204. 

Owlpenfont, {iiliistrated) , 171. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 198, 200 
Oxford :— 

Christ Church Cathedral, Shrine of 
St. Frideswide, 164. 

New College, 44. 

Visits of Society to, 193, 195, 197, 198, 
203. 

Oxfordshire; Visits of the Society to, 205 
Oxhill, Visit of Society to, 195, 203. 
Ozleworth Church, 40. 

Visits of Society to, 195, 198, 200. 

Packer, Jane, 36. 
Pacy, Thomas, 261. 

Painswick, Visit of Society to, 194, 200. 

Painter. John, 73. 

Pake, Richard, 276. 

Palm tree. The, in stonework, 152. 

Palton, Family of, 26. 

Paradice, John, 84. 

l^arish register at Tredington, 38. 

Parke, Arms of, 35. 

Parker, J. H. ; On Wells Deanery, 14. 
William, Abbot of Gloucester, 20. 
— , 247. 



Index. 



357 



Parkhurst, John, 314. 
Parry, T. Gambier, 33. 

President of the Society, 191. 
Parsons, Prebendary, i. 
Paul, St., 34, 35. 
Paul, Samuel, 77. 

Pauntley, Visit of Society to, 197, 200 
Pear tree, The, in stonework, 165 
Pedigrees : — 

Longchamp, 139. 

Lygon, 307. 

Miners Family, 138. 
Peel, Sir Robert, 105. 
" Peelers," Origin of name, 105. 
Pendock, Visit of Society to, 195, 204. 
Penley (or Penvey), Roger, Vicar ot 

Kempley, 142, 150. 
Penvey. See Penley. 
Pershore, Visits of Society to, 192, 195, 197, 
204. 

Peter, St., 34, 146, 148. 

Pettatt, Name of, 316. 

Phelps, Richard, 145. 

Philip, St., 34. 

Phipes, John, 274 

Phippen, Whitchurch, 223. 

Pigot, Pigott, Pyggot, Anne, 142. 

Florence, 72, 73, 74, 86. 

Henry, 142. 

Margary, 142. 

Thomas, 72, 73, 74, 85, 86. 

William, 142. 
Pinbury, Visit of Society to, 196, 200. 
Pinnell, Francis, 81. 
" Jeffrey, 80, 81. 
Pipard, Ralph, 135. 

Pitt-Rivers, General, President of the 

Society, 192. 
Places of Meeting of the Society, 1876- 

1913, 191-204. 
Place-Names of Gloucestershire, by W. St. 

Clair Baddeley, Notice of, 205-8. 
Place-Names of Somerset, by J. S. Hill, 

Notice of, 208-9. 
Plague at Tredington, 38. 
Plantain, Common, in stonework, 153, 155. 
Plants in stonework, 152-67, 334-5. 
Plate. See Church plate. 
Playne Family, 319. 

Peter, 320. 
Playsterer, Pope, 85. 
Pleadweli, — ., 279. 
Plymouth, 45, 46. 
Poll Tax. See Arle ; Cheltenham. 
Polydore Virgil at Wells, 15. . 
Pomegranate, The, in stonework, 152. 
Pomeroy, Richard, Vicar of Wells 23. 
Pomroy, G., 92. 
Poole, Thomas, 272. 
Pope, Alexander, 21. 
Poplar, The, in stonework, 165. 
Portbury, Lands in, 260. 
Portishead, Lands in, 260, 261. 
Portskewett, 187. 
Pottery found at : — 

Meare, 16. 

Wookey Hole, 21, 25. 
Poultney, Mr., 90. 

Thomas, 92. 
Powlett, William, 75. 
Prancant, Richard, 141. 
Pre-historic Remains at Bristol (Redland 
Green), 3. 

Presidents of the Society, 1876-1913, 
191-3- 

Preston (Forest), Visit of Society to, 196, 
200 



Price, Rev. W. H. ; Churchwardens'" 
Accounts of Badsey, Notice of, 212- 
14. 

Prices of food in 1838, 321, 322. 
Prices of :— - 
Cummin, 140. 
Peppeji, 140. 
Spurs, 140. 
Prideaux, E. K., 335. 
Prigg, Robert, 77. 
Prinknash Park 14. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 195, 201 
Prinn, William, 303. 
Pritchard, John E., 3, 4, 226. 

Bristol Archaeological Notes for 1912 
{illustrated), 103-29. 
Prout, Name of, 316. 
Prowse, William, 72, 83. 
Prowte, Thomas, 271. 
Prynn MSS., 291. 
Publications Noticed : — 

Church Bells of England, by H. B. 

Walters, 209-11. 
Church Plate of Breconshire, by Rev. 

J. T. Evans, 211-12. 
Churchwardens' A ccounts, by J . Charles 

CoX; 336-8. 
Churchwardens' Accounts of Badsey, by 

Rev. W. H. Price, 212-14. 
Hermits and Anchorites of England, by 

Rotha Mary Clay, 338-40. 
History and Memorials of St. Mark's 
Church, Bristol, by Ida M. Roper, 
340. 

Place-Names of Gloucestershire, by 
W. St. Clair Baddeley, 205-8. 

Place-Names of Somerset, by J. S. Hill, 
208-9. 

Pucklechurch Visits of Society to, 196, 

197, 201. 
Pugsley, Charlotte, Murder of, 95. 
Purton, Visit of Society to, 197, 204. 
Putney, 75. 
Pyggot. See Pigot. 

Pyndar Family, Monument at Kempley, 
144. 
Margaret, 142. 
Reginald (i), 142. 
Reginald (ii), 142. 
Thomas, 142. 

Quenington, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 
201. 

Quintonfont {illustrated), 170. 179 

Visits of Society to, 195, 196, 201. 
" Quoit " stone, Stanton Drew, 29. 

Raglan, Visits of Society to, 196, 198, 
202. 

Reade, Dr. John, 106. 

Redesdale, Lord (A. B. Freeman-Mitford), 

President of the Society, 192. 
Redgrove, Manor of, 294, 295, 296, 297, 
298, 299, 304. 
Domesday Survey of, 297, 298. 
Merged in Cheltenham, 294. 
Mills, 298. 
Reed, Samuel, 90. 

Reeve, William, 115, 117, 118; 119, 120, 
121. 

Reinelm, Bishop of Hereford, 131. 
Rene of Anjou. 49. 
Rent of Assize at Kempley, 140. 
Reynolds, Richard, 265. 
Rhuddlan Castle, 187. , 
Ricardo Family. 319. 
David, 320.^ 



358 



Index. 



Rice, William; 256. 

Sir William, 255. 
Richard I, 315. 
Richard II, Grant by, 251. 
Richard le Theyn, 59. 
Richarde, John, Vicar of Kempley, 150. 
Richards, Fenwick, 265. 
Richard's Castle, Herefordshire. 183. 
Richardson, Thomas, Vicar of Kempley, 
150. 

Ridgeway, The, 36. 
Ridgway, Land in, 256, 257. 
Riis. See Rice. 

Ripple, Visit of Society to, 195. 204. 
Roads, Ancient : — 

Ridgeway, 36. 

Sandy Way, 39. 

Sarn road, 39. 

Silver Street, 206. 
Robert, Dean — Rector of Kempley, 135, 

136, 150. 
Robinson, John, 79. 

Miss Armitage, 9, 30. 

J. Armitage, Dean of Wells, i, 9, 14, 30. 
Rockfield, Visit of Society to, 196; 202. 
Rodborough, John, 135. 
Rodborough Hill House, George III at 317. 

Manor House, 317. 

Visit of Society to, 194, 201. 
Rodneye, Walter de, 63, 68. 
Rogers Family, 38. 

Dr., 320. 

Rollright, Visit of Society to, 195, 203. 
Roman remains at Sea Mills, 3. 

Villa, Witcombe, 2. 
Roos, Sir Robert, 45, 47. 
Roper, Ida M., 4. 

Flowers in Stone as applied to the 
Church Architecture of Bristol 
(illustrated), 152-67, 334-5. 

History and Memorials of Si. Mark's 
Church, Bristol, Notice of, 340. 
Rose, The, in stonework, 154, 160, 161, 165, 

166, 335. 
Rose-en-soleil in stonework, 166. 
Ross, Visit of Society to, 2, 193, 198, 202. 
Rousing, Meaning of, 316. 
Rowland, John, 266. 
Rownham (Long Ashton). See Ashton. 
Royal Aid See Arle : Cheltenham. 
Ruardean, Churchwardens' accounts, 336. 

Visit of Society to, 191, 194, 201. 
Rudford, Visit of Society to, 195 201. 
Rudhall, Bells by, 37. 
Rudhall House, 2. 
Rugeway, Land in, 256 257. 
Rule, Martin, 292, 293. 
Rumley, Samuel, 90. 
Rupert, Prince, 317. 
Rushforth, G. McN., 149. 
Russfll, Mary. 307. 

Robert.. 257, 258. 

Sir Thomas, 307. 
Ryne, Meaning of, 207. 

St. Briavels, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 
197, 201. 

Saintbury, Visit of Society to, 194, 201. 
St. David's, Bishop of. See Urban. 
St. Donats, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
St. Pagans, Visit of Society to, 197, 202. 
St. Leger, Emma de, 132, 133, 135, 139. 
St. Leger (Normandy), Vill of, 133. 
St. Pierce, Visit of Society to, 195, 202. 
Sachfeild, John, 223, 228, 231, 233. 
Sadleir, Ralph, 221, 224, 245, 248. 
Sir Ralph, 221, 223, 224, 248. 



Safey, Lower, 221. 
Safie. See Safey, Lowor. 
Salisbury, Bishop of. See Ayscough. 
Salley, Bishop of Llandafif, 166. 
Sampson, Walter, Death of, 2. 

quoted, 124, 125, 278. 
Sancto Laudo, Sir John de, 60, 62. 
Sandford, Appointment of churchwarden,. 
295- 

Houses in, 1712, 294. 
Sandridge font, 171. 
Sapina, in Domesday, 182, 189. 
Sapperton, Visits of Society to, 195, 196,. 
201. 

Satchfield, Arthur, 72, 73. 

John, 72, 73. 
Saunders, John, 86. 

— 77- 
Savage, John, 271. 

Savaric, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 10, 17, 
18, 20. 

Saxon remains at Newent, 3. 

Scott- Holmes, Canon, 9. 

Scrob (orScrupe), Richard, 182, 183, 184. 

Scrupe. See Scrob. 

Sculpture : Flowers in Stone, 152-67, 
334-5- 

Sea Mills, Excavations at, 3. 
Secret Chambers in Bristol, 108. 
Sely, William, 71. 

Senhouse, Peter, Vicar of Kempley, 151. 
Serlo, Abbot of Gloucester, 293. 
Servante, William. Vicar of Kempley, 151. 
Sewin, Provost of Bristol, 220. 
Seyer, Rev. Samuel, quoted, 113, 118, 218, 
219. 

Seymour, Dame EUzabeth or Isabel, 262,. 
267. 

Shafto, G. R. Holt, 335. 
Shelsley Walsh, 221. 
Shene, 45, 48. 
Shenington (Oxon.), 185. 
Shepton Mallet, Visit of the Society to, 26^ 
198, 203. 
Church, 27. 

Efhgies in, 27. 
Cross, 26. 
Shepward, Joan {nee Barstaple), 256. 

Robert, 256, 257. 
Sherborne, Baron, President of the Society,. 
191. 

Sherborne, Bishop of. See Aldhelm. 
Sherston, Great, Visit of Society to, 197,. 
204. 

Shiercliffe's Guide to Bristol, 110, 117. 
Shipman, Thomas, 260. 
Shipton-under-Wychwood, Visit of Society 

to, 196, 203. 
Shipton SoUars, Visit of Society to, 197, 

201. 

Shirehampton, 183. 

Domesday entry relating to, 220. 
Shoebury, North, 314. 
Shrewsbury, Ralph de. Bishop of Wells, 10,. 

13, 15, 22, 51. 
Shropshire, Visit of the Society to, 203. 
Sibree, Ernest, 29. 

Siddington, Visits of Society to, 194, 195,. 
197, 201. 

Silbury, Visit of Society to, 195, 204. 
Silchestcr, Visit of Society to, 196, 202. 
Silver Street, The name, 206. 
Simon the Chaplain, of Arle, 39. 
Simon Zelotes, St., 34. 
Simpson, Robert, 85. 
Sineshoved Hundred. See Swineshead. 
Siston, Visits of Society to 194, 196 201.. 



i 



Index, 



359 



Skenfrith, Visit of Society to, 196, 202 
Skull, William, Vicar of Kempley, 150. 
Slade, Captain, 320. 

Slaughter, Upper, Visits of Society to, 194, 

196, 201. 

Slinge, Trade in, 322, 323. 

Slymbridge, Visit of Society to. 194, 201. 

Smith, Hugh, 273, 275 

M., 71. 

V/illiam, 115. 
Smyth, Family of, 69. 

Florence (i), 72; 84. 

Florence (ii), 94. 

Hugh (i) , 69, 70, 71. 

Sir Hugh, Kt., 71, 72, 78, 79, 82, 83, 85, 
243- 

Sir Hugh (first baronet), 72, 74, 75, 
86. 

Sir Hugh (third baronet), 92, 93, 96. 

Sir Jarrit, 87, 88, 248. 

Sir John (first baronet), 80, 86, 87. 

Sir John (second baronet), 75, 76, 77, 

78, 81, 87, 93, 94. 98- 
J.H.,90. 

Sir John Henry Greville (Sir Greville), 
94, 95, 96, 97 98; 99, 100. 

Sir John Hugh, 56, 57, 67. 

Sir John Hugh, Bart., 89, 91, 92. 

Thomas (i), 72. 

Thomas (ii), 92. 

Walter, 79. 
Sodbury, Adam de, Abbot of Glastonbury, 
17, 18. 

Sodbury, Chipping, Visit of Society to, 191, 
195, 201. 

Sodbury, Little, Visits of Society to, 194, 

195, 196, 201. 

Solomon's Temple, Carvings in, 152. 
Somerset, Early churchwardens' accounts 
in, 336. 

Place-Names of, by J. S. Hill, Notice 

of, 208-9. 
Visits of the Society to, 203. 
Somerton, 189. 

Southam. Visits of Society to, 194, 195, 

197, 201. 
Southchurch, 314. 

Southey Family, Arms of 313. 
Southleigh, Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Southrop, Visit of Society to, 196, 201. 
Speech House, Visit of Society to. 194, 
201. 

Spenser, — ., 89. 

Squire, Robert, Vicar of Kempley, 151. 
Stafford Family, Arms of, 35. 

John, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 46, 49. 
Stalbridge, Cross at, 37. 
Standbank, Anthony, 277. 
Standish Visits of Society to, 193, 195, 

197, 201. 
Standon, 224. 

Stanley St Leonard, Visits of Society to, 

194, 197, 201. 
Stanton, Visit of Society to, 196, 201. 
Stanton Drew, Visit of Society to, 27-9, 

198, 203. 
Stanton Family, 319. 

Stanton Harcourt, Visit of Society to, 197, 
203. 

Stanway, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 201. 
Start, Elizabeth, 83. 

Thomas, 83. 
Starton, 309. 

Staunton, Visits of Society to, 191, 194 

196, 201. 
Staverton, 309. 
Steel, N., 149. . 



Stephens, Alderman, 285. 

John, Vicar of Kempley, 151. 
Stepney (Middlesex). 85. 
Steven, Nicholas, 59. 
Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, 39. 
Stobart, Hen. Ch., Vicar of Kempley, 151. 
Stoke Aircher (or Orchard), Manor of, 38, 
39- 

Stoke Gifford font (illustrated), 168, 173, 
176. 

Stokeleigh (Long Ash ton). See Ashton. 
Stoke Orchard Church, Visit of Society 
to (illustrated), 39. 

Font (illustrated), 170, 171, 180 

Manor of, 38, 39. 

Visits of Society to, 38 195, 197, 198 
Stokes, Sam., 81. 
Stone, Robert of, 60. 
Stone, Visit of Society to, 196, 201. 
Stone circles at Stanton Drew, 27-9. 
Stones : — 

Quoit, Stanton Drew, 29. 

Waterstone, Stanton Drew, 29. 
Stonework, Flowers in, by Ida M. Roper 

(illustrated), 152-67, 334-5. 
Stormy Family, 40. 
Stowell, Visit of Society to, 194, 201. 
Stow-on- the- Wold, 145. 

Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 194, 196, 
201. 

Stratford Family, 40. 

Stratford-on'-Avon, Visit of Society to, 191, 
i95> 203. 

Strensham, Visits of Society to, 195, 197,' 
204. 

Stroud, Ham Mill, 317. 

Thrupp Infant School, 323. 

Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 194, 201. 

Weavers of, 318. 
Sturge, Young, 93. 
Stutte, Agnes, 141. 

Sudeley, Visits of Society to, 194, 195. 197, 
201. 

Sugar, Hugh, of Wells, 12. 
Sundials, Scratched, 40, 41. 
Sunflower, The, in stonework, 166. 
Surman Family, 40. 

Ehzabeth, 37. 

Jane, 36. 

John (i), 36. 

John (ii), 36. 

John (iii), 36, 37, 38. 

Thomas, 36. 

WilMam (2), 36, 37. 
Surrey, Visit of the Society to, 202. 
Sutton Courtney, 44, 45. 
Sutton- under-Brailes, 185. 
Swann, E. J., loi. 
Swegen, King, 186. 

Swell, Lower, Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 
201. 

Swillgate stream, 36. 

Swinbrook, Visits of Society to, 196, 197, 
203. 

Swindon Church, Visit of the Society to 
(illustrated), 39, 40. 
Hall, 40. 
Manor of, 39, 40. 
Priest's Mill, 39, 40. 
Sandy Way, 39. 
Sarn road, 39. 

Visits of Society to, 39, 195, 198, 201. 
Swineshead Hundred, 220. 

Talbot, Charrington, 308.^ 
Geoffrey de, 136, 
Gilbert, 136. 



36o 



Index. 



Talbot, John, 307, 308, 309, "3 12. 

Margaret, 307, 309. 

Thomas, Lord Lisle, 13. 
Tame, Catherine (nee Dennis), 305. 
^ Sir Edmund, 305. 

John, 305. 
Tangmere Church font, 169. 
Tanner, Arthur, 78, 79, 83, 85. 

EUzabeth, 83, 84. 

Stephen, 79, 85. 

Thomas, 79, 83, 85. 
Tanqu, Adam, 61. 
Taunton, 46. 
Tayler. See Cradock. 
Taylor, Rev. C. S., 3, 220, 221. 

President of the Society, 192. 
Note on the entry in Domesday Book 
relating to Westbury-on-Severn, 
182-90. 

Thomas, 144. 
Tecors Family, Arms of, 312. 
Temple Guiting, Fulling-stocks at, 330. 
Tenos, John, Bishop of, 50. 
Tetbury, Visit of Society to, 195, 201. 
Tewkesbury, Abbot of. See Cheltenham, 

Richard de. 
Tewkesbury, 185. 

Road, 290. 

Visits of Society to, 191, 192, 194, 197, 
201. 

Thayer, Mr., 39. 

Thistle, The, in stonework, 166, 334. 
Thomas, St., 34. 

Thomas, Christopher J., President of the 
Society, 191. 

Sir George, 37. 

William, 273. 
Thomas, Archbishop of York, 39. 

the Mason, 336. 

the Priest, 60. 

the Tanner, 336. 
Thorkell, jarl, 186. 

Son of Earl Harold, 186. 
Thornbury, Visits of Society to, 194, 195, 

196, 201. 
Thorp, Sir Thomas, 255. 
Throckmorton, Arms of, 35. 
Ticehurst, Frederick, 295, 309. 
Tidenham, Visit of Society to, 194, 201. 
Tiles, Heraldic, Gloucester Cathedral, 36. 
Tintern, Visits of Society to, 194, 197, 

202. 
Tiverton, 46. 

Tockington Park, Visit of Society to, 191. 
Toddington, Visits of Society to, 192, 193, 

196, 197, 201. 
Tolangebrige Hundred (Domesday), 205. 
Toothache illustrated in carvings, 12. 
Tortworth, Visit of Society to, 196, 201. 
Tostig, 187. 

Tours, John of. Bishop of Wells, 10. 
To vie, John, 71. 
Tracy, Arms of, 35. 

Tredington Church, Visit of the Society 
to [illustrated), 36-8. 
Court, 38. 
Cross, 37. 
Edward IV at, 36. 
Manor, 36. 

Visits of Society to, 36, 193, 195, 197 
198, 201. 

Trees in stonework, 157, 158, 159, 165, 166. 
Trefoil in stonework, 153, 155. 
Trental of St. Gregory, 235. 
Trinity Hospital. See Bristol. 
Troilli, Roger de, 134. 
(?) 138. 



Trotman Family, 40. 

Joceline, Bishop of Wells, 10, 11, 14, 24. 
Tuckett, F. F., 4. 
Tympanum at Dymock, 144, 

Kempley, 144. 

Tredington [illustrated), 37. 
Tyre Family of Hardwicke, Arms of, 35. 
Tyron, John, 33. 

Tytherington, Visit of Society to, 195, 201. 

Uckington, 309. 

Ufiieet Family, Arms of, 312. 

Uley, Visits of Society to, 194, 198, 201. 

Weavers of, 320. 
Ulsac, 184. 

Unwin, Herbert, 289. 
Upleadon, Visit of Society to, 195, 201. 
Upton, Florence, 94. 
John, 94. 

John Henry Greville, 94. 
Upton St. Leonard font, 169, 170. 
Urban, Bishop of St. David's, 131. 

Vampage Family, Arms of, 35. 
Vassar-Smith, R. V., President of the 

Society, 191. 
Vaux, Aveline de, 139. 

Oliver de, 139. 
Veale Family, Arms of, 36. 
Verdon Family, Arms of, 312. 

John de, 137. 

Margaret de, 137. 

Maud de, 137. 

Theobald de, 137. 
Verrio, Antonio, 108. 
Vickiris, Alderman, 278. 
Villula, John de. Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, 10. 
Vincent, Francis, 73, 86. 
Vine, The, in stonework, 153, 158, 159, 164, 

165, 166, 334. 
Vineyards in Gloucestershire, 159. 

recorded in Domesday Book, 159. 
Virgin Mary, Figure of, 147, 148. 

Wade, Bryan, 76. 
Wages in 1839, 322. 

of weavers in 1839, 321. 
Walford, Visit of Society to, 194, 202. 
Waller, F. W., 32, 41. 
Walpole, Horace, in Bristol, 114, 115. 
(?) Walrond, Arms of, 35. 
Walters, H. B. ; Church Bells of England^ 

Notice of, 209-11. 
Walwyn Family, 40. 

Sir Walter, Vicar of Kempley, 150. 
Wapley, 189. 
Ware, Nicholas, 263. 
Warmonde, Edmund, 266. 
Warneford, Dr., 170, 181, 
Warren, Hugh, 273. 

T. H., President of the Society, 193. 
Wars of the Roses, 50. 
Warwick, Visit of Society to, 195, 203. 
Warwickshire, Visits of the Society to, 

203. 

Washbourne, Great, Visit of Society to, 

197, 201. 
Watch bo.xes in Bristol, 104. 
' ' Waterstone," The, Stanton Drew, 29. 
Watkin, John, 223, 230, 232. 
Watkins, Daniel, 283. 
J., 77. 

Watts, Edmund, 224, 229, 231, 234, 236,. 

238, 241, 242, 243, 245. 
Way, Arthur E., 96. 
Way, L. J. U., 3, 4, 217, 287. 



Index. 



361 



Way, Lewis J. U. ; An Account of the 
Leigh Woods, in the Parish of Long 
Ashton, County of Somerset (plan), 
55-102. 

The 1625 Survey of the Smaller Manor 

of Clifton, 220-50. 
See also under Were, F. 
Weaver, J. Crawley, Vicar of Kempley, 
151- 

Weavers, Wages of, 321. 
Weaving. See Woollen manufacture. 
Web, — ., 316. 
Webb, Henry, 141. 

Samuel, 317. 
Welch, Family of, 314. 
Welch, Anne Mannooch ; Old Axle 
Court {illustrated), 288-314. 
Mrs., 40, 41. 
Wells, Bishop of. See Bath and Wells. 
Deans of. See — 
Godelee, John de. 
Gunthorpe, John. 
Husse, Henry. 
Robinson, J. Armitage. 
Wells, Archdeacon's House, 15. 
Bishop's Barn, 15. 
Bishop's Eye, 51. 

Bishop's Palace {illustrated), 11, 14, 15. 
Brown's Gateway, 51. 
Cathedral, Notes by Canon Bazeley 
{illustrated), 9-15. 

Bekyn ton's Chapel, 52, 53. 

Carving in, 153. 

Chain gate, 12, 51. 

Chapels, 12, 13, 53. 

Chapter House, 10, 12, 13 14. 

Choir, 10, 13. 

Choir screen, 12. 

Clock described, 13. 

Cloisters, X2. 

Font, 12. 

Glass in, 13. 

Jesse window, 13. 

Lady chapel, 10. 

Library, 12. 

Misereres, 13. 

Nave, 10, II, 12. 

Pulpit, 12. 

Tomb of Bekynton, 52, 54. 
Tombs, 12, 13. 

Toothache illustrated in carvings, 12. 

Tower, 12. 

West front, 11. 
College of Priests, 10. 
Conduit, 52. 
Deanery, 11, 14. 
Gateways, 51. 
Henry VII at, 14. 
Name, Origin of, 9, 43. 
Penniless porch, 44, 51. 
Proceedings of the Society at {illustrated), 
1-30. 

St. Cuthbert's Church, 23-5. 
Saxon Church, 10. 
Vicars Choral, 50, 51. 
Vicars' Close, 16, 22, 23, 51. 
Visit of Society to, 1-24, 193, 195, 198, 
203. 

Wells, Diocese of, formed, 10. 

See of, removed to Bath, 10. 
Welsh Newton, Visit of Society to, 196, 
202. 

Were F. ; On Scratched Dials, 40-41. 
and L. J . U. Way ; Report on the 
Excavations at Druid Stoke, 217- 

Wesberie.^ See Westbury-on-Severn. 



Wessex, King of. See Ina 
West WiUiam, 77. 

Westal, Appointment of churchwarden^ 
295- 

Houses in, 1712, 294. 
Westbu^jyron-Severn, 133, 134, 138. 
Domesday entry relating to, 220. 
Estates severed from, 220, 221. 
Manor of, 186. 

Note on the Entry in Domesday Book 
relating to, by the Rev. C. S. 
Taylor, 182-90. 
Visit of Society to, 196, 201. 
Westbury-on-Trym, 183. 
College of, 221. 
Dean and College of, 223. 
Visits of Society to, 194, 196, 201. 
Weston Birt, Visit of Society to, 195, 201. 
Weston-in-Gordano, Visit of Society to, 
197, 203. 

Weston-under-Penyard, Visit of Society 

to, 198, 202. 
Wevar, Richard. 266. 
Wever, Symon, 266. 
Whateman, WilUam, 58. 
Wheel of Life at :— 
Kempley, 146. 
Leominster, 146. 
References to the subject, 146. 
Whitchurch (Hereford), Visit of Sociecy 

to, 196, 202. 
White, Family of, 314. 
Whitehouse, — ., 89. 
Whitson, Alderman John, 123, 125. 

Mrs., 125. 
Whittington of Pauntley, Arms of, 35. 
Andrew, 223, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 
231, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 
239, 240, 241, 242, 244, 246, 249. 
Joan, 38. 
Wilham de, 38. 
Whittington, Visit of Society to, 195 201. 
Whytewode, Stephen de, 62. 
Whyting, Alabot of Glastonbury, 18, 20. 
Whyttok, John, 141. 
Wick, Visit of Society to, 197, 201. 
Wickhamford, Visit of Society to, 196, 204. 
Widford, 185. 
Manor of, 39. 

Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Wilkinson, Richard, Vicar of Kempley, 
151- 

Willersey font {illustrated), 169, 170, 181. 

Visit of Society to, 194, 201. 
WilUam, Agnes, 256. 

le Theyn, 59, 61. 

Mark, of Bristol, 256. 

Vicar of Ash ton, 62. 
William the Conqueror, 56, 182, 297, 315. 
Wilham Rufus, 131, 292. 
Wilham III, Monument at Bristol, 106. 
WilUams, John, 283. 

Thomas, 274. 
Wills, George Alfred, 10 1. 
Willys, Edmund, 141. 
Wilton. See Grey de Wilton. 
Wilton, 133. 

Castle, 136, 139. 

Manor of, 141. 
Wiltshire, Visits of the Society to, 204. 
Winchcombe Abbey, Grants to 134, 135. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 195, 197, 201. 
Winchester Cathedral, 168. 

College, 44. 

Woollen manufactory at, 315. 
Windsor, 4 5 . 
Winestune. See Winson. 



362 



Index. 



Wingfield, E. R., President of the Society, 
191. 

Winson font {illustrated), 169, 170, 181. 

Manor, 130. 
Winterbourne, 189. 

Visits of Society to, 192, 196, 201. 
Witcombe font, 172, 178. 

Roman villa, 2. 

Visits of Society to, 194, 197, 201. 
Withington, Visits of Society to, 195, 197. 
201. 

Witts, G. B., Death of, i. 

President of the Society, 192. 
Witty, Mr. and Mrs. Featherstone, 217, 
219. 

Wode, William, 267. 
Wodeward, John, 141. 
Woeful Lake Farm, 206. 
Wolfhamcote font, 169. 
Wood, John, 142. 

Woodchester, Frederick, Prince of Wales 
at, 317. 
George III at, 317. 
Mills, 317. 

Visit of Society to, 194, 201. 
Woodstock, Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Woodward, John, 274. 
Katherine, 313. 
Thomas, 313. 
Wookey Hole, Visit of the Society to, and 
Notes on [illustrated), 20-22, 25, 26, 
198, 203. 

Woollen Industry of Gloucestershire, by 
Sir William H. Marling, Bart., 
315-33- 

Wool staplers of the Cotteswolds, 317. 
Worcester, Bishop of. See Wulstan. 



Worcester, William, 79, 259. ' 
Worcester, Abbey of. Lands of, 185, 186. 
Cathedral, 183. 

Visit of Society to, 192, 197, 204. 
Worcestershire, Visits of the Society to, 
204. 

Worrall, Samuel, 87, 88, 248. 
Wotton-under-Edge Visits of Society to, 

195, 196, 201. 
Wraxall, Perambulation of, 89. 
Wrington tower, 24. 

Visit of Society to, 196, 203. 
Wulstan, Bishop of Worcester, 13 1."] 
Wygge, William, 141. 
Wymbush, Michael, 210. 

Richard, 210. 
Wynyatt, James, 141. 
Wynyett, William, 141. 
Wyrcestre, William. See Worcester. 
Wyre Piddle, Visit of Society to, 197, 204. 
Wyrtgeorn, King of the Wends, 186. 

Yanworth, 207. 

Yam ton. Visit of Society to, 197, 203. 
Yate, Visits of Society to, 192, 195, 196, 
201. 

Yatton, Visit of Society to, 192, 196, 203. 

Yhonlegh, Matilda, 59. 

York, Archbishop of. See Thomas. 

Duke of, no. 
York, Corpus Christi Guild at, 253, 261. 
Yorke, Jemima, 307. 

Hon. John, 295, 307, 314. 

Philip, Earl of Hardwicke, 314. 
Young, Hugh, 271. 

Zidon, William, Bishop of, 50. 



I 



Bdetol aitt» (Bloucesterabtre 

1914—1915. 



iprestDent 

C. E. Keyser, M.A., F.S.A. 

ipresiDent of CounctU 

Rev. Canon Bazeley, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester. 

1bon. ^Treasurer, 

J. A. Smithin, Lloyds Bank, Gloucester. 

1bon» ^e&ltor. 

Rev. G. H. West, D.D., Selsley Vicarage, Stroud. 

tfon. Xocal Secretary for (3louce6ter* 

Roland Austin, Public Library, Gloucester. 

1bon» Secretary for JSdstoL 

Lewis J. U. Way, F.S.A. , i6 Caledonia Place, Clifton, 

Bristol. 

1bon, (3enecal Secretari?, 

Arnold E. Hurry, Hempsted Court, Gloucester. 



THE SOCIETY'S LIBRARY. 

The Society's Books, consisting of over 3000 Volumes, 
are now housed 

(a) in a separate room at the Public Library, Bruns- 
wick Road, GLOUCESTER, where Members have access 
to them EVERY Week-day (excepting Good Friday, Christ- 
mas Day, and Bank Holidays) from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. With 
the exception of certain works of reference, the books may be 
borrowed by Members for a period not exceeding one month. 
Applications to have books posted should be addressed (with 
stamped envelope or stamps to cover postage) to Mr. Roland 
Austin, Public Library, Gloucester ; 

(b) at the University and Literary Club, BRISTOL. 



Catalogues of the Books in Gloucester (giving the weight 
of the books), price Sixpence, can be had of Mr. Austin. 



The Current Volumes of Transactions and Proceedings of 
other Societies exchanging with this Society are placed on a 
Table in the Library at Gloucester. 



Members wishing to obtain any of the past Programmes 
or parts of the Society's Transactions or of the Gloucestershire 
Records should apply to the Assistant Secretary, Eastgate, for 
a list of prices. 



PRESIDENT OF COUNCIL, YICE-PRESIDENTS, 
MEMBERS OF COUNCIL, AND SECRETARIES. 

1914—1915. 

President of Council : REV. CANON BAZELEY. M.A. 

City of Bristol.— Vice-Presidents : The Right Hon. the Lord 
Mayor of Bristolf ; John E. Pritchard, F.S.A. ; A. E. Hudd, F.S.A. ; 
Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., F.S.A. Council Proper : James Baker, 
F.R.G.S. ; Alfred C. Fryer, Ph.D., F.S.A.; J. J. Simpson; C. E. 
Boucher, B.Sc, Lond. ; Charles Wells; Francis Were. Secretary: 
Lewis J. U. Way, F.S.A. 

City of Gloucester. — Vice-Presidents : The Mayor of Gloucesterf; 
H. W. Bruton ; Rev. Canon Bartleet, M.A., F.S.A. Council Proper: 
F. J. Cullis, F.G.S. ; Rev. D. G. Lysons, M.A. ; T. D. Grimke-Drayton ; 
T. S. Ellis. Local Secretary: Roland Austin. 

Cheltenham. — Vice-Presidents: G. M. Currie; Ven. Archdeacon 
Sinclair. Council Proper : L. Barnard ; C. J. Cade. Local Secretary : 
Lt.-Col. J. C. Duke. 

Cirencester Division. — Vice-President : Christopher Bowly. Local 
Secretaries: Cirencester — E. C. Sewell. Fairford — Rev.W. C. Emeris, M.A. 

Forest of Dean Division. — Council Proper : Rev. Walter Butt, M.A. ; 
Col. W. F. N. Noel. Local Secretaries: Lydney — F. S. Hockaday, 
F.R. Hist. Soc. Newent—RAwaxA Conder, F.S.A. 

Northern Division. — Local Secretary: E. A. B. Barnard, F.S.A. 

Stroud Division. — Vice-President : F. A. Hyett, B.A. Council 
Proper: W. St. Clair Baddeley. Local Secretary: Dursley — R. H. 
Penley. 

Tewkesbury Division. — Council Proper : G. S. Blakeway ; E. Sidney 
Hartland, F.S.A. Local Secretaries: Tewkesbury — F. W. Godfrey. 
Berkeley—Rev. W. F. D. Curtoys, M.A. 

Thornbury Division. — Vice-President: F. F. Fox, F.S.A. Council 
Proper: Rev. W. E. Blathwayt, M.A. Local Secretary: Wotton-under^ 
Edge — Vincent R. Perkins. 

Not Assigned. — Vice-President : Prof. C. W. C. Oman, M.A., 
M.B.A., F.S.A. Council Proper: H. Medland ; J. Lee Osborn, 
F.R. Hist. Soc. 



FINANCE COMMITTEE FOR 1914.— President of Council, Hon. 
Editor, Hon. Treasurer, H. W. Bruton, J. E. Pritchard, F. J. Cullis, 
J.. J. Simpson, F. S. Hockaday, T. D. Grimke-Drayton, Secretary for 
Bristol, Local Secretary for Gloucester, and General Secretary. 

LIBRARY COMMITTEE FOR 1914.— Rev. Canon Bazeley, F. A. 
Hyett, Rev. Canon Bartleet, T. D. Grimke-Drayton, F. S. Hockaday, 
J. E. Pritchard, Rev. C. S. Taylor, F. Were, & Roland Austin {Hon. Sec). 

\ When a Member of the Society. 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS, 1914. 



Names of Life Members are given in heavier type. 

An asterisk is affixed to the names of Members of Council for 1914-1915. 

The Treasurer will feel obliged if Members ivill inform him of any 
change in their address. 

Abbot, Miss Constance, 3 Beaufort Buildings, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Abbot, H. Napier, M.A., 2 Beaufort Road, Clifton. 

Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Gloucester. 

Adams, Mrs. Henry, Stlnchcombe Manor, Dursley. 

Adams, Miss K., Stinchcombe Manor, Dursley. 

Adams, J. W., 5 Oakland Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Aitken, SamL, Mullion, Cornwall. 

Alexander, A. J., 103 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Alexander, Miss Muriel, 103 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Allen, Clement F, R., Southfield, Woodchester, Stroud, Glos. 

Amory, F. H., 29 Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Armstrong, Miss F., The Lodge, Iffley, Oxford. 

Arnold, Algernon H., The White Cottage, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 

Arnold, T. Hubert, The Firs, Wickwar, Glos. 

Ashbee, C. R., Woolstapler's Hall, Chipping Campden, Glos. 

Asher & Co., Berlin, c/o Messrs. Asher & Co., 14 Bedford Street, Covent 

Garden, London, W.C. 
Atberton, Rev. W. Bernard, B.A., R.N., Coberley Rectory, 

Cheltenham. 

Auden, Mrs., Caer Glou, Churchdown, Cheltenham. 
*Austin, Roland, 5 Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Awdry, Mrs. John, Kingshill, Dursley. 

Baddeley, Miss Florence A., Cathedral House, Gloucester. 
*Baddeley, W. St. Clair, Castle Hale, Painswick, Stroud. 

Badock, Stanley H., Holmwood, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol. 

Baker, A., The Old Bank, Tewkesbury. 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd-, Hardwicke Court, Gloucester. 

Baker, Michael G. Lloyd-, The Cottage, Hardwicke, Gloucester. 

Baker, Hiatt C, Oaklands, Almondsbury, R.S.O., Glos. 
*Baker, James, F.R.G.S., F.R. Hist. S., Sewelle Villa, Goldney Road, 
Chfton, Bristol. 

Baker, John S., i Blenheim Road, Durdham Down, Bristol. 

Bakewell, John Scales, Heathend House, Cromhall, Charfield, Glos. 

Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud. 

Barclay, Rev. Chas. W., M.A., The Vicarage, Hertford Heath, Herts. 
♦Barnard, E. A. B., F.S.A., The Lodge, Evesham. 
*Barnard, Leonard, The Bittams, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. 

Barnett, J. W., Highmead, Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Barnsley, A. E., Pinbury Park, Cirencester. 
*Bartleet, Rev. Canon, M.A., F.S.A., Brunswick Square, Gloucester. 

Bartlert, Charles, Rostock House, Woodhill, Portishead. 

Bartlett, Rev. C. O., M.A., Minsterworth Vicarage, Gloucester. 

Bath Reference Library, c/o F. D. Wardie, Bridge Street, Bath. 

Bathurst, The Right Hon. Earl, Cirencester House, Cirencester. 

Bathurst, Charles, M.A., M.P., Lydney Park, Lydney. 

Batten, Lieut. -Col. H. C. G., Leigh Lodge, Abbot's Leigh, Clifton, 

Baxter, Wynne E., J. P., D.L., Granville Cottage, Stroud. 
*Bazeley, Rev. Canon, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Hon. Member), 
(President of Council). 

Bazley, Sir Thomas S., Bart., Kilmorie, Ilsham Drive, Torquay, 
S. Devon. ^ 

Beach, W. F. Hicks, Witcombe Park, Glos. 

Beaver, R. Atwood, M.D., Cotswold House, Wotton-under-Edge. 



5 



Best, Mrs., 2 Eaton Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, c/o Messrs. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, 

Kent & Co., 2 Orange Street, Hayraarket, S.W. 
Biddulph, Right Hon. Lord, Ledbury. 
Bilsborrow, Rev. H L., Priest's House, Campden, Glos. 
Bingham Public Library (F. W. Woods, Secretary), Cirencester. 
Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall, Gloucester. 
Blair, William, 3 Henleaze Gardens, VVestbury-on-Trym, Bristol. 
*Blakeway, G. S., Staniforth, Tufiiey, Gloucester. 

Blathwayt, Geo, W. Wynter, Melksham House, Melksham, Wilts. 
*Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter Edward, M.A., Dyrham Rectory, 
Chippenham. 

Blathwayt, Lieut. -Col. Linley, Eagle House, Batheaston, Bath. 
60 Blood, G. E., 15 Clyde Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Blood, John N., Huntley Court, near Gloucester. 
Bodleian Library (F. Madan, Librarian), Oxford. 

Botterill, Austin B., A.R.I.B.A., Gaunt House, Orchard Street, Bristol. 
*Boucher, Chas. Ernest, B. Sc. Lond., 14 Tyndall's Park Road. 

Clifton, Bristol. 
*Bowly, Christopher, Siddiiigton House, Cirencester. 

Boyer Brown, Miss J. E., Apperley House, Cirencester. 

Bradley, Herbert E., Bitton Grange, near Bristol. 

Bravender, T. B., Kingsbury, 30 London Road, Stevenage, Herts. 

Bretherton, F. H., Belgrave House, Gloucester. 

Brett, Miss Agnes, Trevone, Denmark Road, Gloucester. 

Brewster, Rev. Canon A. J., The Rectory, Upton St. Leonard's, Gloucester. 

Bristol Municipal Public Libraries, Central Library, Bristol. 

Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, Bristol. 

British Museum, c/o Messrs. Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, W. 
Brocklehurst, H. Dent, Sudeley Castle, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Bromehead, Rev. J. N., Beverston Rectory, Tetbury, Glos. 
Brown, J. A. Arrowsmith, 6 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Bruton, Albert Henry, Tyndale Villa, Dursley. 
Bruton, B. V., Hempsted, Gloucester. 
80 Bruton, H. T., Newlyn, Gloucester. 

*Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester. 

*Bruton, James (Mayor of Gloucester), Wotton Hill Cottage, Gloucester. 

Bulbb, Henry, Ullenwood, near Cheltenham. 

Buckton, Lieut. -Col. J. D., Nibley House, North Nibley, Dursley. 

Budgett, F. G., Bonniedoon, Beach Road, Weston-super-Mare. 

Bullen, F. St. John, M.R.C.S., 3 Richmond Park Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Buller, Leo, Norton Court, Gloucester. 

Bush, Fitzroy, 5 Christchurch Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Bush, H. G., The Grove, Alveston, Glos. 

Bush, R. C, I Winifred's Dale, Cavendish Road, Bath. 

Bush, Robert Edwin, Bishop's Knoll, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Bush, T. S., 20 Camden Crescent, Bath. 
*Butt, Rev. Walter, M.A., Oakwood, near Chepstow. 

*Cade, Chas. J., Ellerslie, Pittville, Cheltenham. 

Cantrell, Hugh E. Whitaker, Barston House, South Cerney, Cirencester, 
Glos. 

Cardew, C. E., M.Inst.C.E., Wadebridge, Cornwall. 
Cardew, G. A., 5 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 
Carpenter, R. H., 43 Canynge Road, Clifton. 
Carter, T. M., M.D., Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. 
100 Cave, Sir Charles D., Bart., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton 
Park, Bristol. 

Cave, Charles H., B.A., D.L., Rodway Hill House, Mangotsfield, Glos. 
Cave, Miss E. Frances, Stoneleigh House, Chfton. 
Cay, Arthur, Lyndhurst, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. 
Cheltenham College (A. A. Hunter, Burs,arj, Cheltenham. 
Cheltenham Public Library (Librarian, W. Jones), Cheltenham. 



6 



Chilton, George Horace David, Malpas Lodge, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol. 
Church, Sir A. H., K.C.V.O., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A., 

Shelsley, Kew Gardens, Surrey. 
Clarke, W. Sefton, B.A., Camb., 28 Broad Street, Bristol. 
Clay, Miss Rotha, St. Michael's Rectory, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
Clifford, A. W., Chestal, Dursley, Glos. 

Clifton, The Right Rev. the Bishop of (Dr. George Crompton 

Burton), St. Ambrose, Leigh Woods, Clifton. 
Clifton College Library, Clifton, Bristol. 

Codrington, Rev. Prebendary R. H., D.D., St. Richard's Walk, Chichester. 
Cole, Rev. R. T., M.A., 18 Great George Street, Park Street, Bristol. 
Cole, R. M., Northgate Street, Gloucester. 
Cole, Sanford D., 68 Queen Square, Bristol. 
Collett, Jno. Hy., Sunnycroft, Tufiiey Avenue, Gloucester. 
Collett, John M., Wynstone Place, Brookthorpe, Gloucester. 
*Conder, Edward, F.S.A., Conigree Court, Newent, Glos. 
120 Connor, Rev. Canon, M.A., The Rectory, Newent. 
Constable, F. C, Wick Court, near Bristol. 
Cooke, P. B., Lismore, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Cotterell, A. N., 207 Redland Road, Durdham Down, Bristol. 
Cotterell, H. F., 207 Redland Road, Durdham Down, Bristol. 
Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club (L. Richardson, F.G.S., Hon. Sec, 10 

Oxford Parade, Cheltenham). 
Cowlin, C. C, White Lodge, Portishead, Somerset. 
Crake, Rev. J. W., 142 London Road, Gloucester. 

Craven, Campbell, J., 11 Lansdown Place, Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 

Crawley-Boevey, Sir F., Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham, Glos. 

Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R., M.A., Kirkby Vicarage, Liverpool. 

Crewdson, Theodore, Styal, Handforth, Cheshire. 

Cripps, Mrs. Frederick, Cirencester. 

Cripps, Henry Kater, Redcliffe, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Cripps, Mrs. Wilfred, Cripps Mead, Cirencester. 

Crooke, Wm., Langton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Croome, Rev. Wm. M., M.A., Preston Vicarage, Cirencester. 

Cullimore, J., Christleton, Chester. 
*Cullis, F. J., F.G.S., 18 Alexandra Road, Gloucester. 

Cunard, Cyril, Notgrove House, Cheltenham. 
140 Cunningham, Mrs. Jno., The Wynyatts, Freshford, near Bath. 
*Currie, G. M., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham. 
*Curtoys, Rev. W. F. D., Cromhall Rectory, Charfield, R.S.O., Glos. 

Daniels, J. Harold, Lightpill, Stroud, Glos. 

Daubeny, Col. E. K., Eastington, Cirencester. 

Davey, T. Ruding, Wraxall Court, near Bristol. 

Davies, Rev. R. P., The Elms, Olveston, Tockington, Glos. 

Davis, Rev. A. J., The Rectory, Welford-on-Avon, Stratford-on-Avon. 

Davis, Cecil Tudor, Public Library, Wandsworth, London, S.W 

de la Hey, Rev. E. W. M. O., North Cerney Rectory, Cirencester. 

de Sausmarez, F. B., M.A., 5 Queen's Parade, Cheltenham. 

Dening, C. F. W., The Hut, Portishead, Somerset. 

Derham, Henry, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Derham, Walter, M.A., F.G.S., Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 
Desprez, Ernest H., 31B St. John's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Dobson, Miss Kate H., Alva, Battledown, Cheltenham. 
Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester, Stonehouse, Glos. 
Dowdeswell, Rev. E. R., M.A., Pull Court, Tewkesbury. 
Dowding, W. L., 59 Claremont Road, Bishopston, Bristol. 
160 Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.C., F.R.S., Tortworth 
Park, Falfield, R.S.O. 
Dugdale, R. W., Nethercliffe, Hucclecote, Gloucester. ^ 
*Duke, Lt.-Col. J. C, Gwynfa, Moorend Park Road, Cheltenham. 
Dyer-Edwardes, Thomas, Prinknash Park, Painswick, Stroud. 



7 



Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol. 

East, H. d'E., Bourton House, Moreton-in-Marsh, Glos. 

Eberle, J. Fuller, Ebor Villa, no Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Edgeworth, Miss E. E., 17 Whatley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Edwards, Herbert G., 16 The Avenue, Clifton. 

Ellaby, Christopher G., M.A., Banister Court, Southampton. 

Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A., The Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol. 

Ellis, Mrs. G. Vyner, The Manor House, Lymington, Hants. 
*Ellis, T. S., 10 Alexandra Road, Gloucester. 

Elwell, W. R. G., 3 Downside Road, Clifton. 
*Enieris, Rev. William C, M.A., The Vicarage, Burford, Oxon. 

Evans, Arnold, 4 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Evans, Charles E., Nailsea Court, Nailsea, Somerset. 

Evans, Frank Gwynne, Over Butterrow, Rodborough Common, Stroud, 
Glos. 

Evans, Henley, 3 Albert Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Evans, Mrs. Henley, 3 Albert Road, CHfton, Bristol. 
180 Evans, Horace L., 4 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Falconer, Thomas, Amberley, Glos. 

Finn, Anthony, M.A., LL.D., Colston's School, Stapleton, Bristol. 

Fisher, Horace, Durie Grange, Cheltenham. 

Ford, Roger, 8, Cambridge Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Fortey, Charles, 9 Belgrave Road, Tyndall's Park, Bristol. 

Foster, R. G., Lennox House, Gloucester. 
*Fox, Francis Frederick, F.S.A., Yate House, Yate, R.S.O., Glos. 

Francis, G. C, St. Tewdrie, Chepstow. 

Fripp, W. D., Ill Pembroke Road, Clifton. 

Frost, Walter, The Red House, Almondsbury, Glos. 

Fry, Claude Basil, Stoke Lodge, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Fry, Francis J., Cricket St. Thomas, Chard, Somerset. 

Fry, Lewis, Tlie Right Hon., Goldney House, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Fryer, Alfred C, Ph.D. and M.A. Leipsic, F.S.A., 13 Eaton 
Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

Fryer, Miss Gertrude A., 13 Eaton Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

Fust, H. Jenner, Hill Court, Falfield, R.S.O., Glos. 

Fyffe, Edward Wathen, Trullwell, Box, Minchinhampton, Glos. 

Gainsborough, The Right Hon. the Earl of, Exton Park, Oakham, 
Rutland. 

Gardiner, J., The Elms, Rudgeway, Glos. 
200 Garnett, Mrs., The Crippets, Leckhamptou, S.O., Glos. 
George, Ch. W., 51 Hampton Road, Bristol. 
George, "W. E., Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
■ Gibbs, H. Martin, Barrow Court, Flax Bourton, R.S.O., Somerset. 
Gloucester, Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of. The Palace, Gloucester. 
Gloucester, the Mayor and Corporation of, c/o Librarian, Public Library, 

Gloucester. 
*Godfrey, F. W., The Cross, Tewkesbury. 
Goodall, Rev. R. W., Kempley Vicarage, Gloucester. 
Goodden, Jno. Hy., 23 Warrington Crescent, London, W. 
Gottingen, Royal University Library, c/o Asher & Co., 14 Bedford 

Street, Covent Garden, W.C. 
Gough, W. v.. 98 Hampton Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Graham, Walter J., Ebley Court, near Stroud. 
Grenside, Rev. F. R., M.A., Quedgeley Rectory, Gloucester. 
Gribble, H. E., 66 St. Paul's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Griffiths, G. C, 3 Leigh Road. Clifton, Bristol. 

Griffiths, John S., M.R.C.S. Eng., 20 Redland Park, Redland, Bristol. 
*Grimke-Drayton, T. D., 3 Beaufort Buildings, Spa, Gloucester. 
Grosvenor Wilshaw W., B.A., M.D,, Granville House, The Spa, 
Gloucester. 



8 



Gurney, W. Gerald, LL.B., 12 Wellington Square, Cheltenham. 
Gwynn, J. Crowther, The Land Registry Office, New Westminster, B.C., 
Canada. 

220 Gwynn, H. N., i CHfton Park, Bristol. 

Haigh, Mrs. A. G., South Cerney, Cirencester. 

Hallett, J. G. P. Palmer, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hallett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hamilton-Smith, G., Killoran, Seymour Road, Finchley, London, N. 
Hammersley, G. H., i Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Hannam-Clark, Frederick, 12 Queen Street, Gloucester. 
Harding, Col., C.M.G., F.R.G.S., White's Club, London, S.W, 
Harding, E. B , 13 Great George Street, Park Street, Bristol. 
Harding, Rev. Canon John Taylor, M.A., Pentwyn, Monmouth. 
Hardy, R. G., C.S.I., Esmond, College Lawn, Cheltenham. 
Harford, Miss A. M. E., Blaize Castle, Henbury, Glos. 
Harland, Miss, Rosenho, Moorend Road, Cheltenham. 
Harley, Edw. Mortimer, 4 Harley Place, Clifton, Bristol. 
Hartland, Ernest, M.A., F.S.A., Hardwicke Court, Chepstow (Hon. Member). 
*Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A., Highgarth, Gloucester. 
Harvard College, U.S.A., c/o E. G. Allen & Son Ltd., 14 Grape Street, 

Shaftesbury Avenue, London, W.C. 
Harvey, Alfred, M.B., Darlingscott, Shipston-on-Stour, Worcestershire. 
Hawkins, J. G., Staunton Court, Gloucester. 
Hayes, C. A., Salisbury House, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
240 Hayward, Col. Curtis, Quedgeley House, Gloucester. 
Herapath, Howard M., 2 St. John's Road, Clifton. 

Herbert, Arthur Grenville, 28 Elvaston Place, Queen's Gate, 
London, W. 

Herbert, W. Hawkins, Paradise House, Painswick, Glos. 
Hewitt, J. H., Manor House, Maugersbury, Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos. 
Hickman, Hubert, 72 Ferme Park Road, Hornsey, N. 
Hicks, Miss G. E., Hempsted, Gloucester. 

Hicks-Austin, E. C. W., The Old House, Ashleworth, Gloucester. 

Hicks-Austin, Mrs., The Old House, Ashleworth, Gloucester. 

Higgins, Henry, Willsbridge House, near Bristol. 

Hignett, Geoffrey, Hodshill Hall, South Stoke, Bath. 

Hignett, Mrs. Geoffrey, Hodshill Hall, South Stoke, Bath. 

Hiley, G., 65 Clifton Park Road, Clifton. 

Hill, Miss F. G. G., Coombe House, Westbury-on-Trym. 

Hill, Mrs. Burrow, Oakhurst, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 

Hirst, Francis J., M.A., Bampton, R.S.O., Oxon. 

Hirst, H. C. M., A.R.I.B.A., 36 Henleaze Gardens, Westbury-on-Trym, 
Bristol. 

Hobbs, J. N., Concord, Moorend Grove, Cheltenham. 
Hobbs, R. Cuthbert, Chew Court, Chew Magna, near Bristol. 
Hobhouse, Rev. Canon W., M.A., 8 College Green, Gloucester. 
260 Hockaday, Miss E. W., Highbury, Lydney, Glos. 

*Hockaday, F. S., F.R. Hist. Soc, Highbury, Lydney, Glos. 
Hodson, Rev. Thos., Oddington Rectory, Stow-on-the-Wold. 
Holford, Lieut. -Col., Sir G. L., K.C.V.O., c/o D. Lindsay, Esq., 

Estate Office. Tetbury, Glos. 
Hope-Ed wardes, Mrs., Wharton Lodge, near Ross, Herefordshire. 
Hopkinson, H. L., Duntisbourne House, Duntisbourne Abbots, Cirencester. 
Horder, P. Morley, 148 New Bond Street, London, W. 
Hore, Mrs. A. H., 22 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Horsford, Richard T., 5 The Paragon, Clifton. 
Horton, Mrs. M. T., Upton Court, near Tenbury, Worcestershire. 
Household, H. W.. M.A., 4 Park Place, Cheltenham. 
Howard, Sir Edward Stafford, K.C.B., Thornbury Castle, Thornbury, 

R.S.O., Glos. i 
Howell, Jas. H., 118 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Howell, Rev. W. C, M.A., 32 Regent's Park Road, London, N.W. 



9 



Hubbard, R. J., 19 Cavendish Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol. 
*Hu(id, Alfred E., F.S.A., 108 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Huggins, C. G., Croziehurst, Woodstock Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Hughes, Ellard A., Richmond Hill, Clifton. 
*Hurry, A. E., Hempsted Court, Gloucester. {Hoji. Gen. Sec.) 

Hutton, Venerable Archdeacon W. JH., B.D., The Vineyard, 
Peterborough. 

280 *Hyett, F. A., B.A., Painswick House, Painswick, Stroud. 

Ingram, Mrs. A., Lisle House, Cheltenham. 
Isacke, Miss, Stratford Abbey College, near Stroud. 
Ivens, H. P., 18 Alexandra Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Jenkins, Edgar J., Ennerdale, Whitchurch, near Bristol. 

Jeune, Col. E. B., Whaddon Manor, Gloucester. 

Jeune, Mrs. E. B., Whaddon Manor, Gloucester. 

Johnson, Miss H. T., Ellesmere Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 

Johnstone- Vaughan, W. J., The Old Rectory, Wotton, Gloucester. 

Jones, Averay N., 50 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Jones, Rev. R. C. S., The Vicarage, Northleach, R.S.O., Glos. 

Jones, Walter, Morgan Hall, Fairford, Glos. 

Judge, Frederick, 159 Cheltenham Road, Bristol. 

Keeler, H. E., Curd well Chambers, Marsh Street, Bristol. 
Keeling, Russell, Hucclecote, Gloucester. 

Kempthorne, Rev. P. H., Wyck Risington, Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos 
Ker, Miss Flora C, Fallowfield, St. Stephen's Road, Cheltenham. 
Kerr, Russell J., B.A., J. P., The Haie, Newnham-on-Severn. 
*Keyser, Chas. E., M.A., F.S.A. , Aldermaston Court, near Reading 

(President) . 

King, J. E., M.A., CHfton College, Clifton. 
300 King", Miss, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Knowles, Henry, Egerton House, The Spa, Gloucester. 

Ladies' College, The, Cheltenham. 

Landale, Dy. -Surgeon-General, Dunholme, The Park, Cheltenham. 
Langley, Rev. E., The Vicarage, Alveston, Glos. 
Leach, Richard Ernest, M.A., Fairview, Painswick. 
Lefroy, Rev. Canon, Haresfield Vicarage, Stonehouse, Glos. 
Leighton, W., 7 Elgin Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Leonard, Professor Geo. Hare, M.A., i Prince's Buildings, Clifton, 
Bristol. 

Levy-Langfield, A., 14 Whiteladies Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Lewis, Archibald M. 3, Upper Byron Place, Clifton, Bristol. 
Lewis, Rev. George, Rudford Rectory, Gloucester. 
Lincoln's Inn Library, London, W.C. 
Lister, George, Underbill House, Dursley. 
Little, E. P., Whitemoor, Amberley, near Stroud. 
Little, F. A., Atcombe Court, Woodchester, Glos. 
Littledale, Col., Ravenhurst, Cheltenham. 
Littledale, Mrs., Ravenhurst, Cheltenham. 
Littledale, T; A. R., Wiltondale, Ross-on-Wye. 

Liverpool, Rt. Hon, the Earl of, Kirkham Abbey, Yorkshire. 
320 Liverpool Free Library, Liverpool. 

Llewellin, W. M., C.E., 8 Gotham Lawn Road, Gotham, Bristol. 
Lloyd, Rev. W. W., Bromesberrow Rectory, Ledbury. 
London Library, 12 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 
Long, Col. William, C.M.G., Newton House, Clevedon, Somerset. 
Lowe. C. J., Castle House, Flax Bourton, near Bristol. 
Loxton, S. J., 3 Hampton Park, Redland, Bristol. 
Lyddon, F. S., 5 Beaufort Road, Clifton. 
Lysaght, W. R., Castleford, Chepstow, ,Mon. 
*Lysons, Rev. D. G., M.A., Belle Vue House, Spa, Gloucester, 



lo 

MacCormick, Rev. F., F.S.A. (Scot.), M.R.A.S., Wrockwardine Wood, 

Wellington, Salop. 
McArthur, Rev. C, M.A., Strathdurn, Cheltenham. 
Malleson, Miss, Dixton Manor, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Manchester Reference Library (Charles W. Sutton, M.A., Librarian), 

Manchester. 

Mardon, Heber, 2 Litfield Place, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

Margetson, Jack, Brightside, Stroud, Glos. 

Margetson, William, Brightside, Stroud. 

Marling. Col. P. S., V.C., C.B., Sedbury Park, Chepstow. 

Marling, Stanley, Stanley Park, Stroud. 

Marmont, B. P., Windsor Edge House, Inchbrook, near Woodchester, 
Glos. 

340 Marsland, Ellis, Court House, Painswick, Stroud. 
Martin, Dr. J. M., The Chestnuts, Stroud, Glos. 
Martin, Sir R. B., Bart., Overbury Court, Tewkesbury, Glos. 
Master, Mrs. Chester, Knole Park, Almondsbury, R.S.O., Glos. 
Matthews, J. A., Lewishurst, The Spa, Gloucester. 
*Medland, Henry, Prinknash Corner, Painswick, Stroud (Hon. Member). 
Meredith, W. Lewis, 

Metcalfe, T. T. S., Claydon House, Lechlade. 

Middlemore-Whithard, Rev. T. M., M.A., Hawkesley, Exmouth, Devon. 

Miles, P. Napier, Kingsweston, near Bristol. 

Mills, Rev. C. C, D.D., The Rectory, Dursley. 

Mills, H. Hamilton, Sudgrove House, near Cirencester. 

Mitchell, A. C, Highgrove, Tetbury, Glos. 

Mitchinson, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., Pembroke College, Oxford. 
Moffatt, H- C, Goodrich Court, Ross. 
Moffatt, Mrs., Goodrich Court, Ross. 
Moline, William, 19 The Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 
Morgan, Miss, Piermaison, 125 Church Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 
Morgan, E. T., 23 Freyne Road, Greville Smyth Park, Bristol. 
Mulling-s, John, Cirencester. 
360 Murray-Browne, Rev. C. C, M.A., Hucclecote Vicarage, Gloucester. 

National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth (John Ballinger, M. A., Librarian) 
New York Library, c/o B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, 
London, W.C. 

Newberry Library, Chicago, c/o B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar 

Square, London, W.C. 
Newman, Miss Alice, i Pittville Lawn, Cheltenham. 
*Noel, Col. W. F. N., Stardens, Newent, Glos. 
Norgrove, Walter, 22 Alma Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Norris, Herbert E., The Market Place, Cirencester. 
Norton, T. E., M.A., 16 Kensington Palace Gardens, London, W. 
Nutt-Hamblin, R. J. C, 22 Clare Street, Bristol. 

Oatley, G. H., F.R.I.B.A., Church House, Clifton. 

*Oman, Professor, C. W. C, M.A., M.B.A., F.S.A., All Souls' College, 
Oxford. 

Orton, Chas., Bradley Court, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 
*Osborn, J. Lee, F.R. Hist. S., Bevis, Gt. Somerford, near Chippenham, 
Wilts. 

Osborne, Jere, Hawthornden, Clifton Down, Clifton, Bristol. 

Overbury, Thos., i York Villas, Cheltenham. 

Owen, Sir Isambard, D.C.L., Hereford House, Clifton. 

Paddison, R. O., Bownham, Stroud, Glos. 

Page, Arthur W., 2 Bristol Chambers, St. Nicholas Street, Bristol. 
Paine, A. E. W., The Poplars, Welford-on-Avon. 
380 Palethorpe, Mrs., 69 Woodland Road, Tyndall's Park, Clifton. 

Palmer, Albert J., Fairford Park, Fairford, Glos. i 
Parker, George, M.A., M.D., 14 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Parry, Miss Edith, Franciscan Convent, Woodchester. 



Parsons, H. F., MiR.C.S., The Heath, Sneyd Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
Paul, J. E., c/o Paul & Kitcat, Tetbury, Glos. 
Paul, Roland W., F.S.A., 9 Princes Buildings, Clifton. 
Pavey, Miss Alice, 29 Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 
Pavey, Reginal Wm. Juxon, 29 Victoria Square, Clifton. 
Pearson, George, Bannerleigh, Tyndall's Park, Clifton. 
*Penley, R. H., B,A., Ferney Cottage, Dursley, Glos. 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia, U.S.A., c/o Messrs. B. F. 

Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W.C. 
Penny, Rev. L. P., The Mission College, Gloucester. 
Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Longwitton Hall, Morpeth, Northumberland. 
*Perkin-6, Vincent R., Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 
Perry, Miss M. P., 13 Trelawney Road, Cotham, Bristol. 
Phelps. Harold J., The Elms, Tibberton, near Gloucester. 
Phillipps, Miss I. O., Picton House, Broadway, Worcs. 
Pippet, Rev. W. A., The Rectory, Clifford Chambers, Stratford-on-Avon. 
Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, M.A., Bushey House, Monkton Combe, Bath. 
400 Playne, Arthur T., Longfords, Minchinhampton, Glos. 

Pollock, Erskine, K.C., Avening Court, Avening, near Stroud, Glos. 
Pouting, C. E., F.S.A., Lockeridge, Marlborough, Wilts. 
Pooley, Henry, St. Just, Chew Magna, Somerset. 
Porter, Mrs., Hastington, Malvern Wells. 
Potter, R. E., Ridgewood, Almondsbury, Bristol. 
Powell, Cecil, The Hermitage, Weston-super-Mare. 
Price, L. Ralph, Claverham House, near Yatton, Somerset, 
Prichard, Edgar A., 28 Berkeley Square, Clifton. 
Pridham, Harvey, 24 Clyde Road, Knowle, Bristol. 
Prince, Edgar S., Yew Tree House, Kemble, near Cirencester. 
*Pritchard, John E., F.S.A., 22 St. John's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Public Record Office, Fetter Lane, London, E.G. 
Purnell-Edwards, Mrs., Stancombe Park, Dursley. 

Ransom, Herbert C, 10 Elton Road, Tyndall's Park, Bristol. 
Ratcliff, Miss Lilian, Southam de la Bere, Prestbury, Glos. 
Ratcliff, Miss Phyllis, Southam de la Bere, Prestbury, Glos. 
Rawlins, Frank L., Rhyl, N. Wales. 

Redesdale, Right Hon. Lord, K.C.B.. G.C.V.O., i Kensington Court, 
London, W. 

Reid, Walter, The Woodlands, Woodland Road, Bristol. 
420 Richardson, Frank, Penard, Percival Road, Clifton. 
Rixon, W. A., Turkdean Manor, Northleach, Glos. 

Robbins, Rev. John, 24 Sheffield Terrace, Campden Hill, London, W. 
Robertson, J. L., 13 Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Robinson, Foster G., Grove House, Clifton Hill, Br'stol. 
Robinson, Harold G., i Windsor Terrace, Clifton, Bristol. 
■Robinson, W. G., Parklands, Stonehouse, Glos. 
Rogers, Arthur S., The Towans, Burnham, Somerset. 
Rogers, T. Percival, Henleaze Park, Westbury-on -Trym, Bristol. 
Roper, Miss I. M., F.L.S., 4 Woodfield Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Routh, Col. W. R., 55, Brunswick Place, Hove, Sussex. 
Rudd, Miss M. A., Woodlands, Bussage, Stroud. 

Samson, A. B., Merlin Haven House, Wotton-under-Edge. 
Sawyer, John, Glevum Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham. 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, London, S.W. 
Scobell, Ven. Archdeacon E. C, M.A., The College Green, Gloucester. 
Scott, Charles, 5 Spa Villas, Gloucester. 
Sessions, Herbert, Quedgeley Court, Gloucester. 
*Sewell, Edward C, The Beeches, Cirencester. 
Seys, Mrs. Godfrey, Wirewood's Green, Chepstow. 
440 Sharp, T. F.., 11 Beaconsfield Road, Clifton. 

Shaw, J. E., M.B., 23 Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 
Sherborne, Rt. Hon. Lord, 9 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 
Sherwood-Hale, Thomas Edward, Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 



12 



Shute, Mrs., 12 St. George's Court, Gloucester Road, London, S.W. 

Sibbald, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, Norton St. Philip, Bath. 
*Simpson, J. J., Osborne House, Gotham Park, Bristol. 

Sinclair, The Hon. Rev. C. A., M.A., Hempsted Rectory, Gloucester. 
*Sinclair, The Ven. Archdeacon, M.A., The Greenway, near Cheltenham. 

Slater, Alfred, Garron Dene, Gloucester. 
*Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies, Nailsworth. 

Smith, Frederick W., Duart, Cheltenham Road, Gloucester. 

Smith, Richard Henry, Woodchester House, Stroud, Glos. 

Smith., R. SMngleton, M.D., Deepholm, Clifton Park, CHfton, Bristol. 

Smith, W. A., M.B., 70 Pembroke Road, Clifton. 

Smithin, J. A., Lloyd's Bank, Gloucester (Hon. Treasurer). 

Society of Merchant Venturers, The Worshipful the Master of the, Bristol. 

Soutar, J. G., M.B., Barnwood House, Gloucester. 

Soyres, B. de, 15 Mortimer Road, Clifton. 

Spofforth, Fairfax, 21 Belgrave Road, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
460 St. Aldwyn, Rt. Hvin. Viscount, Coin St. Aldwyn's, Fairford, Glos. 
Stanton, A. W., 69 Oxford Terrace, London, W. 
Stephens, Albert J., Clovelly, Denmark Road, Gloucester. 
Stevens, Mrs., Springhill, Nailsworth, Glos. 
Stroud Free Library, Stroud, Glos. 
Sturge, Theodore, Fern Hollow, Rockleaze, Bristol. 
Sullivan, Rev. Ponsonby M., Rangeworthy Vicarage, Yate, Glos. 
Suverkrop, Miss E. A., Braeside, Symonds Yat, Ross. 
Swann, E. J., D.L., The Gables, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 
Swift, W. T., Churchdown, Cheltenham. 

Swynnerton, Rev. C, F.S. A., Leonard Stanley Vicarage, Stonehouse, Glos. 
Symonds, Rev. W., M.A., 10 Angel Hill, Bury St. Edmunds. 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., 

Tagart, Lt.-Col. H. A. L., D.S.O., Old Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 
''Taylor, Rev. C. S., M.A., F.S. A.., Banwell Vicarage, Somerset, R.S.O. 
Taylor, Edmund J., Town Clerk, Council House, Bristol. 
Taylor, James, M.R.C.S., 36 Alma Road, CHfton, Bristol. 
Taylor, L. Goodenough, M.A., 19 Sion Hill, Clifton. 
Teesdale, Miss Florence, Whitminster House, Stonehouse, Glos. 
Thatcher, Wm.. G., The Limes, Hanham, Bristol. 
480 Thomas, J. Henry 2 Wedderburn House, Wedderburn Road, 
Hampstead, N.W. ' 
Thomas, R. Beaumont, The Grove, Wimbledon Park, Surrey. 
Thomas, W. K., 4 Hillside, Gotham Hill, Bristol. 
Thompson, Major J. Cyril, 41 St. John's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Thompson, Mrs., Endcliffe, Henbury, near Bristol. 

Thorpe, Thomas, Osborne House, Frocester, nr. Stonehouse, Gloucester- 
shire. 

Tibbitts, John, 2 Castelnau, Kingsholm, Gloucester. 

Tidswell, R. I., Haresfield Court, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Timmis, Lt.-Col. G. D., Matson House, Gloucester. 

Tinson, C. J., The Cleevelands, Marie Hill, Cheltenham. 

Tombs, R. C, I.S.O., 37 Henleaze Gardens, Westbury-on-Trym, nr. Bristol. 

Townshend, C. W., The Coppice, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

Trafford, G. R., B.A., Hill Court, Ross. 

Trapnell, Alfred, Great Chalfield, Wollstonecraft Road, Bournemouth. 

Trees, Mrs., Stone Priors, Cheltenham. 

Trotman, J. W., " Bromsgrove," Brentwood, Essex. 

Tryon, Stephen, Hallen, near Bristol. 

Tubbs, Stanley W., Ellerncroft, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 
Tuckett, Mrs. F. F., Frenchay, near Bristol. 
Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester. 
500 Twining, Llewellin, The Gastons, Redland Green, Bristol. 

Vale, Hy., 16 Darlington Street, Wolverhampton. 1 
Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar, Charlton Park, Cheltenham. 
Vaughan-Hughes, Gerald M., Wyelands, Chepstow. 



13 



Veasey, Rev. A. H., Magnolia Lodge, Cirencester. 

Vickers, Kenneth. H., Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Wade, Frederick Taylor, 3 Oakland Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Wait, H. W. K., 2 Worcester Villas, Clifton. 
Waller, Miss Edith, Phoenix House, Stroud. 
Waller, F. W., 18 College Green, Gloucester. 
Walls, Mrs. John, Elmwood, Aberdeen Road. Gotham, Bristol. 
Walters, Rev. C, M.A., The Horsepools, The Edge, Stroud. 
Walton, T. C. H., 18 West Park, Clifton. 
Ward, Mrs. F. W., Old Manor, Elberton, Tockington. 
Ward, Francis Welsford, i Clifton Place, Clifton. 
Ward, H. W., Frenchay, near Bristol. 
Warner, Wiclif, Ardagh, Horfield Common, Bristol. 
Warren, T. Herbert, D.C.L., President's Lodge, Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Waterman, A. N., M.A. Oxon,, 10 Cambridge Park, Durdham Down, 
Bristol. 

Watson, Edw. Jas., F.R. Hist.S., F.R.S.L., 12 St. John's Street, Bristol. 
520 *Way, Lewis J. U., F.S.A., 16 Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Webb, Herbert B., Rose Villa, Talbot Road, Brishngton, Somerset. 

Webb, W. E., Capital and Counties Bank, Bristol. 

Welch, Miss, Arle House, Cheltenham. 

Welchman, Rev. W., 24 Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Wells, Charles, F.J. I., 134 Cromwell Road, Bristol. 

Wells, C. Courtenay, 7 Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 

Wenden, James Gordon, The Chantry, Dursley. 
*Were, Francis, Walnut Tree House, Druid Stoke, Bristol. 
*West, Rev. G. H., D.D., The Vicarage, Selsley, Stroud (Hon. Editor). 

Whalley, E. B., Whitehill, Rotherham. 

Wheeler, J. H. D., 10 The Quadrant, Redland, Bristol. 

White, Sir George, Bart., Gotham House, Bristol. 

Wilkin, L., M.A., B.C., 46 London Road, Gloucester. 

Wilkins, Rev. H. J., D.D., Westbury-on-Trym Vicarage, Redland Green, 
Bristol. 

Wilkinson, Rev. L., M.A., The Haven, Penmaenmawr, N. Wales. 
Williams, Oliver John, Wellington Court, Cheltenham. 
WilHams, P. Watson, M.D., 2 Rodney Place, Clifton. 
Williams, Seymour, All Saints House, Exchange, Bristol. 
Williams, Thos. Webb, B.A., Greystones, South Road, Weston-super-Mare, 
540 Wills, G. A., Burwalls, Leigh Woods, near Bristol. 
Wilson, Robert, M.B., Millbrook, Nailsworth. 
Windus, William, Runnington Lodge, Durdham Park, Bristol. 
Winterbotham, Herbert B., Ashmead House, near Dursley. 
Wintle, Charles, 30 Baldwin Street, Bristol. 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., F.G.S., 11 Cavendish Crescent, 
Bath. 

Wisconsin Historical Socy., c/o H. Sotheran & Co., 140 Strand, W.C. 

Wise, William Henry, The Council House, Bristol. 

Witchell, E. Northam, Highcroft, Rodborough, Stroud. 

Wollaston, G. H., M.A., Flax Bourton, near Bristol. 

Wollaston, Mrs., Flax Bourton, near Bristol. 

Wood, Jos. Foster, g Westbury Park, Durdham Down, Bristol. 

Woodcock, H. C, 45 St. Nicholas Street, Bristol. 

Woodward, Miss E. K., M.A., Gatley, Hucclecote, Gloucester. 

Woodward, Col. J. Henry, Upton Lea, Bitton, near Bristol. 

Woollright, Major, Junr. U.S. Club, Charles Street, London, S.W. 

Wrangham, Rev. F., Long Newnton Rectory, Tetbury. 

Wright, Major, Hidcote Vale, Chipping Campden, Glos. 

Wright, Jno. Alfred, C.E., 60 Churchways Avenue, Horfield, Bristol. 

Yabbicom, Col. T. H., C.E., Isleworth, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
560 Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A., c/o E. G. Allen & 
Son, 12 Grape Street, Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C. 
Young, C. E. Baring, Daylesford Hous6, Chipping Norton, Oxon. 



Literary Societies exchanging Transactions with this Society : 



The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, National Museum of Antiquities, 
Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

The Royal Society of Antiquaries (Ireland), Dublin. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, ig 
Bloomsbury Square, London, W.C. 

The British Archaeological Association, 15 Paternoster Row, London, E.G. 

The British School at Rcme, Palazzo Odesculchi, Rome. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute, Archaeological Section, Birming- 
ham. 

The Gambrian Archaeological Society, Hon. Sec, Rev. Ganon Morris, 4 
Warwick Square, London, W.G. 

The Royal Institute of Gornwall, Museum, Truro, Gornwall. 

The Gotteswold Naturalists' Field Glub, Hon. Sec, L. Richardson, 
F.G.S., 10 Oxford Parade, Gheltenham. 

The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Hon. Sec, 
Percy H. Gurrey, 3 Market Place, Derby. 

The Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Glub, Rev. Ganon 
Mansel-Pleydell, Sturminster Newton. 

The Essex Archaeological Society, Hon. Sec, The Gastle, Golchester. 

The Kent Archaeological Society, Museum, Maidstone, Kent. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne, The Librarian, The 
Black Gate, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The Powys Land Glub, Museum and Library, Welshpool. 

The William Salt Archaeological Society, 2 Bank Passage, Stafford, Hon. 
Sec, J. G. Wedgwood, M.P. 

The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Gastle, 
Taunton. 

The Shropshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Society, Hon. Sec, H. W. 
Adnitt, The Square, Shrewsbury. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, H. R. 
Barker (Librarian), Moyses Hall Museum, Bury St. Edmunds. 

The Surrey Archaeological Society, Gastle Arch, Guildford. 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, Lewes Gastle, Lewes, Sussex. 

The Thoroton Society, F. Arthur Wadsworth (Hon. Librarian), Bromley 
House, Nottingham. 

The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Museum, 
Devizes, Wilts. 

The Worcestershire Architectural Society, c/o Mr. Houghton, Bookseller, 
S. Swithun Street, Worcester, 

The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association, W. T, 
Lancaster, F.S.A., Hon. Librarian, 10 Park Street, Leeds. 

The Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A., 
c/o Messrs. Wm. Wesley & Go., 28 Essex Street, London, W.C. • 



TERMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 



Those who are desirous of joining the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 

I. As Life Members for a Composition of 7s. od., and an 
Entrance Fee of, los. 6d., which will entitle them to receive 
gratuitously for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the 
Society that may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members upon payment of los. 6d. Entrance Fee, and 
an annual subscription of los. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gratuitously, the annual volume of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The Annual Subscription becomes due on the ist of January, and 
the Hon. Treasurer, Mr. J. A. Smithin, will be obliged if 
members will send their subscriptions to him at Lloyds 
Bank, Gloucester. 

By order of the Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year, and only the names of those elected 
members who have paid their entrance fee and first annual 
subscription are entered in this list. 

Application for admission as members to be made to one of the 
Hon. Local Secretaries, the Hon, Secretary for Bristol, or to 

ARNOLD E. HURRY, 

Hempsted Court, 

Gloucester, 
Hon. General Secretary. 



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